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VD T . THE USUAL Lu.i, Ox o\±^. Tb, , ASKING 

1oI!\ESS oUITS, IN THE BEST GRADES oi> TMPORTR' AND 
; WOOLLEN 3, WE ALSO HAVE ELEGA.. DRESS SUIT ( GLE 

.RMb REA~)Y FOR IMMEDIATE SELECTION AND r<?E. 



CUSTOM DEPARTMENT. 

In this department, orders are TAKEN FOR GARMENTS TO BE 

MADE TO MEASURE, AND PURCHASERS ARE ENABLED TO MAKE THEIR 
SELECTIONS FROM ONE OF THE LARGEST STOCKS OF FINE WOOLLEN 
PIECE GOODS EVER OFFERED TO RETAIL BUYERS. 

In our Furnishing Goods Department the best WHITE 

SHIRTS ARE MADE TO MEASURE AT SHORT NOTICE. 




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.HUNTING, SflQQTING,BQATMG*TOURlSTS HATS*CAPS 
LADIES%\TS, OPERA FOLDING HATS. LIVERY HATS 
* COCKADES, * THEATRICAL * FANCY DRESS HATS. 
LADIES RIDING HftTS frFELT HATS OF EVERY COLOR. •">«» 







WILLIAMS & EVERETT 

No. 508 Washington St. 
BOSTON. 



KING'S DICTIONARY OF BOSTON. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 



NAMES. 
Boston Advertiser, page 

Daily and Weekly Newspaper . . . K 
Boston Belting Co., 

Rubber Belting, Hose, etc S 

Boston Theatre, 

Grandest Theatre in America . . . P 
Eastern Railroad, 

Favorite Route to White Mountains . N 
Fall River Line, 

Fittest Steamers for New York . . . O 
Fairbanks, Brown, & Co., 

Standard Scales of the World . . . S 
Forbes Lithographing Co., 

Lithographers, Engravers, etc. . . . T 
French & Co., Abram, 

Pottery, Glassivare, etc. . . . F and G 
Ilsley & Co., D. P., 

Hats, Ftirs, Umbrellas, etc B 

Jordan, Marsh, & Co., 

Dry Goods, Fancy and Staple . . . H 
Lewando's French Dye-House, 

Largest New-Englajid Dye-Works . E 
Linz, Madame F., 

Embroideries, Hatnbzirg Edgings, etc., R 
Macullar, Parker, & Company, 

Clothing a?id Piece Goods, Back cover and A 
New-England Conservatory of Music, 

Schools of Music, Art, Eloc7ition, etc., L 
New-England Mutual Life Ins. Co., 

Oldest Life-insurance Co. in America, F 
Nonotuck Silk Co., 

Corticelli and Nonotuck Silks . . . R 
Noyes Brothers, 

Men's Outfitters D 

Ober, Louis P., 

Restaurant Parisien I 

Osgood & Co., James R., 

Standard Books M 

Paige, John C, 

Insurance Agency J 

Parker & Co., Harvey D., 

Parker House G 

Pope Manufacturing Co.,. 

Bicycles, Tricycles, etc E 

Pray, Sons, & Co., John H., 

Carpets, Mattings, and Rugs . . G and F 
Rand, Avery, & Co., 

Printers N and O 

Stillman & Nicoll, 

Gas Fixtures, Mantles, etc U 

Waters, Dr. George F., 

Improved Flesh Brush Q 

Williams & Everett, 

Paintings, Frames, A rt Goods, etc. . C 



TRADES. 
Albertyping, Lithographing, etc., page 

Forbes Lithographing Co -. T 

Amusements, 

Boston Theatre P 

Art Gallery, Paintings, etc., 

Williams &> Everett C 

Carpets, Mattings, and Rugs, 

John H. Pray, Sons, & Co. . . G and F 
Clothing, Tailoring, and Piece Goods, 

Macullar, Parker, & Co., Back cover and A 
Dry Goods, Ladies' Wear, etc., 

Jordan, Marsh, & Co H 

Dyeing Establishments, 

Lewando's French Dye House . . . E 
Flesh Brushes, 

Dr. George F. Waters . Q 

Gas Fixtures and House Furnishings, 

Stillman &> Nicoll U 

Hats, Furs, Hammocks, etc., 

D. P. Ilsley &■ Co B 

Hotels, Parker House, 

Harvey D. Parker &* Co G 

Insurance Agent and Broker, 

John C. Paige J 

Life Insurance, 

New-England Mut. Life-Insurance Co., F 
Men's Furnishing Goods, 

Noyes Brothers . ■ D 

Music, Art, Elocution, and Language, 

New-England Conservatory of Music, L 
Newspapers, Daily and Weekly, 

Boston Advertiser K 

Pottery, Crockery, and Objets d'Art, 

Abram French &> Co F and G 

Printing, Electrotyping, etc., 

Rand, Avery, &> Co N and O 

Railroads to White Mountains, 

Eastern Railroad Co. N 

Restaurant and Lunch Room, 

Ober's Restaurant Parisien .... I 
Scales, Money-Drawers, etc., 

Fairbanks, Brown, & Co S 

Silks, for Sewing, Knitting, etc., 

Nonotuck Silk Co . R 

Steamboat Route to New York, 

Fall River Line O 

Underwear for Ladies and Children, 

Madame F. Linz R 




(2fyVeiLiLirLO r cu^b (parfy @ufj?it/ 

In Shirts, Collars, Cravats, Gloves, constantly on hand, and made to order in the 
most thorough and elegant manner. 

r^peciaffie/ 

In English Rugs, Shawls, and Carriage "Wraps; English Bath Wraps and 
Towels; House and Office Coats; Long English Dressing Gowns; Smok- 
ing or Dressing Jackets; English Waterproof Coats, for Street and Driving; 
Pajamas, or East India Sleeping-Shirts, and Long Night-Shirts, made from best 
English Flannels, Cotton and Silk, for Steamers, Sleeping-Car, Yachting or Hunting; 
Travelling and Smoking Caps ; Cotton and Silk Night-Caps. 



RoLje/ Si>roA., Met}'/ ©ufj?ifferx£>, 

No. 4 Summer Street, : : : : : Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

D 



ECONOMY IS WEALTH. 



DRESSES 
DYED 

WITHOUT RIPPING. 



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CLOTHING 

Cleansed and Pressed 
TO EQUAL NEW. 



PAYS 



FINEST WOKE: Hf THIS OOOTTKY. 

Lewandcs French Dye House, 

17 Temple Place, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 



COLUMBIA BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES 




EXPERT 
COLUMBIA 



The exercise of riding does not strain ; 
One moves as softly as the rain from heaven, 
On any road. 



TRICYCLES 



STANDARD COLUMBIA. 

The vise of the Bicycle or Tricycle has become a necessity to both 
ladies and gentlemen who would seek the full freedom and joyous exhil- 
aration of the open air. For business or pleasure these machines give 
rapid transit with the most healthy and enjoyable of exercise. The pop- 
ularity of the Columbia machines is due to the fact that they are made 
of the best material, by the most skilled workmen, and^ are unsurpassed 
for stanchness, reliability, beauty, easiness of propulsion, and general 
comfort in using. Purchasers taught free at the Riding-School on the 
premises. Illustrated (36 pages) Catalogue sent for 3-cent stamp. 



The Pope Mt'G Co. 

597 Washington Street, Boston, Mass, 



New England 
Mutual 

Life Insurance Company 

Of Boston. 



Assets $16,432,181.85 

Liabilities 13,864,889.62 



Total Surplus ... . . $2,567,292.23 

Policies issued under the Laws of Massachusetts, 
which provide: — 

1st. — That no policy shall become forfeited or void for non-pay- 
ment of premium,, after the payment of TWO A.nnual JPremitims. 

2d. — That in default of payment of any subsequent premium, the 
policy shall be binding upon the Company for a definite amount 
of paid-up insurance without further negotiation, stipulation, or 
notification . 

3d. — That a definite Cash Surrender Value shall be jjaid, where 
a valid discharge can be made by all the parties in interest. 

Distributions of Surplus are made annually, and 
the conditions in regard to limits of residence and 
travel are of the most liberal character. 

BEN J. F. STEVENS, JOSEPH M. GIBBENS, 

President. Secretary. 



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558-560 WASHINGTON ST 
BOSTON 



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HARVEY 0. PARKER. 



JOSEPH H. BECKMAN. 



EDWARD O. PUNCHARD. 



HlRYEY D. PSRKER 8c Co, 



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European Plan, 

School Street, 

Opposite City Hall, 



BOSTON, 



Specihl attention given to Private Dinner -Parties and 
Wedding Receptions. 



RiTfdsV err)<a • rrjosl ■ allracfive • assorfrrjei)! • ©J ^Huropcar) • etrja 
/irrjericar) • Kabrics^fe^W • j©ur)a • ir)~fr)e ■ courjiry. 

©pecial • Wrqairjs • irj^^opfy = six • aisffr)©! • arja. • separate 
©eparirrjerjfs, • c©rr)prisir)ef • ©uifs, • vMoaljs, • ©l-jawls, • jiylacJj 
©1II5S, • Selorea • ©illjs, • ©afirjs • <^j> • Velvets, • J^lacl} • (iroods, 
(^©lerea • l@)ress • ©©©as, • w ©©lerjs, • €)rr)all • \AZ ares, • Lirjaer^ 
weap, • p©siery, • (grieves, • (glerjfs • Kurrjisrjirjq • (sToods, • JcDuf* 
ie>r)S, • CJ.rr)J3P©ll©s, • jf;aras©ls, • Wersfea • (§r©©as, • Jparrjkiirqs 
ar)a • \AZ r)ife^ (§0®as, • Krinqes • <i> • l@)ress • ^Prirrjrrjirjqs, • j±ar)a= 
l^ercrjiejs, • Jjace • ©©©as, • (^©llars • <i> • (fluffs, • LSaaies • ^ries, 
I\i©J30r)s, • v^oiforjs, ■ Jjrrjerjs, • Klarjrjels, • Jenarjl^efs • (B> • (^uilfs, 
]f;rir)fs, • Jjir>ir)qs, • rxjillirjery, • Jjaaies • UrjdeFwcai 8 , • Irjjarjfs 
we©! 5 , • (^©ppefs, • Llplplsfery, • Jcyoys • '" '©n^r)q, ■ y lisses 
feil©i^iir)q, • Kurs, • TcyooKs, • Karjcy • ©oeas, • jdWqs, • ©lalierjery, 
M^oilef^ /articles, • wrappers, • Jewelry, • ©rjoes, • Orr)©r©iaery 
©©©as. 

$ w asrjirjqfer) • arja • ^Ivor) • ©freefs, * 
* ]©0sfor), • A'lass. * 
_ 




promp 
Par tie 



The only Restaurant where French Cooking is made a specialty Oyster and.Lunch counter for 
mpt .service. Large Dining-Rooms for. ladies and gentlemen-lf Private rooms for Dinner or Supper; 
Parties. Open daily till 12 o'clock, p.m. •■ 

Mr* Ober calls special attention to his large stocfcof Wines selected by himselfj.in FranceXThey 
are recommended by Physicians as pure and wholesome, and are sold Wholesale or Retail at fair j>rjc55A 

I 



Solid Companies. 



Fair Dealing. 



* 



tjoRn Q. P&i^e* 



* Insurance Jfymiy* 



*No. 20 Kjlhj Street* 



* 



B05I0II 



& 



Companies Represented: 

IMPERIAL FIRE of London, Eng. 

ORIENT FIRE of Hartford, Conn. 

REASSURANCES GENERALES . of Paris, France. 
CITY OF LONDON FIRE . .of London, Eng. 
FIRE ASSOCIATION . . . . of Philadelphia, Penn. 
NIAGARA FIRE of New York. 



Also, best attention to every detail of Fire Insurance, Brokerage, 
and Agency Business. 



KING'S 



DICTIONARY 



BOSTON 



BY EDWIN M. BACON 



WITH AN HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

- , \ > Z s \&y £EOR(iE E. ELtLS Dji ? 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
MOSES KING, PUBLISHER 

HARVARD SQUARE 
1883 

A 

1/ 



fY3 

fa- X% ST?, &*b\ c+fa 3 

Copyright, 1883, 



By MOSES KING 



jFranfclin $ress: 

RAND, AVERY, AND COMPANY, 

BOSTON. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



The scope of this little work is so concisely stated in the very flatter- 
ing opening paragraphs of the Introductory Chapter, contributed by the 
Rev. Dr. George E. Ellis, that, happily for both reader and editor, an ex- 
planatory preface is quite unnecessary. In the preparation of this work, 
the utmost care has been taken to make it thorough and accurate. The 
full significance of the comprehensive title chosen for it has also been 
constantly kept in view in the treatment of its more than twelve hundred 
topics, as well as in their selection and arrangement. The effort has been 
not to prepare a guide-book simply, nor yet a hand-book conveniently 
arranged ; but to furnish as complete and trustworthy information as is 
possible of all that goes to make the Boston of to-day, — a guide-book, 
hand-book, and condensed history of the city, its noteworthy institutions, 
its many organizations, — charitable, benevolent, literary, and social, — its 
religious denominations and churches, and its varied and most interest- 
ing features : all in one compact volume. It is not to be expected that 
the book will be found free of errors, or perfect in its scheme ; for, with 
all the care that it is possible to exercise in its composition, absolute 
accuracy and completeness of statement cannot be secured in a work of 
this nature. But it is trusted that the inaccuracies will prove to be few, 
and the excellences many. As the publisher and editor hope to make of 
" King's Dictionary of Boston " a standard work, and careful and thor- 
ough revision of it will be made from time to time, with necessary 
changes and additions, they will be glad to have inaccuracies pointed 
out to them, and will welcome any suggestions for the improvement of 
the book. 

The editor desires further to say, that no statement, indorsement, or 
recommendation whatever in this book has been influenced by adver 
tisers. No payment has been received in any way, or will be received, 



iv PREFATORY NOTE. 

for the mention in it of a single name, or reference to any firm, company, 
organization, or institution, private or public, or any enterprise whatso- 
ever. The text of the book from beginning to end is absolutely free 
from advertising matter ; and not one word of it has been influenced, 
even indirectly, by advertisers or advertising. The advertising matter 
between these covers will be found exclusively in its proper place, — in 
the extra advertising pages, at the front and back of the book. 

Among the works consulted in the preparation of this Dictionary, are 
the new and impressive " Memorial History of Boston ; " the admirable 
books of the Messrs. Drake, — " The History and Antiquities of Bos- 
ton," and the "Landmarks of Boston;" Dr. Shurtleff's "A Historical 
and Topographical Description of Boston ; " Loring's " Hundred Boston 
Orators;" Frothingham's " Life and Times of Joseph Warren ; " Sum- 
ner's " History of East Boston ; " Foote's " History of King's Chapel ; " 
Edward H. Howard's valuable and interesting " Reports of the Board 
of Trade ; " the serviceable little book known as the " Directory of 
Charities;" M. F. Sweetser's "King's Handbook of Boston Harbor;" 
and the noteworthy books of records and statistics issued from time 
to time under the direction of the city of Boston. Beside these and 
many others, a large number of histories of the various leading institu- 
tions of the city, and the latest annual reports of many organizations and 
societies, have been consulted and liberally utilized. The editor has 
also been favored by the generous and most intelligent assistance of all 
to whom he has applied from time to time during the progress of the 
work for information, contributions, and help in verifying statements. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The rough sheets of " King's Dictionary of Boston " were put into my 
hands before publication, with the request that I would write an Intro- 
duction to it. The elastic condition was added, that in length it might 
be of one page, or of a hundred. After having carefully looked through 
the volume, with approval of the plan and of the fidelity and thorough- 
ness of its execution, it seemed to me that it did not need an introduc- 
tion, but might equally well present and commend itself. It will, how- 
ever, admit of an introduction of a sort and for a purpose which may 
soon be stated. 

The first impression, doubtless, which the book will make upon one 
who takes it in hand, will be of the abundance of the material which is to 
be found for it, and of the convenience coming from having what is in it 
so methodically disposed. The models for the volume were, of course, 
the well-known " Dictionary of London " and " Dictionary of Paris." 
But it has peculiar features of its own, which make it preferable to them 
in method, arrangement, and the form in which information is presented. 
There are in it more than thirteen hundred titles of articles, arranging 
the subjects of them alphabetically, under the leading word most likely 
to be turned to by the inquirer. These cover all the local features, land- 
marks, visible objects of interest in the territory ; the government and 
public institutions of the city in their various departments ; the corpora- 
tions and societies administered here ; the organizations of its citizens, 
mercantile, literary, charitable, and social ; its clubs and fraternities and 
its repositories of literature, science, and the arts, with an account of their 
administration. Incidentally many local customs, observances, and com- 
memorations are recognized. There is also very much of history spread 
through the pages, with descriptions and statistics. Discussion, com- 



Vlll IN TROD UC TION. 

early, simple, frugal, and, it must be added, our hardest times, there had 
been no occasion to raise the question ; and, had it been raised, it would 
have been summarily disposed of, Very impressive to us is the reminder 
that the first occupants and subduers of this soil, the first to turn it to 
the uses of civilized life, with dwellings and fortifications, highways, 
meeting-houses, schoolhouses, granaries, water-conduits, and fire appara- 
tus, thoroughly followed the rule " to pay as you go." And the exaction 
was often a severe one. It never occurred to any magistrate to suggest, 
" Our children are to have the benefit of this : why not leave it for them 
to pay a part of the expense ? " There was no chance for " bloated 
bondholders " then. When, six years after the settlement, the proposi- 
tion was approved for founding a college, "the country-rate," or tax for 
the current year, was at once doubled. Military expenses are always 
the costliest, and are regarded as most closely involving the welfare of 
posterity. But year by year, in their warfare with the savages, the ma- 
gistrates of Boston resolutely paid their way, filling and clearing their 
scanty exchequer ; and it was not till the struggle was complicated with, 
and made insupportable by, the cash resources of the people, on account 
of burdensome war with the French, that we hear any thing of a funded 
debt and of paper money. 

There are those among us who maintain that this good example, both 
as a matter of obligation and of expediency, should have been imitated 
down to and in our own times ; that no outlay should have been made 
for any improvement that was not paid for year by year, and that then 
we should own what we possess. Possibly some nearer approach might 
have been made towards realizing this condition. But then our city 
would have worn quite a different aspect, and life in it would have pre- 
sented quite different experiences. Doubtless the extravagance of pub- 
lic outlays on the basis of funded debts has much to do with encouraging 
private indulgence and recklessness of expense, as so many individuals 
pledge their expected future incomes to make the present more enjoyable 
to them. Yet it may well be questioned, whether the rigid rule of eco- 
nomical proceeding which has been stated is reasonably applicable to a 
community like our own. A parent may leave to his children an unencum- 
bered inheritance. A son is under an obligation to pay his father's debts 
if he receives the means from his father's estate. But can those who are 
born here into the present generation reasonably expect to enter upon a 
heritage so different from that of their fathers, in the sum of all the 



INTRODUCTION. ix 

conditions which have changed the rough wilderness into all the aspects, 
conveniences, and resources of a highly advanced civilization, and this 
without cost to themselves ? We might imagine this case, which, how- 
ever, in its analogies, comes close to the reality : We may suppose the 
forests, for the supply of fuel for our winters, to have been wholly ex- 
hausted fifty or more years ago. Then it may have come to the knowl- 
edge of those concerned, that there were inexhaustible beds of coal in 
the bowels of a mountain, which, however, could be pierced and pene- 
trated, and made to yield their treasures, only by an enormous expense, 
utterly beyond the resources of those living at the time to meet. An 
arrangement is therefore made, by which the enterprise is effected ; in- 
volving as a consequence the obligation, that, for each ton of the coal 
offered to the use of a subsequent generation, an assessment shall be 
paid answering to a proportionate share of the original cost of opening 
or working the mine. This may be regarded as the basis of all legiti- 
mate funded civic debts, the annual burden of which is to be borne by 
those who accede to the benefits purchased by them. Parents find at 
their use costly school-edifices erected for their children, quite supe- 
rior to those in which they received their own education. Instead of 
depending upon dried or polluted wells for the household water, the 
families draw their supplies from pure streams of distant lakes and val- 
leys. An expensive fire-apparatus is at hand, adding value and security 
to every one's property. Streets are graded and widened over hills and 
through narrow lanes, to accommodate the busy traffic and intercourse by 
which we have the means of living, and many appliances of comfort. 
Refuges are provided for the poor and unfortunate, steadily increasing in 
numbers with the quick prosperity of a city. For all these and many 
other reliefs and facilities to which we accede above the rude and un- 
comfortable conditions of life for our progenitors, equity and common 
obligation may well reconcile us to the bearing of an annual burden. 
The heaviest outlay for annual and permanent taxation has been incurred 
in Boston for extending local territory on the original peninsula, for 
grading its broken and irregular surface, and for opening and widening 
its highways. Some among us have laid up a grudge against the fathers 
for allowing their cattle to be the original layers-out of the streets. Yet 
we should not be inconsiderate of the fact, that, though our thorough- 
fares are crooked and narrow, probably, through our short-cuts, lanes, 
and foot-passages, a larger proportion of our valuable land-surface is 



X INTR OB uc now. 

available forgoing from place to place, especially for those to the manner 
born, than in any other old municipality in the country, especially the cities 
which are divided into squares and blocks with the stiff uniformity of a 
checker-board. When those in Boston who are now old men were boys, 
if they were asked by a stranger in the streets to direct him to any 
place, it was generally found more convenient, if one could possibly spare 
the time, to accompany him to it by short-cuts, than to direct him. Proba- 
bly more money and labor have been spent upon the territorial surface of 
Boston, than upon the surfaces of all the other old cities of the Union. 
Until New York mounted up to the region of the Central Park, it had 
incurred but comparatively trifling expense in reducing and filling its 
surface, except in filling up the pond where now stand the " Tombs," and 
in extending its marginal piers. Philadelphia required scarce any grad- 
ing. Baltimore had a more broken surface than Boston; but it has been, 
in the main, left to nature. Chicago, it is true, performed a great feat 
in raising the level of much of its original and most valuable territory. 
But when one considers the enormous expense lavished in Boston in 
straightening and widening and opening thoroughfares, where real prop- 
erty has become immensely valuable, notwithstanding the partial relief 
afforded by assessments for " betterments," he can hardly deny the sug- 
gestion, that it might have been wiser for the authorities, just previous to 
the adoption of the city regimen, to have taken, at the then fair appraise- 
ment, every man's real estate; to have razed most of the edifices ; to have 
laid out sites for all public buildings, and all needed highways, as if on 
virgin soil; and then to have sold the remaining lots to the highest bidder 
at auction. Perhaps the device would have been a profitable one. 

Our city officials are kept in a state of continual distraction between 
the vehement appeals to them to advance improvements for the benefit 
of "the people," and the groanings of the tax-payers — i.e., those who 
return money directly into the city treasury — under the increasing assess- 
ments. As it is proverbially said of Harvard College, that every gift to it 
only makes it poorer; so it may be said of our city, that munificent favors 
done it by private benefactors involve it in increased expenditures. A 
Boston boy who becomes an affluent London banker starts in it a Public 
Library, and very soon the annual charge of conducting it triples in amount 
the original gift. It is thought absolutely advisable to rescue what may 
be a sightly public square from other uses : abuttors contribute a portion 
of the purchase-money, and the city then assumes the lion's share with 



INTR OD UC TION. xi 

the charge of its annual care and adornment. It is exceedingly difficult, 
if not impracticable, to draw the line between legitimate and reasonable 
public outlays, and those which may be pronounced unwise and beyond 
the range of municipal privilege and obligation. Patriotism calls for the 
spending of thousands of dollars on July 4 and other holidays, in games 
and amusements from the city treasury ; and the plea is, that the money 
comes back to the city from those who crowd into it : while so many 
residents run away from the noise, and say that the only profit accrues to 
the traffickers in peanuts and ices. A sum of money is appropriated to 
entertain a distinguished visitor : the growlers complain that it is spent 
in junketing by the city fathers and their favorites. A system of free 
concerts and public parks is devised; and objections are raised that they 
risk the increase of immoralities, and demand a larger police-force. The 
reason given by many wealthy men for evading city taxes is that so 
much money is wasted in trivial and illegitimate outlays. Truly the city 
officials have an arduous duty, though it does not seem to wear upon 
them. The actual security of the city indebtedness is in the real estate 
of the proprietors ; for personal property may be put aside, and carried 
away in a tin box. Any owner of land, house, and building here may 
calculate exactly what part of his estate is mortgaged for the public debt. 
Let him take the gross sum of it, and divide it by the amount at which his 
own property is appraised out of the whole amount of the city's valuation. 
Now, as the whole absolute security of the city debt is actually found in the 
real estate, can any more wise or just arrangement be made than to 
assess the whole tax on that form of property ? 

The conclusion which we reach is, that the imposition of public burdens 
by an entailed indebtedness must always show an offset by a proportioned 
sum of facilities and resources going down with a public heritage. 

Many of the murmurs over the burden for our civic changes and 
improvements are as unreasonable as would be those of a mother as she 
finds it necessary to obtain successive enlargements of apparel for a 
healthful, growing boy. Each and all of our railroad-stations have 
been reconstructed and enlarged three or four times to accommodate ex- 
panding business. The city has occupied successively three halls for 
its public officials and business, and finds itself straitened for room in 
its present edifice. Land-owners and builders have to avail themselves 
of the legal maxim that "whoever owns the soil, owns all the way up to 
heaven." Each successive new device in the line of facilities, resources, 



Xli INTRODUCTION. 

conveniences, and improvements, presents itself to the eyes and use of 
two quite different classes of persons, divided by one or two score years 
in age : the one representing those, who, when a new project was under 
its first suggestion, stoutly and indignantly opposed it, predicting disaster 
and ruin from its introduction ; the other class of observers cannot make 
themselves realize that the community was ever without the novelty, or 
could have contrived to exist in the lack of it. Gas, water, and street-rail- 
ways passed through this ordeal, and now serve these two classes of per- 
sons. An elevated railroad is at present under the ordeal. Will it 
prove exceptional ? 

It is pleasant to turn from this perplexing and vexatious theme of cost 
and debt, to a grateful recognition of what has gone out from the public 
treasury to enrich and enhance, for every one who for a lifetime shares it, 
the privileges and attractions of this heritage. 

First of all, and above all, stands the " Common." Though its first 
appropriation — we may say, consecration — to the perpetual and unim- 
paired use of " the people " was the result of a contention between our 
earliest aristocratic and democratic elements, the latter, having won in the 
strife, should resolutely hold the prize. Some of us who are not yet aged 
remember when the good old town found an appreciable portion of its 
annual income in allowing its householders, at a moderate charge, to 
pasture cows upon its sacred precincts. Each of them — that is, the 
cows, not the householders — wore a stout leather collar with a long 
wooden tag bearing the owner's name. A fence, with wooden posts and 
two rails, enclosed the field, with many swinging gates. The Frog-Pond, 
then veritably what its name implies, was more than three times its pres- 
ent surface, was wholly uncurbed, and was trodden around its marshy 
circuit by the animals as they came to drink, to compose naturally the 
mixture which we now receive artificially. There were then very few 
trees within the Common, and no lamps to be kindled by those who with 
ladders and their huge smoking torches of very strong-smelling oil went 
round at dusk to light a similar kind of street-illuminators. 

The generous offices of the town and city treasury, annually growing 
more lavish, have gone in three principal directions, besides to the high 
ways already referred to. These are, to public education on the most 
liberal and comprehensive scale ; to institutions of relief, benevolence, 
and charity ; to contributions and provisions for health, amusement, and 
happiness. These are all alike institutions, originated, administered 



IN TROD UC TION. xm 

and maintained by public tax, though each and all of them have been 
enriched and amplified by bequests, endowments, or private beneficence. 
They are respectively and adequately chronicled and described under 
their appropriate heads in the following pages. The reader will have 
much reason for appreciating and admiring the conciseness, the good 
taste, and the condensed fulness of information, under the very compre- 
hensive and very numerous titles covered by these subjects. The arti- 
cles are evidently prepared from the most recent and authentic sources, 
and will put an inquiring or an interested seeker in possession of what 
he is most desirous of knowing concerning their subjects. 

The best thing to be said about our schools and our educational 
system is, that the contention, discussion, and conflict of opinion con- 
stantly stirring us as regards their conduct, the experiments tried in them, 
and the demands for change and schemes of improvement, furnish the 
evidence that they are still, as from the first, regarded the foremost 
object of concern among us, and that no rust of meanness, apathy, or rou- 
tine has gathered about them. The headings of many grand institutions 
for the three inclusive objects of the city's outlay — which may be found 
in the following pages — suggest an easy passage to the consideration of 
the topic of the interposition and lavish contributions of private mu- 
nificence to advance and complete many noble works, in which the 
public treasury can be drawn upon only within statutory limits or reason- 
able restrictions. The reader of the articles in this Dictionary will find 
his attention drawn in rapid alternations from public institutions for 
education, charity, and general culture, to those incorporated or asso- 
ciated institutions for the maintenance and advancement of the same 
comprehensive objects beyond the limits and in directions at which the 
city treasury has to leave them. Under our democratic regime, there can 
be no distinctions or selections for patronage, no favoritism. What is 
done for one must be done for all. Some among us insist that public 
largesses have reached, and even trespassed beyond, the reasonable and 
lawful limits within which the civic treasury can properly offer its sup- 
port and favors. There is a sharp division of conviction and opinion 
upon several subjects included in the matter now before us. The fact 
that general and indiscriminate provisions on the most comprehensive 
principles must be made for our school-system, in the view of many 
of our citizers, involves a large waste in the opportunities and means of 
extended education, in many branches and some accomplishments, while 



xiv INTR OD UC TION. 

the primary essentials, so requisite for all, and most likely to be uni- 
versally appreciated, are slighted. From time to time warm discussions 
are opened in our journals, in which the original elements of common- 
school education as recognized by our colony law of 1646 — reading, 
writing, and arithmetic — are emphasized as expressive of the full obliga- 
tion to be met at the public expense. The acquisition of these primary 
essentials would be facilitated to all of but the most ordinary capacity 
through a supreme regard to their own necessities and self-interests ; 
while a lavish offer of appliances and lessons in more advanced culture 
would not be appreciated, and would be wholly wasted for large numbers 
of scholars. Others, of liberal and generous views, would make the 
means and privileges of our common education most comprehensive, in- 
cluding music, oratory, art, military drill, free drawing, high science, and 
skill in the use of tools. While this issue must be left to be decided 
upon the field on which it is discussed, many of the titles in the follow- 
ing pages will be gratefully recognized as leading to information showing 
to what extent and in how many directions private munificence has taken 
up the provisions for advanced and enriched education and culture where 
the public treasury has to leave them. These generally well-endowed, 
well-furnished, and active institutions — all of them having direct ends of 
education in view, with incidental special aims and helps — not only re- 
ceive, but invite and attract, a very large variety of those of both sexes 
who desire and can appropriate the privileges they offer. There is no 
occasion for presenting here any list, summary, or analysis of these insti- 
tutions, as acquaintance with them will be most pleasantly made as they 
introduce themselves in their places to the seeker through these pages. 
Some humor is indulged when processions of members of the Young Metis 
Christian Association, or the Young Men's Christian Union, are seen to 
be led off by, and largely composed of, those who are venerable for their 
whitened locks. The schools and banquets for newsboys and boot- 
blacks offer very characteristic suggestions in their attendants. Files 
of young pupils invited to a botanical or geological excursion, or to in- 
spect the processes of some manufacture, would seem to have in them 
inspiration to call out all germs of latent talent. A steamer's deck 
crowded with children enjoying a harbor-sail, and a band of youngsters 
gathered from the hot streets and lanes for " a country week," pleasantly 
remind us how private resources furnish the means for some of the best 
elements of education, mingling with them, too, a charm and a spirit too 
often lacking in the routine of the schoolroom. 



IN TR OD UC TION. xv 

And as it is when the needful limitations of the public treasury in the 
matter of education have been reached, so is it in the exacting range of 
provision for the most comprehensive claims on humanity and benevo- 
lence. Public funds for the support of the poor and the relief of the 
countless miseries of want, disease, and misfortune, must be distributed, 
indiscriminately, impartially, without favoritism or special considerations. 
Among the sentiments and traditions of duty which have come down to 
us through ancestral descent, is that of a tender consideration for those 
who are spoken of as " having known better days." In the discussions 
frequently raised among us, whether or not we do or ought to recognize 
God and Christianity in our Constitutions, it must gratify all, whatever 
their creeds and opinions, to know that we do so in very many of our 
Institutions. The public treasury would be wholly inadequate to main- 
tain, support, and administer that large number and variety of special 
agencies of benevolence, relief, and mercy, the names and objects of which 
are given — by no means completely and exhaustively — in the pages 
which follow. And if these institutions did look to the public treasury 
for their support, some of the more discriminating and delicate requi- 
sites for their oversight, classification, and daily routine, would hardly be 
available. Almost as serious a condition as that of being sure of relief, 
support, and wise and kind treatment, in poverty or disease, for very 
many sufferers, is that of the circumstances, surroundings, and compan- 
ionship under which they are to receive charity, or to spend their remain- 
ing years. Those "who have known better days" may well shrink from 
the repelling associations of a promiscuous hospital or poorhouse. Yet 
the public treasury could not cosset up or indulgently provide for groups 
of select favorites of old men, or old women, or children, or incurables, 
or convalescents, or furnish artificial limbs, or needle-work, or special 
medical oversight, or in many other'of the varieties of need and misfortune, 
with partial regard for the sentiments and sensibilities and the previous 
condition of life of the receivers of its bounty. There is something 
resembling a marvellous ingenuity and adaptation in the range and the 
specialties of the institutions of charity and mercy tabled in this volume, 
founded, endowed, and sustained wholly by private munificence. The 
Association for Public Charities, and the Massachusetts General Hospi- 
tal, extend their ministrations annually to thousands of objects of their 
care; and we may follow clown or up from these fountain-heads all the 
lesser rills which carry special favors to groups of sufferers and to lonely 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

ones. A thorough inspection of the treasurers' books of all our moneyed 
corporations would make an -impressive revelation as to the amounts, 
ever rapidly accumulating, of the funds held in perpetuity for our mani- 
fold institutions of charity and mercy. 

Several headings of articles in the following pages present names of 
institutions and societies which would have amazed and not have grati- 
fied the native inhabitants of this city fifty or a hundred years ago. These 
are suggestive to elder citizens of the number and nature of the changes 
in the character and quality of the population, in the relaxation of old 
habits and principles, and in the combination, tolerantly and peacefully, 
of what once were regarded as irreconcilable elements and influences, — 
both the causes and the results of the development and expansion of our 
city. Each age and period of its history has offered matter and occasion 
for anxiety and apprehension, for threatened crises, and of indications 
(to some) that the end was near. But the catastrophe has been averted. 
Nor do the wise and trustful see any thing in our horizon which is 
clouded by ill foreboding. Our confidence now as ever rests upon the 
equity, tire safety, and the practical good working, Of the principles to 
which we have committed ourselves. 

GEORGE E. ELLIS. 
Boston, May, 1883. 



KING'S 



DICTIONARY OF BOSTON. 



Abattoir (The), Brighton district. 
— The group of buildings of the 
" Butchers' Slaughtering and Melting- 
Association," which succeeded the old- 
fashioned slaughtering-houses which 
were, in their day, most disagreeable 
features of the neighborhood. The 
present buildings were erected in 1873, 
upon the plan of European abattoirs, 
particularly those of Paris and Zurich, 
with' such changes as served to adapt 
them to American usages. They have 
facilities for slaughtering 300 cattle a 
day, and nearly 1,000 sheep. They 
are located on the banks of the Charles 
River ; and the grounds occupied by 
them, or controlled by the corporation, 
comprise about 50 acres, all on the line 
of the Boston and Albany Railroad and 
the Watertown branch of the Fitchburg 
Railroad. Thus the animals are de- 
livered directly at the doors of the 
establishment. The buildings include 
a central building, called the rendering- 
house, which is 200 by 80 feet, and four 
stories high; blocks of slaughter-houses, 
which are grouped about the rendering- 
house ; cattle-sheds, tripe-works, sta- 
bles, etc. All are of wood. The 
blood and offal arising from each day's 
work are rendered and dried on the 
premises during the same day ; and 
cooling-rooms, supplied with ice, are 
provided for the cooling and storing 
of the meat until ready for the market. 
Steam and water are important agents 
in the work carried on here, perform- 



ing a considerable service in elevating 
and moving material, in rendering the 
products of slaughtering, and in dispos- 
ing of noxious gases. By means of 
tight floors, ample sewerage, and abun- 
dance of water and mechanical appli- 
ances, the premises are kept unusually 
clean for such work. Their success- 
ful operation since their establishment 
abundantly demonstrates that it is pos- 
sible to carry on a great slaughtering 
and rendering concern without its 
being offensive either to the work- 
men in it or the community about it. 
The conduct of the abattoir is subject 
to regular inspection by officers of the 
Board of Health, but in other respects 
it is a business corporation. 

Ace of Clubs Club (The). — A 
social dining-club composed of mem- 
bers of the journalistic, dramatic, and 
musical professions. Members are 
elected by ballot, one black-ball reject- 
ing; and the number is limited to 25. 
The officers consist of a president, 
vice-president, secretary and treas- 
urer, and are elected annually. A 
slight initiation-fee is charged; and 
the regular dues are light, consisting 
solely of each member's proportion of 
the cost of the club-dinners. These 
are had every fourth Sunday evening, 
in one of the pleasant club dining- 
rooms of the Parker House. The club 
is made up of congenial spirits, and its 
meetings are invariably described by 



ACTORS* CLUBS 



ADAMS NERVINE ASYLUM 



its members as the pleasantest of gath- 
erings. Frequently guests, members 
of one of the three professions repre- 
sented in the club, are entertained. 
The president of the club for 1883 is 
Charles H. Thayer, theatrical manager; 
and Charles H. Hoyt of " The Post" 
newspaper is secretary and treasurer. 
The first president was Dexter Smith. 
Among the members are Myron Whit- 
ney, Fessenden, Barnabee, Tom Karl, 
Eugene Tompkins (manager of the 
Boston Theatre), Louis Aldrich, Sol 
Smith Russell, Willie Edouin, George 
Parks of the Boston Museum company, 
and others well known in their profes- 
sions. The club dates from 1875. 
[See Club-Life in Boston.] 

Actors' Clubs. — See Ace of Clubs, 
and Macaroni Club ; also, Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks. 

Adams House (The New), now 
building (winter of 1882-3), No. 555 
Washington Street, succeeds the old 
Adams House, which stood for many 
years, and was in its day a famous inn. 
It occupies the site of one of the best- 
known of the taverns of the early days, 
— " the Lamb," — from before whose 
hospitable door the first stage-coach 
for Providence started in July, 1767, 
and which was the starting-point of 
this stage-coach line for some time 
after. The original Lamb Tavern was 
a wooden building of two stories ; and 
the sign of the White Lamb, giving it 
its name, swung out from its front. 
The Adams House, which succeeded 
it, was named for its earliest landlord, 
Laban Adams, father of William T. 
Adams, well known to juvenile readers 
as " Oliver Optic." The plan of the 
new Adams House is in all respects 
modern, the intention being to provide 
the house with every convenience and 
luxury of the present time. Its front 
is of white marble with red granite 
trimmings highly polished, and two 
towers rise from it to a height of 1 1 5 
feet above the sidewalk. In the front 
of the first story, are four large and 
handsome pillars of polished red gran- 



ite. There are three street entrances : 
the middle, the main entrance; the 
southerly, that for ladies ; and the 
northerly, leading to the bar and bil- 
liard rooms below. The large dining- 
room, 40 by 90 feet, and 18 feet 6 
inches high, is the conspicuous feature 
of the street-floor, reached through the 
main corridor. It will be for both 
ladies and gentlemen ; the former 
reaching it by their side entrance into 
the hotel from the end of a corridor, 
out of which open the ladies' reception- 
room and parlor. Off from the north- 
west side of the dining-room, will be a 
smoking-room. There will be about 
300 rooms in the house for guests. 
The building is so situated that an 
abundance of light and good ventila- 
tion can be secured from open spaces 
at the sides. It will be seven stories 
front and eight rear. The building 
complete is expected to cost about 
1300,000. It is built by the heirs of 
Daniel Chamberlain, long the pro- 
prietor of the old Adams House; 
and is to be leased for a period of fifteen 
years to Hall & Whipple of Young's 
Hotel [see Young's Hotel], at a rental 
of ten per cent a year on the cost of 
construction. The architect is William 
Washburn, who designed Parker's, 
the Revere, the old part of Young's, 
the American, the Fifth-avenue of New 
York, and many other hotels. [See 
Hotels.] 

Adams Nervine Asylum (The), 
Centre Street, West-Roxbury district. 
Incorporated in 1877, and opened in 
1880. An institution designed to af- 
ford care and relief to debilitated and 
nervous persons of both sexes, resi- 
dents of this State, who are not insane. 
Though primarily established for the 
indigent, paying patients are received. 
Its founder, whose name it bears, was 
the late Seth Adams, a wealthy Boston 
sugar-refiner, whose extensive works 
were for many years in South, Boston. 
He bequeathed property valued at the 
time at $600,000 for the establishment 
and maintenance of the institution: 



ADAMS STATUE 



ADVENTISTS 



Occupying the beautiful estate of the 
late J. Gardner Weld, comprising 
twenty-four acres, in the Jamaica-Plain 
part of the West-Roxbury district, and 
adjoining the grounds of the Bussey 
Institution [see Bussey Institution], its 
situation is peculiarly attractive and 
inviting. The buildings now accom- 
modate 30 patients, and at present only 
female patients are received. The 
conduct of the hospital is under the 
direction of a board of trustees and 
managers, of which Henry P. Kidder 
is president. Dr. Frank W. Page is 
the superintendent, and he is aided by 
competent assistants. The character 
and stability of the institution, which 
admirably fills. its special field, are well 
shown by the list of incorporators : 
John N. Barbour, James C. Davis, 
Aquila Adams, Emory Washburne, 
Alpheus Hardy, Samuel Eliot, Charles 
H. Dalton, James B. Thayer, Willam 
Claflin, John E. Tyler, Amor L. Hol- 
lingsworth, James Longley, Samuel A. 
Green, Robert W. Willard, Caleb W. 
Loring, Samuel D. Warren, Rufus 
Ellis, Joseph Burnett, S. B. Stebbins, 
and Charles F. Choate. 

Adams (Samuel) Statue (The). — 
Adams Square, in New Washington 
Street. The work of Miss Anne 
Whitney. It represents the Revolu- 
tionary patriot, clad in the citizen's 
dress of his period, standing erect, 
with folded arms, and a determined 
look in his finely chiselled face. He is 
portrayed as he is supposed to have 
appeared just after demanding of Gov. 
Hutchinson the instant removal of the 
British troops from Boston, and while 
awaiting the Englishman's answer. 
The work is of bronze, and is a coun- 
terpart of that by the same artist in the 
Capitol at Washington. The lower 
base of the pedestal is of unpolished 
Quincy granite, cut in eight pieces; 
and it covers a surface nine feet square. 
The base surmounting this is of pol- 
ished Quincy granite, four feet three 
inches square ; the die is three feet 
square, and the cap surmounting it is 



three feet eight inches square, both 
also of polished Quincy granite. The 
pedestal is ten feet high. The posts 
at the corners of the base are of 
granite, two feet eight inches high. 
The inscriptions on each of the four 
panels of the pedestal are as fol- 
lows : — 

"Samuel Adams — 1722 — 1803 — A Patriot 
— He organized the Revolution, and signed the 
Declaration of Independence." 

" Governor — A True Leader of the People." 

" Erected A.D. 1880, from a fund bequeathed 
to the city of Boston by Jonathan Phillips." 

"A statesman, incorruptible and fearless." 

It was Miss Whitney's desire, that 
the only inscription should be simply 
the name of the patriot ; but she was 
overruled by the committee of the 
city council having the matter in 
charge. The inscriptions were written 
by Mayor Prince. The statue was un- 
veiled on July 5, 1880 (the Fourth com- 
ing that year on Sunday), without 
ceremony. Its cost was $6,856. T. H. 
Bartlett, the sculptor, in his papers on 
" Civic Monuments in New England," 
says of this statue, "It is to be com- 
mended for its direct purpose. It is 
not ' made up : ' it is necessarily limited 
in action and scope of outline. The 
difficulty of making it firm on its feet, 
of producing a feeling of weight as a 
body, and interest as a statue, was 
very great. That the sculptor has suc- 
ceeded in what she attempted, quite as 
well as was to be expected,- cannot be 
doubted." [See Statues and Monu- 
ments^ 

Adventists. — At the present time 
there is in Boston but one church of 
believers in a second advent. This 
is called the " Advent Christian Church 
of Boston." It was organized about 
four years ago, and is a continuation 
of what was known as the old Lowell- 
street Advent Church. It now has 
about 100 " book-members," so called, 
and is represented as steadily increas- 
ing in interest and numbers. There is 
an Advent Christian Publication So- 
ciety, which was incorporated in 1854. 
It publishes a religious journal called 



ADVERTISER 



IO 



ADVERTISER 



" The World's Crisis," which is issued 
weekly. A circulation of 10,134 was 
claimed for it the first of the year. 
The society also publishes " The 
Young Pilgrim," a Sunday-school pa- 
per issued semi-monthly ; and it main- 
tains a salesroom for the sale of books 
and tracts of its peculiar doctrines. 
Its headquarters are at No. 144 Hano- 
ver Street, corner of Union. The exist- 
ence of the Church of the Adventists 
in this city dates back to 1843, when, 
in May of that year, the " Tabernacle," 
a large temporary building in Howard 
Street, on the site of the present How- 
ard iVthenaeum [see Howard Athence- 
um\ was dedicated. Here the society 
remained for three years, and then 
removed to " Central Hall," on Milk 
Street ; in July, 1848, another removal 
was made, to a chapel on Chardon 
Street ; and after a time a chapel was 
erected for its use by the " Boston 
Advent Association," at the corner of 
Hudson and Kneeland Streets, into 
which it next moved. The thriving 
period with the Adventists in Boston 
may be said to have been during the 
occupancy of the great Tabernacle. 
Elder Joshua V. Himes was the 
preacher during that period, and fol- 
lowed the church through its many 
vicissitudes after the second-advent 
excitement had waned. The Advent- 
ists maintain, beside the publication 
society mentioned above, the Ameri- 
can Advent Mission Society, which 
was incorporated in 1862. Its princi- 
pal mission-work is home-work. It 
disburses from $2,000 to $6,000 per 
year in home-mission work in various 
parts of the country. 

Advertiser (The Boston Daily), 
is published from the new "Advertis- 
er " Building, Nos. 246 and 248 Wash- 
ington Street, to which it removed in 
the winter of 1883, from its old quar- 
ters on Court Street, on the site of 
the printing-office in which Franklin 
learned his trade. It is the oldest 
daily newspaper in Boston. It was 
established in 181 2, and in its earlier 



years acquired the good-will of sev- 
eral journals, among them the " In- 
dependent Chronicle," "The Boston 
Patriot" (established in 1809), "The 
Columbian Centinel," " The New-Eng^ 
land Palladium," "The Boston Ga- 
zette " (the fourth newspaper in Boston 
bearing that name), " The Repertory " 
(first published in 1803 by W. W. 
Clapp, and united with the "Daily 
Advertiser " at the beginning of the 
latter's career, its name for a while 
being part of the title), and " The 
Boston Weekly Messenger." The 
first number of the " Advertiser " pub- 
lished announced its character to be 
" the predominant feature . . . com- 
mercial — yet . . . by no means desti- 
tute of a political character ; " and 
this it has strictly maintained ever 
since, while taking on the improve- 
ments of modern journalism, and ex- 
tending and broadening its various 
features. The first publisher of the 
"Advertiser" was W. W. Clapp, father 
of the present W. W. Clapp of the 
"Journal" [see Journal, the Boston] ; 
and the first editor, Horatio Bigelow. 
In April, 1814, Nathan Hale, then the 
editor and proprietor of " The Messen- 
ger," purchased the " Advertiser " 
property from Messrs. Clapp and 
Bigelow. Mr. Clapp continued for 
a while as publisher ; and Mr. Hale 
for more than thirty years conduct- 
ed the paper, first as editor, and 
then as editor and publisher com- 
bined, with credit both to himself 
and the community. It was under 
his administration that the paper 
attained the local title of " the Re- 
spectable Daily." He was the first to 
introduce steam-power-presses in New 
England; and it is claimed that his 
was the first journal to introduce the 
regular daily editorial discussion of 
political and other topics. This has 
ever since been a marked feature of 
the "Advertiser," never more pro- 
nounced than at the present time. 
Mr. Hale died in 1863, and was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son, the late 
Charles Hale (died in 1882), who had 



ADVERTISER 



AIDING DISCHARGED CONVICTS 



for several years previous ably assisted 
his father in the conduct of the jour- 
nal, as had also his brothers, Edward 
E. Hale, the widely known clergyman 
and general writer of the present day, 
and the late Nathan Hale, jun. In 
1864 Charles Hale was appointed con- 
sul-general to Egypt, and he then dis- 
posed of the " Advertiser " property 
to Dunbar, Waters, & Co. ; Charles F. 
Dunbar of the new firm, who had for 
some time been the assistant editor of 
the paper, succeeding to the editor- 
ship. Mr. Dunbar continued in charge 
until 1S69, when he was appointed 
professor of political economy in Har- 
vard College, and disposed of his inter- 
est in the paper to a new corporation. 
The late Delano A. Goddard, formerly 
a leading editor of the Worcester 
" Spy," a scholarly and cultivated gen- 
tleman, succeeded Mr. Dunbar as edit- 
or-in-chief, and successfully conducted 
the paper until his sudden death in 
January, 1882, when he was succeeded 
by Edward Stanwood, the present edit- 
or, who had long been a leading edito- 
rial writer and prominent member 
of the editorial force of the paper, 
and had frequently conducted it in 
Mr. Goddard's absence. Edwin F. 
Waters, one of the original purchasers 
of the property from Charles Hale, 
continued as publisher, nominally as 
the treasurer, through all the changes 
in the editorial conduct of the paper, 
until November, 18S2, when he retired 
after his long service, and was suc- 
ceeded by Edward P. Call, formerly 
connected with the " Herald," who is 
the present publisher. The property is 
now owned and controlled by the "Bos- 
ton Daily Advertiser Corporation," or- 
ganized in the spring of 1S82, which 
is composed partly of former owners 
and partly of new ones. Until the 
summer of 1881 the paper was a large 
folio; but on the Fourth of July of 
that year it appeared in the quarto 
form, printed from stereotype plates, 
on an improved Bullock press with 
patent cutter and folder attachment. 
The "Advertiser" has a substantial 



circulation among the best and most 
cultivated classes of readers, and it 
enjoys a valuable advertising patron- 
age. It has the reputation of being 
not only a thorough commercial and 
business journal, but a complete and 
prompt newspaper- in every depart- 
ment, well arranged, well written, and 
thoroughly edited. It has a fine liter- 
ary flavor, is renowned for its critical 
reviews of books, its dramatic and 
musical and art criticisms, and for its 
general excellence in all that goes to 
make a representative and complete 
newspaper of to-day. It employs a 
large force of experienced editors, 
writers, correspondents, and reporters, 
and is conducted with carefulness in 
every detail, and much pains-taking. 
In politics it is Republican, but it is by 
no means a partisan paper : it is broad, 
liberal, and outspoken on all public 
questions. The new marble-front 
"Advertiser Building" is thoroughly 
fitted and equipped with every con- 
venience and modern appliance. 

Agricultural Library. — This li- 
brary of about two thousand volumes 
is connected with the office of the sec- 
retary of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, and is to be found in the basement 
of the State House. It is open at all 
hours of the day for the use of the mem- 
bers of the Legislature ; and other citi- 
zens are privileged to consult it. The 
very considerable agricultural museum 
formerly kept here has been removed 
to the State Agricultural College at 
Amherst. A valuable library, contain- 
ing many volumes pertaining to agri- 
culture as well as horticulture, is to be 
found in the rooms of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society, on Trem- 
ont Street, between Bromfield Street 
and Montgomery Place. [See Horti- 
cultural Society, The Massachusetts.'] 

Aiding Discharged Convicts (The 
Massachusetts Society for). — An 
organization offering a helping hand, 
when most needed, to those facing the 
world again after a term in prison. It 
aids the convict, upon his discharge, 



ALBANY 



12 



AMEULANCES 



with temporary board, clothing, con- 
veyance to friends, and tools to work 
with, and finds employment for him. 
The nature and extent of its work are 
shown by the statistics published quar- 
terly. During the first quarter of the 
present year the society advised and 
assisted 89 discharged convicts : 23 of 
these were furnished with board while 
seeking employment; 32 with trans- 
portation to their homes in this and 
other States, or to other States to seek 
employment; 31 with clothing; 18 
with meals and lodging ; 6 with family 
stores ; and 10 with tools to work at 
their different trades. The number 
advised and assisted during 1882 was 
367. The society was organized in 
1846, and was incorporated under 
its present name in 1867. Among its 
founders were Charles Sumner, Samuel 
G. Howe, Walter Channing, and Ed- 
ward E. Hale. The funds for its work 
are provided by yearly subscriptions, 
gifts, and legacies. It expends from 
$1,500 to $2,000 yearly. Its headquar- 
ters are at No. 35 Avon Street, and its 
general agent is Daniel Russell. 

Albany (The Boston and, Station 
and Railway). — See Boston and Al- 
bany. 

Alleys were plentiful enough in old 
Boston; but of late years the name 
seems to have fallen into disrepute, 
and there is hardly a passage low 
enough in the scale of nomenclature 
to be called by this old-fashioned 
name. However mean, it is called a 
court, a place, or an avenue. Although 
the name is gone, however, the thing 
exists ; and in few American cities are 
to be found so many Old-World short 
cuts and narrow by-ways as those 
which intersect the crooked and wind- 
ing streets of the older portions of the 
city. Only those, however, who know 
them should try them ; for their appar- 
ent shortness is delusive, and, ending 
in a cul-de-sac, the uninformed pedes- 
trian is too often compelled to retrace 
his steps. . [See Streets.] 



Almshouses. — There are four city 
almshouses in charge of the Directors 
for Public Institutions [see Ptiblic Insti- 
tutions], whose office is at No. 30 Pem- 
berton Square. That for male paupers 
is on Rainsford Island in the harbor ; 
that for women, chiefly aged and in- 
firm, on the Austin Farm, West-Rox- 
bury district ; one for women and 
children on Deer Island, in the har- 
bor ; and that for adults, residents of 
the Charlestown district, on the north 
side of Mystic River, near Maiden 
Bridge, towards Charlestown Neck. 
Hospitals for the sick are connected 
with each of these. At Rainsford- 
Island Almshouse full support is given 
to adult male paupers, wholly depend- 
ent, having a legal settlement. Those 
of the inmates who are able-bodied 
cut stone, which is sold to the city at 
market rates. There are two chap- 
lains, one Protestant and the other 
Catholic. The average expense of 
each inmate is given as $2.19 per week. 
Monthly visits from near relatives and 
friends of the inmates are permitted. 
The Austin-Farm Almshouse provides 
a permanent home for women only, 
as in the case of the Rainsford-Island 
Almshouse, having a legal settlement. 
The cost of the support of each in- 
mate here is given as $1.87 per week. 
The almshouse on Deer Island includes 
the pauper school for girls, and a 
nursery. Protestant and Catholic ser- 
vices are held here on Sundays. Av- 
erage cost of each inmate, $2.19 per 
week. The Charlestown-district Alms- 
house gives full support to the adult 
poor, free lodgings to "transients," 
and meals to over a thousand persons 
yearly. The average cost of each 
inmate is given at $1.51 per week. 
Near relatives and friends are admit- 
ted as visitors on any day, under 
proper conditions.. Pauper and neg- 
lected children of both sexes are also 
admitted to the Marcella-street Home. 
[See Marcella-street Home.] 

Ambulances. — The ambulance ser- 
vice of the city is under the direction 



AMERICAN ACADEMY 



13 



AMERICAN ARCHITECT 



of the two large hospitals, — the Bos- 
ton City, and the -Massachusetts Gen- 
eral. On proper call, ambulances with 
medical officers are despatched at any 
hour of the day or night from either 
of these hospitals ; the City Hospital 
generally covering the territory south 
of Dover and Berkeley Streets, and 
the Massachusetts General that north 
of these streets. These are secured 
on application at any police-station, or 
at the office of the superintendent of 
police at the City Hall ; the stations 
and the superintendent's office being 
connected by telegraph or telephone 
with the hospitals. The system is so 
complete, and the service so equipped, 
that prompt attention is secured, even 
in the greatest emergency. Each police- 
station is provided with stretchers, 
available at any time day or night. 
During 1882 the police commissioners 
procured two additional ambulances 
for the use of the police-department. 
They are located so as to be as near as 
possible to the central divisions where 
most frequently used. 

American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences (The).— With one exception, 
the oldest scientific society in America. 
It was founded in 1780 : and among the 
objects proposed to themselves by its 
founders were the promotion and en- 
couragement of a knowledge of the 
antiquities and the natural history of 
America ; also the encouragement of 
medical discoveries, mathematical dis- 
quisitions, philosophical inquiries and 
discoveries, astronomical, meteorologi- 
cal, and geographical observations, and 
improvements in agriculture, the arts, 
manufactures, and commerce. The 
society stands to the United States in 
a relation similar to that held by the 
famous academies of France, Eng- 
land, and Germany to their respective 
countries. Among its foremost early 
members were Benjamin Franklin, 
James Bowdoin, John Adams, John 
Hancock, John Quincy Adams, Josiah 
Quincy, Nathaniel Bowditch, John T. 
Kirkland, and Samuel Dexter; and 



it has long counted in its membership 
the most learned and distinguished 
citizens. It has members in all sec- 
tions of the country, and also a large 
number of honorary members in 
Europe. Its transactions are pub- 
lished, and have become of such mag- 
nitude and importance that they may 
without disadvantage be compared 
with those of many similar institutions 
of the Old World. The society has 
charge of the awarding of the Rum- 
ford medals, provided for by the trust 
founded by Count Rumford for the ad- 
vancement of the knowledge of light 
and heat, and. of their practical appli- 
cation. It possesses a valuable library, 
which includes many volumes of the 
reports of transactions, and papers of 
various learned societies of this and 
foreign countries with which it cor- 
responds. The centennial anniversary 
of the society was celebrated in May, 
1880, when a large number of dele- 
gates from kindred societies of Europe 
as well as America wei'e present. 
One of the many noteworthy features 
of the occasion was an anniversary 
address by Robert C. Winthrop, deliv- 
ered in the Old South Church. The 
regular meetings of the society are held 
in the Athenaeum building on Beacon 
Street. Joseph Lovering, LL.D., is the 
present president of the society, Oliver 
Wendell Holmes the vice-president, J. 
P. Cooke the corresponding secretary, 
and S. H. Scudder librarian. 

American Architect and Building 
News (The). — This is a weekly illus- 
trated journal, published by James R. 
Osgood & Co., 211 Tremont Street, 
one block south of the Common. 
It is edited with great care, intelli- 
gence, and thoroughness, and is the 
representative paper of the architects 
of the country. It was established in 
1875. During 1882 the editors opened a 
registration for draughtsmen in search 
of situations, and architects in need of 
help are placed in communication with 
those whose apparent qualifications 
best meet the reauirements stated in 



AMER. BAPTIST HOME MISS. SOCIETY 



14 



AMER. CONGREGATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



the application. A small fee is charged 
for each original registration, and for 
the situation secured. William Rotch 
Ware, a son of the late Rev. J. F. W. 
Ware, is the editor of the " American 
Architect." 

American Baptist Home Mis- 
sionary Society. — See Tremont- 
Temple Building. 

Americ-an Baptist Missionary 
Union. — See Tremont-Temple Build- 
ing. 

American Baptist Publication So- 
ciety. — See Tremont-Temple Build- 
ing. 

American College and Education 
Society (The). — Headquarters at No. 
10 Congregational House. Formed in 
1874 by the consolidation of the Amer- 
ican Education Society, chartered in 
this State iin8i6, and the Society for 
the Promotion of Collegiate and Theo- 
logical Education at the West, which 
was formed in 1843. ^ nas f° r ^ ts °k" 
jects the promotion of Protestant theo- 
logical education ; and to this end it 
aids Western institutions of learning, 
and many young men, candidates for 
the ministry. It claims to be unsec- 
tarian, though its funds and students 
are drawn chiefly from Congregational 
sources. The income of the society 
for a single year (1881) was nearly 
$260,000. Of this, $230,000 was applied 
to the aid of Western educational in- 
stitutions; $18,500 was appropriated to 
young men in colleges and seminaries 
preparing for the ministry; and $1,200 
was paid to certain institutions by spe- 
cial request. Of the sum disbursed to 
colleges, $163,250 was from the gift of 
Mrs. Valeria G. Stone of Maiden, 
of the sum of $1,051,700 to various 
institutions of learning in the country. 
Since the founding of the American 
Education Society, a very large num- 
ber of persons have been aided into the 
pulpit by that and the present society, 
a number of whom have attained dis- 
tinction, and many have been most 



faithful missionaries. During 1882 
about 380 young men were receiving 
assistance from the society. Charles 
Benedict of Waterbury, Conn., is presi- 
dent of the society, and Increase N. 
Tarbox, D.D., secretary. The West- 
ern Education Society, organized in 
1864, having its headquarters in Chi- 
cago,, labors in the same field. [See 
Congregational Housed 

American Congregational Asso- 
ciation (The), the organization which 
established the Congregational House 
on the corner of Beacon and Somerset 
Streets, and the Congregational Li- 
brary occupying rooms in that build- 
ing. It was organized in 1853, for the 
specific purpose of erecting a Congre- 
gational House in this city, " for the 
meetings of the body, the accommoda- 
tion of its library, and for the further- 
ance of its general purposes ; " and 
also " to found and perpetuate a libra- 
ry of books, pamphlets, and manu- 
scripts, and a collection of portraits 
and relics of the past; and to do what- 
ever else, within the limits of its char- 
ter, shall serve to illustrate Congrega- 
tional history, and promote the gen- 
eral interests of the Congregational 
churches." The association is com- 
posed of members of Orthodox Con- 
gregational churches, each paying one 
dollar or more into its treasury. It 
was first incorporated in 1854, as the 
Congregational Library Association, 
and authorized to hold real and per- 
sonal estate to an amount not exceed- 
ing $150,000; in 1856 an act was se- 
cured authorizing it to hold $150,000 
more in real estate, provided that this 
be invested in a building for its own 
purposes ; in 1864 its name was 
changed to the present style, and it 
was given additional powers, being au- 
thorized " to do such acts as may pro- 
mote the interest of Congregational 
churches, — by publishing works ; by 
furnishing libraries and pecuniary aid 
to parishes, churches, and Sunday 
schools; by promoting friendly inter- 
course and co-operation among Con- 



AMEUICAN BOARD 



iS 



AMERICAN HOUSE 



gregational ministers and churches, 
and with other denominations ; and 
by collecting and disbursing funds for 
the above objects; " and in 1871 it was 
authorized to hold real and personal 
estate to the amount of $450,000 in 
addition to the $300,000 before author- 
ized. The first building of the asso- 
ciation was in Chauncy Street, and here 
the library was established. In 1867 
it removed to rooms at No. 40 Winter 
Street; and in 1873 tne present im- 
posing and most conveniently situated 
estate, formerly the Somerset Club- 
House, was secured ; and this has 
since been the recognized Orthodox 
Congregational headquarters in Bos- 
ton. S. D. Warren is the present 
president of the Association, and Sam- 
uel T. Snow, treasurer. [See Congre- 
gational House ; also, Congregational 
Library.] 

American Board of Commission- 
ers for Foreign Missions. — This 
board, which has its headquarters 
in the Congregational House on the 
corner of Beacon and Somerset 
Streets, originated with some students 
at the Theological Seminary at An- 
dover in 1810, and was established 
that year by the General Association 
of Massachusetts at its meeting in 
Bradford. Its general objects may be 
said to be to propagate the gospel in 
heathen lands by supporting mission- 
aries and diffusing a knowledge of the 
Scriptures. Its first missionaries were 
sent out in 18 12. These were five in 
number, and were sent to Calcutta 
with $1,200 at their disposal. From 
this small beginning, it has become a 
vast machine, whose laborers are 
found in every part of the world. Its 
missionaries have founded hundreds 
of churches, and thousands of schools, 
among the heathen, reduced many 
barbarous languages to writing, and 
translated the Bible into more than 
twenty different tongues. In 1882 
it reported 812 places occupied by 
404 missionaries, of whom 158 are or- 
dained. These missionaries are as- 



sisted by 1,717 native helpers of vari- 
ous ranks ; and in many places there is 
now a thoroughly trained native min- 
istry. It has also established many 
churches in the Hawaiian Islands, 
which have graduated into self-sup- 
port ; and others which have been 
passed over to other societies ; 272 
native churches, including over 17,000 
present members on confession of 
faith. It has under its direction 29 
training and theological schools, giv- 
ing instruction to more than 1,000 
young men ; 27 schools for girls and 
young women, many of whom are 
training for teachers ; and 709 com- 
mon schools, with over 25,000 pupils. 
The work of the society has largely 
increased within five years. In China, 
India, and Turkey, it has doubled. Of 
the 404 present missionaries, men and 
women, thirty have been above thirty 
years in the service. 

American House (The), No. 56 
Hanover Street, a short distance from 
Court Street, is one of the best known 
and most commodious of the well-kept 
hotels in the city. It was first opened 
in 1835, an d sixteen years later was 
entirely rebuilt, covering the territory 
formerly occupied by the original ho- 
tel, Earl's and Merchant's Hotels, and 
the old Hanover House. On part of 
this ground formerly stood the dwell- 
ing-house of Gen. Warren. Since the 
enlargement and rebuilding of the 
hotel in 1851, numerous other im- 
provements and additions have been 
made ; and it is now one of the largest, 
as it has long been one of the best- 
managed, of Boston public-houses. It 
has a spacious entrance, with corri- 
dors, large public drawing-rooms, and 
all the modern improvements in every 
department, for the comfort and con- 
venience of its patrons. It was the 
first hotel to introduce the passenger- 
elevator, and it has been always abreast 
of the times in other respects. It is 
conducted on the American plan. It 
is largely patronized by business-men, 
the shoe-and-leather trade especially 



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 



16 



AMERICAN METRIC BUREAU 



making it its headquarters ; and with 
Western and Southern merchants it has 
for years been a favorite resort. It has 
many comfortable and inviting family 
suites, which are always occupied dur- 
ing the winter season. Its prices are 
from $2.50 to $3.50 per day. For more 
than forty years this house has been 
under the management of the late 
Lewis Rice or his sons, who still con- 
duct it. 

American Library Association 
(The). — Rooms at 32 Hawley Street, 
in connection with the American Met- 
ric Bureau. [See American Metric 
Bureau^ It is composed of the lead- 
ing librarians of the country, and aims 
to increase the number of readers, 
improve their methods, raise the stand- 
ard of reading, and reduce its cost. 
The work is done through the free 
public libraries; and the association 
holds meetings annually in different 
cities, at which papers are read and 
discussions carried on upon matters 
relative to the organization and ad- 
ministration of libraries. The visitors' 
interest in the office of the association 
lies in the bibliothecal museum, com- 
prising a collection of catalogues, re- 
ports, and other library publications ; 
and thousands of blanks, devices, and 
appliances of every sort used in libra- 
ries at home or abroad. These are 
arranged both by libraries and by sub- 
jects. Of still greater interest to pub- 
lic or private librarians are the working 
models recommended by the associa- 
tion. These include nearly every thing 
tangible that pertains to the successful 
management of a library. The whole 
collection is fully and freely explained 
to visitors. The association also pub- 
lishes the " Library Journal," an inter- 
national monthly, devoted to the same 
objects, and the official publication of 
the libraries both of this country and 
of Great Britain. The secretary of 
the association is Melvil Dewey, and 
the editor of the " Library Journal " is 
Charles A. Cutter. The association 
was organized in 1876, and grew out 



of the conference of American libra- 
rians held at Philadelphia during the 
Centennial Exhibition. 

American Metric Bureau (The). 

— Established for the purpose of ad- 
vancing the introduction of the metric 
system, or "international decimal sys- 
tem of weights and measures," into 
this country, and the diffusion of 
knowledge tending to facilitate its 
adoption, by the circulation of models, 
diagrams, and pamphlets explaining 
the system. It occupies a part of the 
second story of No. 32 Hawley Street, 
in the book-district of the city. It is 
an important educational society, and 
is composed of professors in colleges, 
teachers in high schools, superintend- 
ents of education, and many persons 
from all professions and from every 
line of business. It has the largest 
collection extant of charts, books, ap- 
paratus, weights and measures, illus- 
trating the metric system, and forming 
a metric museum of more than one 
thousand different articles, that are 
freely exhibited and explained to all 
interested. The secretary and three 
assistants have charge of the office, 
and give copies of explanatory pam- 
phlets to all applicants, or mail them 
without charge. The Bureau is incor- 
porated the same as the Bible Society, 
as a missionary society for educational 
purposes. It sent out the first year 
over a million pages, illustrating the 
system and explaining its advantages. 
Visitors to Boston are often taken to 
the Bureau as one of the curiosities of 
the city, as nothing of the kind can be 
seen elsewhere. Melvil Dewey is sec- 
retary ; J. P. Putnam, treasurer. 

American Peace Society (The). 

— Headquarters in the Congregational 
House, corner of Beacon and Somer- 
set Streets. This is an organization, 
as stated in its constitution, " founded 
on the principle that all war is con- 
trary to the spirit of the gospel," and 
having for its object " to illustrate the 
inconsistency of war with Christianity, 
to show its baleful influence on all the 



AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY 



17 



AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION 



great interests of mankind, and to de- 
vise means for insuring universal and 
permanent peace." Persons of every 
Christian denomination " desirous of 
promoting peace on earth and good- 
will towards men " are eligible to mem- 
bership. Every annual subscriber of 
two dollars, every donor of five dollars, 
thereby becomes a regular member ; 
and the chairman of each correspond- 
ing committee, officers and delegates 
of every auxiliary contributing to the 
funds of the society, and every minis- 
ter of the gospel who preaches once a 
year on the subject of peace, and takes 
up a collection in behalf of the cause, 
are entitled to the privileges of regu- 
lar members. The payment of twenty 
dollars at one time constitutes any 
person a life-member, and fifty dollars 
a life-director. The society was organ- 
ized in May, 1828, as a national organ- 
ization, to collect the energies of the 
several State societies then existing, 
not only in the New-England States, 
but in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Georgia, 
and North Carolina. With one ex- 
ception, — namely, the Rhode-Island 
Peace Society, — it has outlived all 
the peace societies existing at the time 
of its establishment. Its organization 
was largely due to the efforts of Wil- 
liam Ladd, who has been called "the 
apostle of peace." He was the first 
secretary of the society, and was ear- 
nest, devoted, and indefatigable in the 
pursuit of his mission. Dr. George 
C. Beckwith was the second secretary; 
and he not only gathered funds for the 
society, but also edited the " Advocate 
of Peace " (the periodical publication 
of the society), attended to the prepa- 
ration of its books and tracts, and pre- 
sented the cause in many meetings. 
Under the Rev. J. B. Miles, the next 
general secretary, succeeding Rev. 
Amasa Lord, who was secretary pro 
tempore for a year after the death 
of Dr. Beckwith, the society entered 
upon a new enterprise in the promo- 
tion of international law, and a con- 
gress of nations. Dr. Miles visited 
Europe four times, and established the 



" Association for the Reform and Codi- 
fication of the Laws of Nations." He 
died in 1878. The Rev. H. C. Dun- 
ham is the present secretary. 

American Seamen's Friend So- 
ciety. — Established in 1828, incorpo- 
rated in 1833, to befriend sailors in 
various ways. It sustains chaplains, 
missionaries, Bible and tract distribu- 
tors, and places libraries of about thirty 
volumes on board sea-going vessels. 
Each of these libraries contains, be- 
sides a Bible and a few religious books, 
books of biography, travel, adventure, 
and popular science, histories, and 
other entertaining as well as instruc- 
tive literature ; and is placed on ship- 
board as a loan to the ship's company. 
Twenty dollars sends a library to sea 
in the donor's name. Office of the 
society, Congregational House, corner 
of Beacon and Somerset Streets. 

American Society of Hibernians. 

— Established in 1857, incorporated 
in 1861. A protective society for the 
benefit of Irishmen. It gives $3 per 
week to members while ill, and a death 
benefit of $25 ; and worthy persons 
who are not entitled to benefits often 
receive donations, or funds raised by 
subscription. Those applying for ad- 
mittance to the society as members 
must be of good moral character, good 
bodily health, and under forty years of 
age. The chairman of the visiting 
committee, Owen Rogan, examines all 
cases. His address is No. 96 Leverett 
Street. 

American Unitarian Association. 

— This organization, which has done 
much towards establishing Unitarian 
educational institutions, helping new 
churches and fostering struggling ones, 
aiding theological students, and organ- 
izing and maintaining missionary work, 
was established in 1825, and incorpo- 
rated in 1847. It maintains a publish- 
ing agency, and publishes tracts and 
books for free distribution, as well as 
denominational works for sale. A 
ladies' commission connected with it 



AMUSEMENTS 



18 



AMUSEMENTS 



publishes a catalogue of books for 
Sunday-school libraries and a list of 
general reading for young persons. 
The association spends about $7,000 
yearly in sustaining old societies and 
creating new ones in large and growing 
towns East and West ; at a yearly ex- 
pense of about $8,000 it supports mis- 
sionary churches in towns or cities 
where there are colleges or large pre- 
paratory schools ; it expends over 
$5,000 'yearly in distinctively home- 
missionary service, pays for preaching 
in regions of country and in places 
(notably in the Southern States) where 
there is no expectation that a Unitarian 
society will be immediately gathered; 
and it aids the beneficiary funds of the 
theological schools of the denomina- 
tion, meantime raising funds for en- 
larging their work. The association 
now possesses permanent trust-funds 
amounting to $200,000, and derives 
from the churches of the denomination 
an annual income of from $75,000 to 
$100,000. Its rooms are at present at 
No. 7 Tremont Place (in the rear of 
the Tremont House), and they are the 
Unitarian headquarters in the city. It 
is proposed, however, to erect a new 
building as soon as may be, a denomi- 
national house, to be called the Chan- 
ning Memorial. Henry P. Kidder is 
the present president of the associa- 
tion; George William Curtis of New 
York, and Judge Charles Allen of 
Boston, vice-presidents ; and the Rev. 
Grindall Reynolds of Concord, secre- 
tary. [See Unitarianism a,7id Unita- 
rian [Congregational) Churches.] 

Amusements. — Though as late as 
1794 theatrical performances in Boston 
were forbidden by law, under severe 
penalties, the city early took the lead 
in music and the drama; and for a 
long time it has had the name of being 
admirably equipped with most of the 
amusements of great cities. Theatres, 
at least, have not been lacking; and 
at the present time Boston is regarded 
by theatrical managers as one of 
the best fields to "work" with good 



theatrical material and the leading 
"stars." The Boston Theatre com- 
pares in size with the larger theatres 
in Europe, offering a stage on which 
any modern pieces may be effectively 
presented, and an auditorum accommo- 
dating conveniently as large an audi- 
ence as any great theatre in the world, 
with few exceptions. Smaller in size, 
but attractive in furnishings, and am- 
ple in accommodations and equip- 
ments, are the Globe, the Museum, 
and the Park. There are also the 
Howard Athenaeum, down town, the 
leading "variety " theatre in the city; 
next beyond the Boston Theatre, on 
Washington Street, the new Bijou 
Theatre, rebuilt in the season of 1882- 
83 in place of the Gaiety ; just beyond 
Boylston Street, on Washington, the 
Boylston, another "variety" theatre; 
farther up town, on the corner of 
Washington and Dover Streets, the 
Windsor ; and in the Roxbury district, 
the Dudley-street Opera House. In 
consequence of the change of late years 
in the mode of conducting theatrical 
enterprises, the Museum is at present 
the only theatre having a permanent 
stock company of the old-fashioned 
sort, all of the others being occupied 
for engagements of a longer or shorter 
term by "stars," travelling theatrical 
and operatic combinations ; though the 
Boston Theatre has a company of its 
own, which it employs " on the road " 
the larger portion of the season, with 
attractions generally first brought out 
here. The Museum has always pos- 
sessed an excellent dramatic company, 
equal to the presentation of all mod- 
ern plays, and, of late years, of light 
opera as well. These theatres are all 
well supported, and rumors are fre- 
quently in circulation touching new 
theatres contemplated by others desir- 
ous of sharing in the harvest. Among 
the musical attractions of the winter 
season, there are always one or more 
seasons of Italian opera ; and ranking 
high are the orchestral concerts of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, es- 
tablished in the season of 1881-82: 



AMUSEMENTS 



19 



AMUSEMENTS 



the Harvard Musical Association, and 
the Philharmonic Society; the ora- 
torio performances of the Handel and 
Haydn Society; and the concerts of 
the Cecilia, the Boylston Clnb, the 
Apollo Club, and the Euterpe, to the 
last four of which the tickets are 
distributed by the members, and are 
not for sale. [Sketches of each of 
these clubs, societies, and organiza- 
tions, will be found elsewhere in this 
volume.] The various " conserva- 
tories " give many concerts by their 
pupils ; and the legion of teachers and 
professional artists give their concerts 
from time to time, so that there is 
scarce an evening that does not offer 
an embarrassment of riches during the 
entire season, which lasts usually well 
into May. Even the announcements 
of the "lecture bureaus," which 
were once strictly lyceum lectures, 
are now concert series, with a few 
lectures by the celebrities of the hour, 
interspersed between the concerts. 
Of lectures, however, there is no lack. 
The courses of the Lowell Institute 
[see Lowell Institute} always attract 
crowded audiences, as do also those 
delivered under the auspices of other 
organizations or committees. The 
trouble of the modern Bostonian is 
now, not so much what shall he do 
to amuse himself, as what shall he 
choose out of the abundance of re- 
sources afforded him. In the summer 
season, of late years, suburban gar- 
dens, attractively fitted up, and pro- 
vided with " out-door theatres," offer 
the Bostonian, and the amusement- 
seeker tarrying in the town, out-of- 
door amusement in many places. The 
sea-shore resorts — Nantasket Beach, 
the Point of Pines at the farther end 
of Revere Beach, Nahant, Maolis 
Gardens, and Downer Landing — vie 
with each other, and with places like 
Oakland Garden, Forest Garden, and 
other similar resorts, in . variety of 
attractions, cheapness, and means of 
access by street-cars, steam-cars, and 
steamboats, all competing actively for 
the daily crowds of amusement-seekers. 



For those who fancy a quieter style of 
enjoyment, the immediate districts of 
the city offer endless charming resorts 
for drive or walk, in pleasant rural 
villages, easily reached v in half an hour 
or less by steam or street car ; and 
while awaiting the Parks that are to 
be [see Public Parks System], the 
suburbs of Boston offer its citizens 
one of the loveliest of parks within 
easy reach of all who choose. In the 
winter, when the weather permits, 
the roads leading from the city are 
alive with sleighs ; and the fast horses 
may be seen to the best of advantage 
on the famous Brighton Road, which 
is a continuation of Beacon Street ; 
while, for the lovers of skating, the 
rarest fields are open in the frozen crys- 
tal surfaces of Jamaica Pond, Fresh 
Pond, Spy Pond, and other beautiful 
spots within easy reach of the city. 
Within its limits the gamins blacken the 
surface of the historical Frog Pond on 
the Common, and the pond in the Pub- 
lic Garden ; and in some seasons rinks, 
covered, warmed, and lighted, receive 
those who desire shelter (and are will- 
ing to pay for it) from the nipping 
temperature of a New-England winter. 
There are also "roller-skating" rinks, 
brilliantly illuminated at night by the 
electric light. The boys of Boston, 
too, who are as fond as the boys of the 
Revolutionary days of the coast on the 
Common, find it protected for them in 
good coasting-weather, by the " city 
fathers ;" and when the coasting-season 
is protracted, temporary bridges are 
sprung over the coasts for the accom- 
modation of pedestrians along the 
paths. In the ball-playing season the 
grounds of the base-ball clubs attract 
multitudes of spectators interested in 
the so-called " national " game ; and in 
summer-time the banks of the Charles 
River are crowded with the multitudes 
eager to view the animated contests 
between rival boat-clubs, and the no 
less exciting races between single sculls 
and other small craft. [See Drama in 
Boston, Music in Boston, Sitburbs of 
Boston, and Summer Gardens.] 



ANCIENT AND HONORABLE ARTILLERY 



20 



ANCIENT AND HONORABLE ARTILLERY 



Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company (The). — The oldest mili- 
tary organization in the country. It 
was chartered in March, 1638, as "The 
Military Company of Boston ; " and 
Robert Keayne, one of the chief pro- 
moters of the new organization, was 
its first captain. It was not until 1657 
that it became an artillery company, 
when it was recognized as such by the 
General Court. The title " Ancient 
and Honorable " was assumed in 1700, 
first occurring in its records in Septem- 
ber of that year ; the " ancient " from 
its — even at that early day considered 
to be — great age, and the "honora- 
ble " from the fact that its captains and 
some of its earlier members had be- 
longed to the Honorable Artillery 
Company of London. The company 
was dispersed by the Revolution, and 
revived in 1789, when its name and 
privileges were confirmed by the Legis- 
lature. The anniversary of its organi- 
zation, the first Monday of June, is 
still celebrated by an annual parade. 
A sermon is preached to the company ; 
a good dinner eaten in Faneuil Hall, 
and speeches listened to ; and there- 
after all march to the Common, where 
the governor of the Commonwealth 
delivers to the newly elected officers 
their commissions (running for one 
year only), and the insignia of their 
offices. In the early days of the colony 
this company was the chief school in 
which the military art was learned, and 
names of many of its members may be 
found among those who took part in 
the early wars in which the colony was 
involved. Then, says Dr. Coleman, 
in a sermon preached to the company 
in 1738, "the natives trembled when 
they saw them train, and old as well as 
young stood still and reverenced them 
as they passed along in martial order." 
After two hundred and forty years the 
company is only the shadow of a great 
name. Its anniversary is still cele- 
brated, however : and its parade is still 
looked on by the natives with interest 
if not with reverence ; for in its ranks 
are several whose names were known 



in the great Civil War, — indeed, men 
who earned the rank of major-general 
of volunteers have been seen march- 
ing as privates in the line. For many 
years the company was largely made 
up of officers of other military organi- 
zations, who were privileged to wear 
the uniform of their respective corps ; 
and thus the ranks presented a rather 
motley show when they " trained." 
Now, however, the most of the mem- 
bers wear a modern uniform, and the 
color-guard the Continental uniform ; 
and they march in a soldierly fashion, 
though the local wits like to chaff in 
a good-humored way at their drill. 
The members still retain their ancient 
privilege of exemption from jury-duty, 
a feature which is a strong influence 
with some joining its ranks. " Artil- 
lery Election Day " in June, and the 
" Fall Field-Day " are the great occa- 
sions with the company during the 
year, though it has other occasional 
parades and holidays. The " Election 
Sermon," referred to above, has been 
preached before the company annually 
since 1639, with the exception of five 
years during the Andros Government. 
The headquarters of the company are 
in Faneuil-hall building, and its armory 
is quite a museum. In December, 
188 1, on " Forefathers' Day," "the cen- 
tury box " of the company was sealed, 
not to be opened for 50 years, while a 
smaller box within it is to remain un- 
opened for 1 00 years. The box contains' 
a long and valuable list of documents, 
newspapers, badges, photographs, and 
memorials. The manuscript matter 
amounts to nearly a thousand pages. 
Following is a complete list of the 
papers : Poem, John D. Long (then 
governor of the State) ; The Relation of 
Government to Education in the United 
States, Charles W. Eliot (president of 
Harvard College) ; The Religious Con- 
dition of Boston, the Rev. Edward 
Everett Haje ; Recollections of Boston, 
Josiah Quincy; Ancient and Honora- 
ble Artillery Company, Past and Pres- 
ent, Ben : Perley Poore ; Manners and 
Customs, the Rev. Edward A. Horton : 






ANCIENT AND HONORABLE ARTILLERY 



ANDREW, STATUE OF GOVERNOR 



Art in Boston, Charles C. Perkins; 
Architecture, Henry Webster Hart- 
well ; Army of the United States, 
Alanson Merwin Randol ; Militia of 
Massachusetts, Abraham Hun Berry 
(then adjutant-general of the State); 
Boston Fire-Department, Past and 
Present, "John E. Fitzgerald (member 
of the fire-commission of the city) ; 
Progress of New-England Agriculture, 
Marshall Pinckney Wilder ; Bar, Law, 
and Lawyers, Seth James Thomas ; 
Medicine and Surgery, Dr. Morrill 
Wyman ; Amusements, Charles H. 
Pattee; Secret Societies, John Lind- 
say Stevenson; Finance, War Debt, 
and Stocks, Henry P. Kidder; Com- 
merce and Navigation, Robert Bennet 
Forbes; Commerce, Ships, and Navi- 
gagtion, Alanson Wilder Beard (then 
collector of the port of Boston) ; Rise 
and Growth of the Clothing Trade, 
Isaac Fenno ; Sketch of Rise and 
Progress of the Manufacture of Wool, 
George William Bond ; Shoe and 
Leather Business, Gen. Augustus P. 
Martin; Fisheries and Fishing-Inter- 
est, William A. Wilcox; Paper and 
Paper-Making, Byron Weston (then 
lieutenant-governor of the State) ; Re- 
port of the Committee on Box for 
1980, Edward Wyman; Railroads and 
Railroad Interests, Albert A. Folsom 
(superintendent of the Boston and 
Providence Railroad). The inscription 
is as follows : — 

To the Commander of the Ancient and Hon- 
orable Artillery Cqjnpany of Massachu- 
setts for 1980-1981 : — 
The contents of this box have been collected 

in accordance with a vote of the Ancient and 

Honorable Artillery Company, passed Sept. 13, 

1880. 

Sealed in Faneuil Hall, Boston, Dec. 22, 

1881, not to be opened until Sept. 17, 1980. 

Committee, Col. Edward Wyman, Major 

Charles W. Stevens, Capt. John L. Stevenson, 

Capt. Albert A. Folsom, Lieut. George H. 

Allen. Commander 1881-1882, Capt. William 

H. Cundy. 

The box was sealed with much cere- 
mony at a public meeting in Faneuil 
Hall, at which speeches were made by 
representative men. Capt. John Mack 
is the commander for 1882. 



Andrew, Statue of Governor. — 

The marble statue standing in the 
north-west corner of Doric Hall, in 
the State House, a place in which for 
many years the figure of Gov. An- 
drew was a very familiar one. It rep- 
resents the great " war governor " as 
he will long be remembered by all who 
knew him and saw him in those event- 
ful days as he appeared, when, stand- 
ing upon the lower steps of the State 
House on Beacon Street, he received 
the marching salute of the regiments 
of Massachusetts, and sent them to the 
front with ringing words of patriotism 
that did not a little to nerve their 
souls ; or as he welcomed them home 
again when returning on furlough to 
recruit their decimated ranks, during 
the darker days of the Civil War ; or 
when he received their tattered and 
battle-worn banners on the proud day 
when the victorious columns for the 
last time saluted him, the governor of 
their beloved State, and their honored 
commander-in-chief. The statue is 
the work of Thomas Ball, a native of 
Charlestown, but long resident in Flor- 
ence, Italy ; and was presented to the 
State, and unveiled, Feb. 14, 187 1. It 
was paid for out of the balance re- 
maining of the fund subscribed for the 
Edward Everett statue in the Public 
Garden [see Everett Statue], which 
largely exceeded the sum required for 
that work. The cost of the Andrew 
statue was $10,000. It is regarded 
by many as an admirable likeness. 
The late George B. Woods, one of the 
most brilliant Boston journalists of his 
day, a close critic and a man of excel- 
lent judgment, said of this statue, in 
an essay on " Our Portrait Statues," 
" It is not only a faithful portraiture 
(always Mr. Ball's strong point), but 
■there is something better than literal 
likeness about it — an incorporation 
into the marble of the noble nature of 
the man, which is the highest achieve- 
ment of art. . . . Altogether the statue 
moves the spectator to hearty liking; 
and we feel sure that it will grow into 
the popular heart as it stands close 



ANNEXATIONS 



22 



APARTMENT HOUSES 



by where the governor toiled and 
thought through five exhausting years, 
surrounded by the tattered flags of the. 
thousands of Massachusetts boys, who, 
like him, gave their utmost effort for 
nationality and liberty, and many of 
whom, like him, sealed the sacrifice 
with death." [See Statues and Monu- 
ments^ 

Annexations. — The territory of 
Boston was for many years limited to 
the peninsula on which the older por- 
tion of the city is built, which was con- 
nected by the long and narrow neck 
with Roxbury. Then by the filling of 
flats, and still more by successive an- 
nexations, the outline of the city was 
extended and changed on every side. 
What is now known as South Boston 
was first annexed, in 1804; Noddle's 
Island, now East Boston, acquired in 
1830; the city of Roxbury, annexed in 
1867 ; the town of Dorchester, in 
1869 ; an d the city of Charlestown and 
towns of Brighton and West Roxbury, 
in 1873. The territory annexed in- 
creased the area of the city by 20,863 
acres; so that it is now 36.7 square 
miles, as against 783 acres, its original 
area. The increase by annexation in 
valuation is shown by the following 
figures : Roxbury, when it united with 
the city, reported a total valuation of 
$26,551,700; Dorchester, $20,315,700; 
Charlestown, $35,289,682; Brighton, 
$14,548,531 ; West Roxbury, $22,148,- 
600. The aggregate valuation of Bos- 
ton and Roxbury in 1867, when the 
latter was annexed, was $471,497,800; 
in 1869, when Dorchester was added, 
$569,827,300; and in 1873, when the 
others were annexed, $765,818,213. 
The population added was about 107,- 
380. Of this total, Roxbury brought 
about 40,000 ; Dorchester, 20,000 - r 
Charlestown, 32,040 ; Brighton exactly 
5,978 ; and West Roxbury 10,361. [See 
Areas, also Valuation of Boston, and 
Population of Boston?^ 

Antiquarian Club (The). — See 
Bostonian Society, The. 



Apartment - Houses, or Family- 
Hotels. — The mode of living in 
suites, after the French and Conti- 
nental system of dwellings, has grown 
rapidly into favor in Boston within a 
few years ; and there are now about 183 
of these houses within the city limits, 
a large number of them inviting in 
appearance, admirably arranged, well 
appointed, and attractively designed. 
The system gained its foothold in 
America by its introduction in Bos- 
ton, and its popularity is well attested 
by the rapid increase of apartment- 
houses in New York and other cities. 
The first building of the "French 
flats " or " family-hotel " class in Bos- 
ton was the Hotel Pel ham, at the cor- 
ner of Tremont and Boylston Streets, 
built about twenty years ago by Dr. 
John H. Dix. At the widening of 
Tremont Street this building was 
raised up bodily, and moved about 
twenty feet down Boylston Street, with- 
out disturbing the occupants, or in the 
least disarranging the interior. This 
feat of engineering occasioned much 
remark at the time, as it was the first 
instance of the moving of such a large 
mass of masonry. Over on the oppo- 
site corner of Tremont and Boylston 
Streets is the Hotel Boylston, another 
one of the earlier buildings originally 
erected as an apartment-house. This 
is owned by Charles Francis Adams. 
It is, like the Pelham, thoroughly built 
in every particular, and arranged with 
an eye to the comfort and convenience 
of the occupants. In this building, as 
in several of the structures of this 
class of a later date, the kitchens are 
at the top of the building. The greater 
portion of the costly apartment-houses, 
and many of the less pretentious, have 
passenger-elevators. Several of the 
newer houses, particularly those erect- 
ed in the Back-Bay district and the 
avenues of the South End, are elegant 
structures, equally beautiful in exterior 
and interior decorations ; and in some 
of them the modern decorative artist 
has had an opportunity lavishly to dis- 
play his art. The rents of suites in 



APARTMENT HOUSES 



23 



APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN CLUB 



apartment-houses range from $400 and 
$500 up to $2,000 and $3,000, and 
higher ; and the suites vary in size and 
number of rooms, as they do in the ele- 
gance of their finish and convenience, 
in proportion to the price. The price 
paid for the rent generally includes 
the steam-heat and the service of the 
janitor, who performs the heaviest 
drudgery. Among the finest of these 
houses are the Hotel Pelham, before 
mentioned, which is assessed for $273,- 
000; the Boylston, also above men- 
tioned, assessed for $276,000 ; Hotel 
Cluny, and the Berkeley, on Boylston 
Street, Back-bay district, the former 
assessed for $140,000, and the latter 
for $238,000; the Hamilton, assessed 
for $165,000, and the Agassiz, $166,000, 
both on Commonwealth Avenue ; the 
Huntington, on Huntington and St. 
James Avenues, $160,000; the Bristol, 
opposite Trinity, $155,000; the Edin- 
burgh, $100,000, Hoffman, $224,000, 
Berwick, $142,000, Lafayette, $102,- 
000, all on Columbus Avenue ; and 
the St. Cloud, No. 565 Tremont Street, 
$104,000. Others, in different sections 
of the city proper rank in the first 
class ; and in the Roxbury and Dor- 
chester districts are several which com- 
mand high prices, and are almost 
always fully occupied. Of the most 
prominent in the Roxbury district, are 
the Dartmouth, Comfort, and Eliot; 
and, in the Dorchester district, the Dor- 
chester, on Hancock Street. "Down 
town," in the city proper, are a num- 
ber of buildings which have long been, 
in part, arranged for dwellers in suites ; 
and delightful and most convenient 
quarters are found in them. Note- 
worthy among these are the Coolidge 
House, on Bowdoin Square ; the Pa- 
vilion, No. 57 Tremont Street ; and 
the Albion, on the corner of Beacon 
and Tremont Streets. In the old 
West End, during the past year or 
two, several spacious dwellings have 
also been re-ar.ranged and enlarged for 
apartments. The latest of these are 
on the corner of Mount-Vernon and 
West Cedar Streets, which is as yet un- 



named ; and on Mount-Vernon Street, 
a few doors from Beacon, opposite the 
side of the State House. In the Back- 
bay district a noteworthy addition to 
the apartment-houses of the first class 
is to be the extensive and elegant 
Oxford, on Huntington Avenue, nearly 
opposite the Hotel Huntington. 

Appalachian Mountain Club. — 
An organization whose objects are to 
explore the mountains of New Eng- 
land and the adjacent regions, both 
for scientific and artistic purposes, and 
in general to cultivate an interest in 
geographical studies. Its members 
make frequent expeditions to these 
mountains, strike out new paths, es- 
tablish camps, construct and publish 
accurate maps, and collect all availa- 
ble information concerning the moun- 
tain regions. It also collects and 
makes available the results of scat- 
tered observations of all kinds, which, 
though of little value each by itself, 
may be of great use when brought to- 
gether. The club holds field-meetings 
during the summer season, incidentally 
organizing expeditions to accessible 
points of interest, and in the winter 
meets monthly in the hall of the Insti- 
tute of. Technology, its headquarters 
in this city, for the transaction of busi- 
ness, and the presentation and discus- 
sion of papers. It also holds an annual 
social reception in Boston during the 
winter. The papers read at its monthly 
meetings are published in the form of 
an occasional magazine, entitled " Ap- 
palachia ; " and it is accumulating a 
useful and valuable library for the use 
of its members. The club has about 
480 active members ; about 30 corre- 
sponding members in different sec- 
tions of the country, who are interested 
in its objects ; and several honorary 
members. Membership is secured by 
election by ballot, an affirmative vote 
of two-thirds of the members present 
and voting being necessary. The 
nominations must first be made in 
writing, by at least two members, and 
forwarded to the council, whose ap- 



APOLLO CLUB 



24 



ARCH-SOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 



proval is necessary. The admission- 
fee is $3, and the annual assessment 
$3 ; no assessment other than the ad- 
mission-fee being required of a mem- 
ber during six months succeeding his 
election. A person can become a life- 
member on the payment of $30. He 
is thereafter exempt from the pay- 
ment of fees or assessments of any 
kind. The government of the club is 
vested in a president and vice-presi- 
dent, recording and corresponding sec- 
retaries, treasurer, and five council- 
lors ; these officers constituting the 
council. The five councillors are 
chosen to represent, severally, the 
departments of Natural History, To- 
pography, Art, Exploration, and Im- 
provements. The president of the 
club (1883) is the Rev. John Worces- 
ter, D.D. ; vice-president, A. E. Scott ; 
corresponding secretary, Professor 
Charles F. Fay, Tufts College; treas- 
urer, Charles W. Kennard : council- 
lors, Professor Charles E. Hamlin, 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard College ; Professor J. Rayner 
Edmands, Harvard College Observa- 
tory ; Miss Susan Hale ; Eugene B. 
Cook; and Dr. W. B. Parker. The 
club was formed in 1876, and re-organ- 
ized and incorporated in April, 1878. 
Its annual meeting occurs in January. 

Apollo Club (The). — A musical 
organization composed of male voices 
exclusively, and devoted to the singing 
of part-songs and choruses composed 
for such voices. It was started in 
187 1 by a few leading singers in 
church-choirs in this city, and in 1873 
was incorporated. During its first year 
it was composed of 52 active singing 
members, and 500 associate or sub- 
scribing members, who for an annual 
assessment receive tickets to all the 
concerts by the club. These are given 
at intervals during the season each 
year, generally in Music Hall: they 
are not public, and no tickets are sold, 
but admission is by tickets issued by 
the members of the club. They are of 
a high order of excellence, and are 



always crowded, admission to them 
being eagerly sought. The club has 
on a few occasions sung in a semi- 
public manner, by request of the au- 
thorities of the State or of the city; 
as at the funeral of Charles Sumner, 
the centennial celebration of Bunker 
Hill, and the State reception to Presi- 
dent Hayes in 1877. Some of the 
finest vocalists of the neighborhood 
have been included among its active 
members, and many of the best citi- 
zens among its associates. It has 
had from the start Mr. B. J. Lang as 
its conductor, to whom its success is 
largely to be attributed. The late 
Judge John Phelps Putnam was for 
many years its president ; and in the 
ceremonies at his funeral in January, 
1882, the club took part. The presi- 
dent (1883) is Robert M. Morse, jun. 
The number of its active members 
varies from 60 to 70 ; but the number 
of associate members has always been 
fixed at 500, that limit having been set 
at the formation of the club. It has 
convenient club-rooms, and a small 
hall for its private weekly rehearsals, 
at No. 151 Tremont Street. [See 
Music in Boston^ 

Archaeological Institute of Amer- 
ica (The). — An association of scholars 
and others interested in archaeology, 
formed in 1879, f° r tne purpose of 
"promoting and directing archaeologi- 
cal investigation and research by the 
sending-out of expeditions for special 
investigation, by aiding the efforts of 
independent explorers, by publication 
of the reports of the results of the expe- 
ditions which the Institute may under- 
take or promote, and by other means 
which may from time to time appear 
desirable." It consists of life-members 
contributing at one time not less than 
$100 to its funds, of annual members 
contributing not less than $10, and of 
honorary members. Its government is 
vested in an executive committee, con- 
sisting of the president, vice-president, 
treasurer, secretary, and five ordinary 
members, all excepting the secretary 



25 



ARCHITECTURE 



and treasurer chosen by the ballot of 
the life and annual members. The 
secretary and treasurer are chosen by 
the president, vice-president, and five 
ordinary members elected to the ex- 
ecutive committee. The executive 
committee have full power to deter- 
mine the work to be undertaken by 
the Institute, and the mode- of its ac- 
complishment. The Institute has fos- 
tered expeditions for exploration in 
Yucatan, Mexico, New Mexico, and in 
the Old World to Assos. Valuable 
discoveries have been made by the 
agents of the Institute in both these 
directions. Under the direction of the 
Institute, an American school of classi- 
cal studies has been established in Ath- 
ens through the co-operation of the 
leading universities and colleges of 
the country. The president of the 
Archaeological Institute is Professor 
Charles Eliot Norton, of Cambridge; 
Martin Brimmer of Boston is vice-pres- 
ident ; the " five ordinary members " of 
the executive committee are Francis 
Parkman, William W. Goodwin, Henry 
W. Haynes, Alexander Agassiz, and 
William R. Ware. Henry L. Higgin- 
son of Boston is treasurer, and Edward 
H. Greenleaf secretary. The annual 
meetings of the Institute are held in 
Boston, on the third Saturday in May; 
and special meetings are held at the 
call of the executive committee. 

Archery. — The bow and arrow, 
once the main reliance in battle of the 
armies of England, and ever memora- 
ble in the ballads of Robin Hood and 
his merry outlaws, has long since be- 
come as thoroughly the weapon of a 
state of peace as even the needle it- 
self ; and with young women of fashion, 
particularly, the bow is becoming very 
much more popular than the needle. 
As a summer pastime, archery has for 
the past century been very popular in 
England ; but its introduction into this 
country is of quite recent date. It is 
thought to be destined soon to prove a 
formidable rival of croquet and tennis. 
It has scarcelv as vet obtained so much 



of a foothold in Boston as in some 
Western cities : nevertheless, in the 
season, the lawns of many suburb- 
an villas are gay with targets, gayly- 
decked tents, bright dresses, and the 
merry laugh of the contestants for 
supremacy with the bow; and many 
private clubs exist, dedicated to this 
pleasant out-of-door sport, which unites 
both sexes so agreeably in the prose- 
cution of these amicable contests. 
The archer's outfit is the same as is 
required by the English rules of the 
game ; and every thing requisite is 
now manufactured in this country in 
the best manner, and is to be pro- 
cured at the shops devoted to providing 
outfits in the various departments of 
athletics, of which there are quite a 
number in the city. 

Architecture and Architects. — 

Boston was the first city in America 
to pay attention to its architectural 
appearance ; and to-day it has the 
reputation of being architecturally the 
handsomest city in the country, with 
the exception of Washington with its 
public buildings. Although there is 
much to criticise in the way of indi- 
vidual features, the total effect of the 
city is one of substantial construction 
and finished appearance ; and few 
other cities in the world can surpass 
the magnificence of the business quar- 
ter, or the beauty of the finest resi- 
dence section. In the Colonial period, 
slight attention was given to archi- 
tectural effect, although the method 
of building now and then afforded 
some picturesqueness of line and 
form. In the Provincial period, the 
fine mansions and public buildings 
were constructed after English models. 
King's Chapel was built from designs 
by Peter Harrison, an English archi- 
tect. The pioneer Boston architect 
was Charles Bulfinch, born in 1763. 
His first work was the monumental 
column on Beacon Hill, which was 
destroyed with the cutting-down of 
the summit. In 1793 he designed the 
first theatre in Boston; and on the 



ARCHITECTURE 



26 



ARCHITECTURE 



medal struck and given him in honor 
of the event, is a copy of the front 
elevation, which shows that in external 
appearance no theatre in Boston has 
since approached the Federal-street 
structure in dignity or beauty. Bul- 
finch also designed the Tontine Cres- 
cent, and buildings on Franklin Place, 
now Franklin Street, — the first at- 
tempt here to build houses in blocks. 
He next designed the State House, 
followed by many other public and 
private buildings, including the old 
Catholic Cathedral, New-North and 
New-South Churches, Boylston Mar- 
ket, Massachusetts General Hospital, 
and the insane-asylum at South Bos- 
ton. He was appointed by President 
Monroe architect of the Capitol at 
Washington, and held the office for 
twelve years. He died in 1844. Next 
to Bulfmch came Solomon Willard, 
born at Petersham, Mass., in 1783. 
His principal works were St. Paul's 
Church, on Tremont Street (in con- 
junction with Alexander Parris), the 
Court House, and the Bunker-hill 
Monument. Parris built the Quincy 
Market. The architectural styles here 
have followed closely the prevailing 
ones of the same periods in Europe. - 
Thus, early in this century, there was 
a Greek revival, the principal monu- 
ments of which are St. Paul's Church, 
the Court House, Quincy Market, the 
Tremont House, and the Custom 
House, beside the absurd suburban 
houses with wooden Doric columns. 
Then followed a Gothic period, about 
1835, beginning with the Masonic 
Temple (now the United-States Court- 
House) and the old Trinity Church, as 
leading examples. Next came the 
" French-roof " style, giving hundreds 
of wooden country-houses a bald and 
boxy look. The first French-roof 
building in this country was probably 
the Deacon House, on Washington, 
Concord, and Worcester Streets, built 
about 1850, and now occupied by the 
Normal Art School. In 1850 there 
were built also two good examples of 
Italian Renaissance, — the Boston Mu- 



seum and the Boston Athenaeum. With 
the increase of foreign travel, the influ- 
ence of foreign models was strongly 
felt in a great variety of styles, each 
of which had its devotees, — Northern 
Gothic, Southern Gothic, Romanesque, 
and Renaissance. French Renaissance 
became especially popular, and is the 
style of many business and public 
buildings, * including the City Hall, 
Horticultural Hall, and the Post-Office ; 
while Gothic has remained the favor- 
ite for churches. A peculiarity of 
Boston architecture is the richness 
and variety of the building-material. 
The keynote of the city is red brick, 
which has lately become popular again : 
but beside, there is an abundance of 
light, dark, and red granite ; a variety 
of marble ; brown, yellow, and buff 
sandstone ; Roxbury pudding-stone, 
and other materials. Granite is pecu- 
liarly a Boston stone, and the finest ex- 
ample of its right use was the Beacon- 
hill reservoir, demolished in 1882-3, 
pronounced by a high authority, Mr. C. 
A. Cummings, as " perhaps the noblest 
piece of architecture in the city." 
Other imposing granite structures are 
the massive granite blocks on Com- 
mercial Street, and at the foot of State 
Street. The finest recent architectural 
opportunities have been the rebuilding 
of the business section of " the burnt 
district," laid low by fire in 1872, 
where much fine architecture was de- 
stroyed; and the building-up of the 
Back-bay district, with its public build- 
ings and palatial dwellings. In the 
" burnt district," the modern Gothic, 
which had shortly before come into 
vogue, and the Renaissance, were the 
popular styles. Notable examples of 
the modern Gothic in Boston are the 
Museum of Fine Arts — the first ex- 
ample of the extensive use of terra- 
cotta in Boston — and the Boston and 
Providence Railroad Station. The 
modern Gothic has now been super- 
seded by the Queen Anne (so called), 
the reigning style, which seems particu- 
larly adapted to picturesque and com- 
fortable dwellings. Among the leading 



AREA OF BOSTON 



27 



ARLINGTON CLUB 



architects in Boston are Cummings & 
Sears (architects of New Old-South, 
Sears Building, Montgomery Building), 
Ware & Van Brunt (now Van Brunt 
& Howe), (First Church, Harvard 
Memorial Hall, Union Railway Station 
in Worcester, new Harvard Medical 
School, Stone Hall at Wellesley Col- 
lege, Protestant-Episcopal Theological 
School at Cambridge), Peabody & 
Stearns (Boston and Providence Rail- 
road Station, New York Mutual Life- 
insurance Building, Hotel Brunswick), 
N. J. Bradlee (New-England Mutual 
Life-insurance Building), H. H. Rich- 
ardson (Trinity and new Brattle- 
square Churches, Woburn Public 
Library, North-Easton Public Library 
and Ames Memorial Hall in the same 
place, Sever Hall in Cambridge), 
Gridley J. F. Bryant (formerly Bryant 
& Gilman, and Bryant & Rogers), (City 
Hall, Horticultural Hall, Merchants' 
Bank), Sturgis & Brigham (Museum of 
Fine Arts), George A. Clough, city 
architect (Latin and English High 
School Building). To these and other 
highly talented architects, too numer- 
ous to mention, are also due many of 
the finest business structures and 
dwellings. With the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology there is con- 
nected a fine department of architect- 
ure, — the first school established in 
the United States for its systematic 
instruction. [See Institute of Tech- 
nology] 

Area of Boston. — The town of 
Boston was originally a pear-shaped 
peninsula, connected by a narrow 
neck of land with the town of Rox- 
bury. " It hung to the mainland at 
Roxbury," says one writer, "by a slen- 
der stem, or neck, of a mile in length, 
so low and narrow between tide-washed 
flats that it was often submerged." 
In its extreme length it was less than 
two miles, and its greatest breadth 
was a little more than one. Now its 
original 783 acres have been expanded 
by the reclamation of the broad, oozy 
salt marshes, the estuaries, coverts, 



and bays, once stretching wide on its 
southern and northern bounds, to 1,829 
acres of solid land, and where the 
area was the narrowest it is now the 
widest ; and by the absorption of 
what are now South Boston and East 
Boston, and the annexation of the old 
cities of Roxbury and Charlestown, 
and the towns of Dorchester, West 
Roxbury, and Brighton [see Annexa- 
tions], its area has increased to 23,661 
acres (36.7 square miles), — more than 
thirty times as great as the original 
expanse. The area of the districts is 
as follows : South Boston (once Dor- 
chester Neck), acquired in 1804, 1,002 
acres ; East Boston (formerly Noddle's 
Island), acquired in 1830, 836 acres ; 
Roxbury, annexed in 1867, 2,700 acres ; 
Dorchester, the same year, 5,614 ; 
Charlestown, in 1873, 5^6 ; Brighton, 
the same year, 2,277 ; West Roxbury, 
the same year, 7,848. Breed's Island, 
in the harbor, over which Boston's au- 
thority also extends, contains 785 
acres ; and Deer Island, 184. The 
number of feet of marshland flats 
within the present city limits is 123,- 
268,652. The extreme length of the 
city, from north to south, is 11 miles, 
and the breadth from east to west, 9 
miles. The distance across the busi- 
ness section of the city, from the har- 
bor to Charles River, is a mile and a 
quarter. 

Aristides "the Just," Statue of. 
— This stands at the north end of the 
enclosure running through the centre of 
Louisburg Square, which extends from 
Mount-Vernon to Pinckney Streets, 
and was laid out on the site of Black- 
stone's garden. [See Blackstone] It 
is of Italian marble and workmanship, 
and was imported by the late Joseph 
Iasigi, long a prominent Boston mer- 
chant, and given by him to the city. 
It was erected in December, 1849. 
[See Statues and Monuments] 

Arlington Club. — A singing-club 
of male voices, with associate mem- 
bers, organized after the pattern of the 
Apollo and Boylston Clubs. [See 



ARLINGTON-ST. CHURCH 



28 



ARLINGTON-ST. CHURCH 



these clubs.] It gives concerts during 
the musical season, generally in the 
Tremont Temple or the Meionaon, at 
each of which its own singers are as- 
sisted by one or more professional 
artists. The music sung is of the high 
standard which is maintained by the 
other leading singing-clubs of the city, 
organized primarily for the cultivation 
of the art of music, and the elevation 
of the public taste. William J. Winch, 
No. 149 A Tremont Street, is the con- 
ductor of the club. It was established 
in 1879, an d ex-Gov. John D. Long 
was its first president. [See Music in 
Boston^ 

Arlington-street Church. — The 

church on the corner of Arlington and 
Boylston Streets, known as the Arling- 
ton-street Church, is the place of wor- 
ship of the society (Unitarian) long 
known as the Federal-street Church, 
of which the celebrated Rev. William 
Ellery Channing, D.D., the centenary 
of whose birth was widely observed in 
1881, was for many years pastor. The 
structure is of freestone, of the Eng- 
lish style of the time of Sir Christo- 
pher Wren, and was the first church 
built in the " Back-bay district." The 
architectural design reminds one forci- 
bly of many of the London churches. 
A fine chime of bells (too seldom 
heard) hangs in the tower. The Boyl- 
ston-street side of the building is 
adorned by thick masses of American 
ivy. The society, when formed in 
1727, was Presbyterian. A barn on 
Long Lane (now Federal Street) was 
its first place of worship. In 1744 a 
modest church-building replaced the 
barn; and in 1809 a brick church was 
built in place of the wooden building ; 
and this in turn was taken down in 
1859, when it had become isolated in 
the midst of the business quarters of 
the city, and the present church was 
erected and occupied. In the first 
church-building, the sessions of the 
State convention at which the Constitu- 
tion of the United States was ratified, 
in 1788, were held. The Presbyterian 



form of government was changed by 
the society for the Congregational form 
in 1786, and W. E. Channing struck 
the liberal tone. When he was invited 
to become the pastor of the church, 
he was a licentiate of the Cambridge 
Association. He had also received a 
call from the then large and prosper- 
ous Brattle-square Church ; but diffi- 
dent as to his abilities, and not sure 
of his health, he chose the smaller 
society. When he was licensed to 
preach, it was supposed that he would 
enlist on the side of orthodoxy ; but he 
was even then an Arian, and, when the 
famous Unitarian controversy started, 
became one of the foremost speakers 
and writers on the Unitarian side. He 
was the pastor of this church from 
1803 to 1842, and during that time 
made the Federal-street pulpit famous, 
and established his great reputation, 
not only as a preacher and writer, but 
as an accomplished scholar. He was 
succeeded by Ezra Stiles Gannett, 
D.D., who had been the associate pas- 
tor since 1824. Dr. Gannett's service 
continued until his tragic death in 
187 1, in the dreadful accident on the 
Eastern Railroad known as the " Re- 
vere disaster." Dr. Gannett early 
established his reputation as a man of 
profound scholarship, and as a writer 
and editor, as well as a preacher. He 
was interested in many philanthropic 
works. At the time of his death he 
was seventy years of age. His suc- 
cessor was the late Rev. John F. W. 
Ware, who came to Boston from Bal- 
timore. He resigned in 1879 on ac " 
count of ill health. He died on Feb. 
26, 1 88 1. From the time of Mr. Ware's 
resignation to 1882, the church was 
without a settled pastor. In June, 
1882, the Rev. Brooke Herford of Chi- 
cago was called ; and he accepted the 
invitation, his pastorate beginning in 
the autumn, when he was ordained in 
September with very simple services. 
Mr. Herford is an Englishman, born 
in Manchester in 1830 ; and he began 
his career in this country in 1875, 
when he succeeded Robert Laird Coll- 



ARMSTRONG TRANSFER 



2 9 



ARMY AND NAVY MONUMENT 



ier as pastor of the Church of the 
Messiah in Chicago. [See Unitari- 
anism and Unitarian {Congregational) 
Churches^ 

Armstrong Transfer System 
(The), for the prompt and convenient 
transportation of passengers and bag- 
gage to and from railway-stations, ho- 
tels, and dwellings, long in operation 
in New York, was introduced in Bos- 
ton, with new features and improve- 
ments, in the spring of 1882. A central 
office, established in the Rogers Build- 
ing, No. 211 Washington Street, nearly- 
opposite the head of State Street, is 
connected by telephone and private 
wire with other offices of the company 
at the railway-stations, hotels, and dif- 
ferent sections of the city, and also with 
the general telephonic system of the 
city. An order to the central office, 
by telephone or otherwise, "to call" 
at any hotel, dwelling, or apartment, for 
passengers or baggage, is transmitted 
immediately to the branch office near- 
est the place from which the order 
comes ; and a carriage or baggage-van 
is despatched to the place of call in 
response. The owner of baggage for- 
warded to a station or steamboat-land- 
ing is given the company's " claim- 
check " on the baggage-room of the 
station or landing, by which his prop- 
erty is at once identified for checking ; 
and when baggage is forwarded from 
a station or steamboat-landing, or from 
point to point in the city, a similar 
"claim-check" on the hotel, dwelling, 
apartment, or other address, is given, 
which the owner only surrenders, and 
receipts himself, or causes to be re- 
ceipted, when his baggage reaches its 
destination. On inward-bound trains 
and incoming steamboats, orders are 
taken for the transfer of baggage ; and 
passengers giving them receive their 
" claim-checks " before the station or 
landing is reached, so that all confu- 
sion is avoided. Carriages can also be 
secured on an incoming train or boat 
for shopping or transfer ; and no bag- 
gage will be placed upon them, all 



baggage being transferred on baggage- 
vans. The company proposes to intro- 
duce small passenger " broughams," 
somewhat after the English pattern, 
their drivers to wear a uniform. By 
the consolidation of all the baggage 
deliveries into one company, uniform 
rates are secured. 

Army and Wavy Monument. — 
This stands on the highest point of the 
Common, long known as " Flagstaff 
Hill," or Monument Hill as it is now 
called. The memorial was originated 
by an order of the City Council, March 
8, 1866. The design of Martin Mil- 
more was accepted from those offered 
in competition, and a contract was 
made with him for $75,000. The cor- 
ner-stone was laid Sept. 18, 187 1, on 
which occasion there was a great pa- 
rade ; and the work completed and 
dedicated Sept. 17, 1877. On the latter 
occasion there was a memorable dem- 
onstration. There was a great proces- 
sion, over 25,000 men in line, including 
the militia of the State, the veterans 
of the Grand Army, leading generals 
of the civil war, the State and city offi- 
cials, civic societies, school-children, 
etc. ; an oration was pronounced by 
the then attorney-general of the United 
States, Major-Gen. Charles Devens, 
one of the most conspicuous officers 
from Massachusetts who served during 
the war, and at present one of the asso- 
ciate justices on the supreme bench of 
Massachusetts ; and among the many 
people of distinction attending the 
ceremonies were the President of the 
United States and most of the members 
of his cabinet. The monument is of 
granite, a decorated Doric column, 
crowned by a bronze ideal statue of the 
Genius of America. The base is of 
four projecting pedestals, supporting 
bronze statues representing the Sol- 
dier, the Sailor, History, and Peace. 
Between these are bronze bas-reliefs, 5 
feet 6 inches in length by 2 feet 6 inches 
in width, representing 'the Departure 
of the Regiment, the Sanitary Commis- 
sion, a Naval Action, and the Return 



ARMY AND NAVY MONUMENT 



30 



ARMY AND NAVY MONUMENT 



from the War and Surrender of the 
Battle-flags to the governor. All these 
reliefs give portraits of well-known citi- 
zens represented as taking part in these 
scenes. The Departure of the Regi- 
ment introduces portraits of Gov. An- 
drew, Archbishop Williams, A. H. 
Vinton, D.D., Phillips Brooks, D.D., 
Wendell Phillips, Henry W. Long- 
fellow, and others. These figures are 
represented as standing on the State- 
House steps ; while with the troops 
marching by are Gen. B. F. Butler, 
Gen. Reed, Col. Cass, Col. Shaw, and 
Gen. Charles Russell Lowell. The 
relief symbolizing the work of the Sani- 
tary Commission has two parts; one 
showing the prominent members of the 
commission from Boston in consulta- 
tion, the other representing the work 
in the field. Portraits are given of 
Gov. Alexander H. Rice, James Rus- 
sell Lowell, Ezra H. Gannett, D.D., E. 
R. Mudge, George Ticknor, Marshall 
P. Wilder, Coi. W.W. Clapp, the Rev. 
Edward E. Hale, and several ladies. 
The Return from the War is the most 
elaborate relief. It represents a regi- 
ment drawn up in front of the State 
House. On the steps are Gov. An- 
drew, Dr. Edward Revnolds, Henry 
Wilson, Gov. Claflin, Mayor Shurtleff, 
Judge Putnam, Charles Sumner, and 
others. Gens. Banks, Devens, Bartlett, 
and Underwood are on horseback. 
The relief commemorating the achieve- 
ments of the navy is also in two parts. 
One showing a group of eleven figures 
represents the departure of sailors from 
home, and the other is a view of a 
naval engagement. At the base of the 
shaft itself are four figures, represent- 
ing the North, South, East, and West. 
Sculptured wreaths surround the shaft 
at irregular intervals. The capstone 
is a circular block of granite, 2 feet 11 
inches high, and 5 feet in diameter ; 
and on it the statue of the Genius of 
America stands. This represents a 
female figure dressed in a flowing robe, 
over which is a loose tunic bound with 
a girdle at the waist. A heavy man- 
tle, clasped at the throat, is thrown 



back over the shoulder, and falls the 
full length of the figure behind. On 
the head is a crown with thirteen stars. 
In the right hand, which rests upon the 
hilt of an unsheathed sword, are two 
laurel wreaths. The left hand holds 
a banner draped about a staff, which 
reaches to a height of six feet above 
the head. The face fronts towards the 
south, and the head is slightly bowed. 
The monument bears the following in- 
scription, written by President Charles 
W. Eliot of Harvard College : " To the 
men of Boston who died for their coun- 
try on land and sea, in the war which 
kept the Union whole, destroyed slave- 
ry, and maintained the constitution, 
the grateful city has built this monu- 
ment, that their example may speak to 
coming generations." The shaft is of 
white Maine granite, and reaches a 
height of over 70 feet. The foundation 
is of solid masonry, cruciform, built up 
from a depth of 16 feet to the ground 
level. On this is a platform of stone 
covering an area 38 feet square, and 
reached by three steps. From this 
platform rises the plinth, nine feet 
high, with its projecting pedestals ; on 
the plinth rests the pedestal "proper, 
14 feet 3 inches high, terminating in a 
surbase; and from the latter rises the 
shaft. The bronzes were all cast at 
Chicopee, Mass. Bartlett the sculp- 
tor, in his papers on "Civic Monu- 
ments in New England," calls this 
monument "the most pretentious in 
its scheme of any war memorial in 
New England." Of its several bronze 
statues Bartlett says, "The Sailor es- 
pecially is started "for a fine, vigorous, 
manly figure. It has more in it, and 
more possibility, than all the rest of 
the monument. As the beginning of a 
statue, it is the best in Boston. All of 
Milmore's statues have a nationality. 
It should be added that with few ex- 
ceptions they are based upon an ad- 
mirable sentiment. The two sitting 
figures entitled Peace and the Muse of 
History have a good deal of the sculp- 
ture element in them, and with a little 
more earnestness and study would have 



ARNOLD ARBORETUM 



31 



ART-CLUB 



been excellent monumental figures. 
The Soldier is a representative of an 
endless number of aimless objects scat- 
tered over the country." Of the ideal 
statue of the Genius of America, he 
says, " A massive statue of a symbolic 
intention like the Genius of America, 
a subject grand enough for an entire 
monument, is out of place on a col- 
umn, because it is too much of a mass, 
and has no movement, no harmonious 
continuation of the column. There are 
but few figures that compose well with 
the top of a column, and they have an 
action necessitated by its nature. This 
statue is not one of them. In cases of 
this kind it is the architecture which 
must not only dominate, but suggest, 
the form of its termination." [See 
Statues and Monuments^ 

Arnold Arboretum. — See Bussey 
Institution. 

Art. — The cultivation of the fine 
arts in Boston, notably of painting and 
sculpture, is extensive and wide-spread, 
growing and expanding year by year ; 
and the city ranks as an art-centre 
second to none in the country except 
New York. It possesses, in the Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, one of the finest 
and best-equipped institutions of its 
kind on this side of the Atlantic ; has 
several noteworthy public and private 
picture-galleries, and many private 
collections of works of art ; its clubs 
and societies devoted to art ; its 
schools of art of various classes and 
grades ; a State Normal Art School 
for the preparation of teachers of draw- 
ing, — the study of which, particularly 
industrial and mechanical drawing, is 
thoroughly pursued in the public 
schools ; and a large number of resi- 
dent artists, many of them of national 
reputation. It has frequent public 
art-exhibitions, contributed to by non- 
resident and foreign as well as home 
painters ; and the cultivated portion of 
the community gives much attention 
to the study and development of art 
in its midst, constantly striving to ele- 
vate the public taste, and inspire the 



production of art-work of the highest 
standard of excellence. The most 
important movements for the promo- 
tion of art in the city have been made 
within the past fifty years, and the 
greatest advance in art has been made 
within a quarter of a century. The 
first attempt to establish a public art- 
gallery was not made until 1826, when 
the Boston Athenaeum opened an exhi- 
bition of antique casts ; and the first 
regular public exhibition of painting 
and sculpture was opened the year 
following, in the rooms of the Athe- 
naeum. It was not until 1850 that the 
first free school of drawing was opened 
in the city, — that established in the 
Lowell Institute, for both sexes, and 
which was maintained with marked 
success for twenty-eight years. [See 
Lowell Institute^ And it was five years 
later that the first club of artists, out 
of which the present Art-Club grew, 
was established. At the present time, 
schools of drawing and painting, and 
of carving and modelling, are main- 
tained in the Museum of Fine Arts; 
there are schools of painting on porce- 
lain and of art-needlework connected 
with the Society of Decorative Art ; 
a school of sculpture under the direc- 
tion of T. H. Bartlett; and many art- 
classes conducted by representative 
artists. [See Art-Dealers, Art-Galler- 
ies, Art-Club, Athenceum, Lowell Ln- 
stitute, Paint and Clay Club, Pai?iters 
and Sculptors, Museum of Fine Arts, 
Normal Art-School, School of Drawing 
and Painting, School of Design, School 
of Sculpture, Society of Decorative Art.] 

Art-Club. — The Boston Art-Club 
was organized in 1854, with a member- 
ship of twenty persons, nearly all of 
them professional artists. Until 1870 
it had no settled abode, its social 
meetings being generally held in the 
studios of the artist members, by spe- 
cial invitation ; and there was no fixed 
place for its exhibitions. In that year 
the membership was largely increased 
by the election of many persons inter- 
ested in art, other than professional art- 



3 2 



ists ; a club-house at No. 64 Boylston 
Street was leased for a term of years, a 
large exhibition-gallery was constructed 
in it, and the club's affairs were gener- 
ally put upon a sound basis. In March 
of the following year the club was in- 
corporated, and enlarged powers and 
privileges were thus secured. The 
club steadily increased, until it num- 
bered 800 members, the limit of mem- 
bership. The minority of the members 
are artists and professional men, and 
there has consequently been some 
friction between the elements compos- 
ing it; but this has not affected its 
growth or its development as a social 
art-club. In February, 1880, a vigor- 
ous movement for a new club-house 
was started ; and, the required funds 
being subscribed by members, a lot of 
land was purchased on the south-west 
corner of Dartmouth and Newbury 
Streets ; and the present club-house 
was built thereon, from plans by Wil- 
liam R. Emerson, at a cost, includ- 
ing the land, of about $80,000. The 
building is of a Romanesque style 
of architecture, and is constructed of 
brown stone and dark bricks. A strik- 
ing feature is the hexagonal tower, 
starting from the second story of the 
principal corner, and reaching the 
height of nearly seventy feet. A heavy 
stone balcony, supported by a column 
with carved capital, projects from the 
tower at the second story of the New- 
bury-street side : at its upper windows 
are graceful iron balconies, and the 
roof is covered with red tiles. In the 
gable of the Newbury-street front is a 
large semicircular window of stained 
glass, at either side of which is a 
terra-cotta design. Beneath this is the 
members' entrance, from a large stone 
porch, double carved columns support- 
ing its roof, which is covered with 
tiles, and finished as a balcony sur- 
rounded by wr ought-iron railing. At 
the Dartmouth-street front is the spa- 
cious public entrance, above which is 
a handsome arch of terra-cotta work. 
At either side of the gable in the centre 
of the front, is a design in terra-cotta ; 



and beneath the gable, and between 
two double windows on the second 
floor, is a large panel of the same mate- 
rial, all of Boston design and execution. 
The interior of the house is convenient, 
sumptuous, and inviting. The exhi- 
bition-gallery, on the second floor, is 
47 by 47 feet, and 18 feet high. The 
walls are tinted in Pompeian red ; the 
floor is maple, and the room is lighted 
by a very large skylight. By the ar- 
rangement of the interior of the house, 
the gallery can be thrown open for 
public exhibitions without encroaching 
upon the rooms devoted exclusively 
to club purposes. There are three 
large parlors, with different decora- 
tions, but the colors so arranged as 
to blend and form a gradual change 
from dark to light shades. In one of 
them is a roomy fireplace, nine feet 
wide ; the jambs of which are tiled, 
the facing of light Ohio sandstone. 
The oak arch above is very fine, the 
lower side of it being beaded, the 
broad shelf supported by huge brack- 
ets finely carved. There are also a 
finely decorated library, and lecture, 
lounging, billiard, and dining rooms. 
The objects of the club, as stated in 
its constitution, are "to advance the 
knowledge and love of art through the 
exhibition of its works of art, the ac- 
quisition of books and papers for the 
purpose of forming an art-library, lec- 
tures upon subjects pertaining to art, 
and by other kindred means ; and to 
promote social intercourse among its 
members. It is contemplated to found 
and maintain various schools of art, 
for the benefit of the artist members ; 
and to this end a school of drawing, 
with a life-class, was established in 
the winter of 1883. On the evening 
of the first Saturday in each month 
except July, August, and September, 
the regular business-meeting of the 
club is held ; and on these occasions 
a supper is served, and an informal 
exhibition of sketches, paintings, en- 
gravings, etchings, and other art-con- 
tributions of members, is given. The 
club has formed the nucleus of a 



33 



ART-GALLERIES 



valuable library of works on art, and 
books of reference. C. C. Perkins was 
the first president of the club under 
the new organization. He served until 

1880, when he was succeeded by ex- 
Gov. Alexander H. Rice ; and in 

1881, Mr. Rice declining a re-election, 
George P. Denny was chosen presi- 
dent. Mr. Denny was re-elected for 

1882, and again for 1883. The new 
club-house was opened and dedicated 
in the spring of 1882. 

Artists. — See Painters and Sculp- 
tors. 



Art-Museum. 
Fine Arts. 



See Museum of 



Art-Galleries. — The most exten- 
sive of the art-galleries of the city are 
those of the Museum of Fine Arts on 
the corner of Dartmouth Street and 
St. James Avenue, Back-bay district. 
These are opened every day, except 
Mondays, from nine o'clock in the 
forenoon until sunset. On Mondays 
the museum is open to visitors only in 
the afternoon. Saturdays and Sun- 
days are free days : on other days 
an admission-price of twenty-five cents 
is asked. [For the character and ex- 
tent of the exhibitions here, see the 
paragraph on Museum of Fine Arts.~\ 
Next in importance, perhaps, is the 
gallery of the Boston Art-Club, in the 
new club-house on the corner of Dart- 
mouth and Newbury Streets, Back- 
bay district, completed and occupied 
by the members in March of the pres- 
ent year (1882). What is known as 
the yearly general exhibition, opened 
in the spring, is a display of oil-paint- 
ings, largely by American artists, 
though it is not confined to any na- 
tionality; and it remains open for a 
month. Admittance is free, secured 
by tickets distributed by members of 
the club. During the other portions 
of the year, there are frequent informal 
exhibitions in this gallery, and occa- 
sional loan exhibitions ; so that almost 
always, except in midsummer, there is 
something worth seeing in the Art- 



Club gallery. [See Art-Club.] The 
St. Botolph Club exhibition-gallery, in 
the club-house on Boylston Street 
[see St. Botolph Chid], is not so acces- 
sible to the general public as that of 
the Art-Club. Admittance is secured 
by cards from members ; but these are 
more difficult to obtain, and are given 
out less freely, than are Art-Club tick- 
ets, for the reason that the gallery is 
smaller. A spring exhibition is gen- 
erally given here ; and there are fre- 
quent special exhibitions of works of 
artist-members of the club, or of artists 
and members of clubs devoted to the 
cultivation and encouragement of art 
in other cities. The Paint and Clay 
Club has a gallery in its club-rooms, 
No. 419 Washington Street, in which 
extensive exhibitions are given during 
the winter season, and occasional spe- 
cial exhibitions of work of members 
of the club. Admittance by invitation 
of members. [See Paint and Clay 
Club.] The Studio-Building gallery, 
on Tremont Street, corner of Brom- 
field, is leased to artists or dealers for 
special exhibitions. Here were ex- 
hibited the paintings and other art- 
work of Mile. Sarah Bernhardt, the 
French actress, during her Boston en- 
gagement in the winter and spring of 
1880-81. In the art auction-rooms of 
Leonard & Co., on Bromfield Street, 
near Tremont, and Sullivan Brothers 
and Libbie, No. 2 Beacon Street, are 
frequent free exhibitions of sale collec- 
tions; and in the galleries of art-deal- 
ers — Messrs. Williams & Everett, 508 
Washington Street ; Doll & Richards, 
2 Park Street; Noyes & Blakeslee, 127 
Tremont Street ; J. Eastman Chase, 7 
Hamilton Place ; A. A. Childs & Co., 
352 Washington Street ; and John A. 
Lowell & Co., 70 Kilby Street — are 
almost always to be seen fine collec- 
tions of paintings in oils and water- 
colors, black-and-whites, etc. [See 
Art-Stores.} There are fine collec- 
tions of interesting pictures in the 
Boston Museum, and of historical por- 
traits both in Faneuil Hall and the 
State House. [See Boston Museum, 



ART-STORES 



34 



ART-STORES 



Faneuil Hall, and State House.'] In 
the season of industrial and mechani- 
cal fairs, extensive art-exhibitions are 
open in the galleries of the Massachu- 
setts Charitable Mechanic Association 
permanent building, and in that of the 
Manufacturers' and Mechanics' Insti- 
tute, both on Huntington Avenue, 
Back-bay district. [See Charitable Me- 
chanic Association, The Massachusetts ; 
and Manufacturers'' and Mechanics'' In- 
stitute^ 

Art-Stores. — There are many es- 
tablishments in Boston which come 
under this classification. Some are for 
the sale of paintings and the finest en- 
gravings ; others for bronzes ; others 
for decorated ware ; and others for 
various articles of vertu, artists' ma- 
terials, etc. At several of these are 
pleasantly arranged picture-galleries, 
which are, during the season, hung 
with attractive pictures, sometimes by 
local artists and sometimes by foreign, 
or the two combined, exhibited for 
sale. These local galleries are a favor- 
ite resort of art-lovers, some of them 
on the watch for good bargains, and 
some only desirous to keep the run of 
what is new and good, to see what 
every one who would be in " good tone " 
in Boston is expected to see and talk 
about. Auction-sales of the works that 
have accumulated on the easels of the 
local artists, and special collections of 
home and foreign work, are often held 
in these places. The leading art-firms 
devoted mainly to the sale of paint- 
ings, and the finer black-and-white 
works such as engravings and etch- 
ings, are Williams & Everett, 508 
Washington Street; Doll & Richards, 
2 Park Street; Noyes & Blakeslee, 127 
Tremont Street; J. Eastman Chase, 7 
Hamilton Place ; A. A. Childs & Co., 
352 Washington Street ; John A. Low- 
ell & Co., 70 Kilby Street; and J. F. 
Cabot & Brother, '89 Sudbury Street. 
The first four mentioned have the 
largest galleries. The oldest of these 
establishments are those of Williams 
& Everett, and Doll & Richards. The 



former was the pioneer art-concern in 
Boston. It was established in 1810, 
on Cornhill, under the firm name of 
Doggett & Williams ; and the present 
style of name was assumed in 1853. 
It was the first firm to offer French 
pictures to Boston buyers, and the 
earliest to establish direct relations 
with European and American artists 
abroad. Now all the leading art-firms 
of the city deal in foreign as well as 
domestic productions, have their agen- 
cies in European capitals, and repre- 
sentatives of each leading concern 
make frequent trips abroad, where 
they see the work in the artists' stu- 
dios, and make large purchases for the 
Boston and American market direct 
from the artists themselves. The sev- 
eral exhibition-galleries of the art- 
stores are fitted in artistic style, and 
are generally arranged upon the most 
approved fashion, especially as to the 
lighting, in order to display the work 
on their walls to the best advantage ; 
and visitors possessing the "artistic 
sense " are seldom offended by ill- 
arranged or distasteful surroundings. 
Doll & Richards, the second oldest 
firm, also do an extensive business. 
The senior proprietor, now deceased, 
was in his day regarded as an authority 
on art and the value of paintings. The 
specialty of John A. Lowell & Co. is 
steel-engravings ; and they have in 
recent years made great advances in 
that branch of art, carrying it to a high 
degree of excellence, and popularizing 
it, improving thereby the style and 
character of business cards as well 
as other classes of popular work. 
They have also introduced lines of 
artistic Christmas cards, larger engrav- 
ings, and the " Bicknell prints," — 
single compositions in printer 's-ink by a 
process perfected by the artist Bicknell. 
[See Painters and Sculptors.] The 
exhibition-gallery of this firm, opened 
in the winter of 1881-82, is for the 
display not only of work in steel-en- 
graving, but of oil-paintings and water- 
colors. The Heliotype Art Gallery, in 
the establishment of James R. Osgood 



ART-STORES 



35 



ASSOCIATED CHARITIES 



& Co. [see Bookstores and Publishers}, 
at No. 211 Tremont Street, is also 
well worth a visit. By this process 
engravings and paintings, as well as 
photographs, are reproduced, and 
printed in printer's-ink from ordinary 
printing-presses, with wide clean mar- 
gins, so that no mounting is necessary. 
The process was invented in 1870, in 
London, by Ernest Edwards, and in- 
troduced into this country by James 
R. Osgood & Co. in 1872 ; Mr. Ed- 
wards superintending its introduction 
here, and continuing with the Boston 
establishment as superintendent, which 
connection he still maintains. Some 
fine work has been done by this pro- 
cess, notably the reproduction of the 
Gray Collection of engravings, belong- 
ing to Harvard College [see Museum 
of Fine Arts']. Many noteworthy 
works of the masters in ancient and 
modern art have been reproduced, 
and so cheapened in price that they 
come within the means of the general 
public. The leading exhibition-gal- 
lery of bric-a-brac and ornamental 
work in pottery, porcelain, and glass, 
is in the establishment of Jones, 
McDuffee, & Stratton, on the corner of 
Federal and Franklin Streets ; occupy- 
ing the site of the old Boston, or 
Federal-street Theatre as it was more 
commonly called [see Drcwta hi Bos- 
ton]. These art-rooms are at the top 
of the great building, and are accessible 
by elevator. The larger room is or- 
namented with framed plaques, vases, 
and screens of Japanese embroidery, 
an attractive setting for the decorated 
ware exhibited ; and there is an ad- 
joining room fitted as a modern aes- 
thetic dining-room, where all that 
belongs to the service of the table, in 
the newest and most advanced styles 
of this branch of decorative art, — 
domestic as well as imported work, — 
are admirably displayed. In the store 
of the Society of Decorative Art, on 
Park Square [see Decorative Art, The 
Boston Society of], there is always an 
interesting exhibition of needlework, 
art-embroidery, decorated porcelain 



and pottery, and wood-carving ; and 
in the salesrooms of the Household 
Art Company on Boylston Street, 
next to the Hotel Pelham, is an exhi- 
bition of J. G. Low tiles and plastic 
sketches, and a most inviting variety 
of specimens of modern art in house- 
hold furniture and decorations. There 
are a large number of establishments 
for the sale of bronzes and artistic 
work of all kinds; and of late years 
two of the larger firms of jewellers — 
Messrs. Palmer, Bachelder, & Co., at 
No. 394 Washington Street, and Bige- 
low, Kennard, & Co., at No. 511 
Washington Street — have entered 
somewhat into the picture-trade, and 
frequently show some fine collections 
of paintings, the work of modern art- 
ists. Decorated tiles are shown by 
the Boston Terra-Cotta Company at 
No. 394 Federal Street. 

Associated Charities (The). — Or- 
ganized in 1879, an d incorporated in 
January, 1882, under the general be- 
nevolent incorporation act, for these 
purposes: "(1) To secure andpromote 
the co-operation and concurrent and 
united action of all charitable agencies 
in the most effective and economical 
manner; (2) to prevent pauperism ; (3) 
to relieve distress ; (4) to detect im- 
posture; (5) to promote sanitary re- 
form, health, and thrift; (6) to secure 
the best welfare of the children of the 
poor; (7) to collect and disseminate 
information useful for the people on all 
these subjects ; (8) to aid in all lawful 
ways and measures any of these ob- 
jects." At the central office, located 
in the Charity Bureau [see Charity 
Burea7i\ on Chardon Street, a regis- 
try for applicants for charitable aid 
is kept, with a record of what is given 
to and what is known of them ; which 
information is disclosed only for the 
benefit of the persons registered, or 
to detect imposition. Individuals or 
societies, reporting to the central office 
the name of any person applying to 
them for relief, receive prompt report 
of aid, if any, that may have already 



ASSOCIATED CHARITES 



36 



ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGIATE ALUMNiE 



been given to the same person, and 
are thereby enabled to determine more 
wisely what relief, if any, to continue. 
The city is divided into fourteen dis- 
tricts ; and in each of these districts 
conferences are established, composed 
of- representatives and visitors of all 
charitable organizations and churches 
working iii the district, and a few 
other persons who are elected. The 
duty of each conference is to investi- 
gate each application for aid in its dis- 
trict ; to study how applicants for 
relief can be raised into independence, 
and to make them self-supporting 
whenever possible ; to obtain aid from 
the appropriate sources for such appli- 
cants as investigation proves are unable 
to earn support; to organize a corps 
of volunteer visitors, a few cases only 
assigned to each corps ; and to hold 
weekly meetings for the discussion and 
distribution of cases. Each of these 
conferences has its special agent, — 
sometimes a man, sometimes a woman, 
— who is in telephonic communication 
with the central office. The visitors 
are volunteers who undertake to look 
after one or more families in the ward 
with which they are connected. They 
consent to work under direction, and 
attempt to teach the poor how to help 
themselves to an honest living. There 
are over eight hundred visitors of this 
sort now giving their services to the 
personal education of the poor of 
the city. The general supervision of 
the registration, of the district confer- 
ence, of the duties of volunteer visitors, 
of the funds, and of measures for the 
attainment of the objects of the so- 
ciety, is in the hands of a council. 
This council consists of three dele- 
gates from each district conference, 
and three from each general charitable 
association connected with the society, 
and of persons elected, not exceeding 
fifty in number ; of the mayor of the 
city, the state superintendents of in- 
door and out-door poor, and the in- 
spector of state charities ; of three 
overseers of the poor, one director for 
the public institutions, one police com- 



missioner, and a trustee of the city 
hospital ; of the superintendent of 
police, and the city physician. Within 
two years, as shown in the annual 
report for 1882, the poor of the city 
have nearly all been registered; many 
of the charitable societies have been 
brought into such relation with the 
central office that their work is most 
effective ; hundreds of families — some 
of them inveterate idlers and beggars 
— have been taught to live respectably 
and earn their own living ; street-beg- 
ging has very largely diminished ; and 
the charitable work of the city has been 
greatly systematized. The Associated 
Charities are also bringing forward sev- 
eral movements calculated to help the 
poor to better help themselves ; note- 
worthy among these are the improve- 
ment of the homes of the poor, their 
adequate supervision, industrial educa- 
tion, and the arrangements for the 
savings of the people who have begun 
to lay by something. The following are 
enrolled as corporators of the organi- 
zation : Robert Treat Paine, jun., as 
president ; Darwin E. Ware as treas- 
urer; and George A. Goddard, Mary 
A. Amory, Annie Fields, Ellen S. Hale, 
Mary G. Lodge, Mary E. Fales, George 
Faulkner, Charles R. Codman, Henry 
C. Haven, Abraham Firth, Charles P. 
Putnam, Frederick B. Allen, Mary L. 
Seavey, Erving Winslow, George 
Wigglesworth, II. S. Caswell, George 
S. Hale, Martin Brimmer, Causten 
Browne, John Kent. [See Charitable 
and Benevolent Societies.] 

Association of Collegiate Alum- 
nae. — An association of woman gradu- 
ates of colleges for the purpose of 
uniting the alumnae of the different 
institutions for practical educational 
work, and for advancing the cause of 
the higher education of women. It 
was organized in January, 1882, by 
sixty-three women graduates, repre- 
senting Vassar, Oberlin, Smith, and 
Wellesley Colleges, the University of 
Michigan, and the Wisconsin, Cornell, 
and Boston Universities. Regular 



ASYLUMS AND HOMES 



37 



ASYLUMS AND HOMES 



meetings are held in this city, in 
March, May, and October, at which 
papers are read and discussed, and 
plans for furthering the work are con- 
sidered and acted upon. It is pro- 
posed to establish a bureau of supply, 
through which members desiring em- 
ployment, and those of the outside 
public seeking educated women for 
responsible positions, may be brought 
together. It is also proposed to estab- 
lish departments for the study of sub- 
jects which are frequently neglected in 
the ordinary college curriculum, such as 
sanitary science and political economy. 
The officers of the association for 1883 
are: Mrs. Jennie F. Bashford (graduate 
of Wisconsin University), president; 
Miss Florence Cushing of Vassar, vice- 
president ; Miss Marion Talbot of Bos- 
ton University, secretary ; Miss Marga- 
ret Hicks of Cornell, treasurer. The 
board of directors are, Miss A. E. F. 
Morgan of Oberlin, Mrs. Ellen H. 
Richards of Vassar, Miss Alice E. Free- 
man of Michigan University, Miss Kate 
E. Morris of Smith, and Miss H. M. 
Peirce of Wellesley. Any woman who 
has received a degree in arts, phi- 
losophy, or literature, from any college, 
university, or scientific school, is eli- 
gible to membership. The annual 
meeting is held in January. 

Asylums and Homes. — Following 
is a list of the various asylums within 
the city limits, the most prominent of 
which will be found described in de- 
tail, in separate paragraphs, elsewhere 
in this book. The list includes the 
several temporary homes for orphans 
and destitute children, and the perma- 
nent homes for the aged and infirm 
adults, which are supported by in- 
vested funds from private subscrip- 
tions, or by occasional contributions 
from the benevolent. 



Adams Nervine Asylum. For persons of both 
sexes afflicted with nervous diseases. West- 
Roxbury district, Centre Street. 

Association for the Protection of Destitute 
Roman-Catholic Children. Temporary home 
for both sexes. Returned to friends orplaced 



at work or in families. Corner of Harrison 
Avenue and Concord Street. 

Baldwin-place Home for Little Wanderers. 
For both sexes. Permanent homes in the coun- 
try secured. Baldwin place, North End. 

Boston Asylum and Farm-School for Indi- 
gent Boys. For orphan boys. Thompson's 
Island. (A Unitarian institution.) 

Boston Children's Friend Society. For des- 
titute children of both sexes. Taught sewing, 
and homes or situations found. No. 48 Rut- 
land Street. 

Boston Female Asylum. For girls. Homes 
in families found for them. No. 1008 Wash- 
ington Street. 

Boston Industrial Temporary Home. For 
both sexes. Lodging and food supplied for 
work done, and situations procured. No. 17 
Davis Street, corner of Harrison Avenue. 

Channing Home. For poor invalids, women 
and children, chiefly those who are incurable. 
No. 30 McLean Street. 

Charlestown Infant School and Children's 
Home Association. Temporary home for the 
destitute of both sexes. Returned to friends or 
adopted. Charlestown district, No. 36 Austin 
Street. 

Children's Mission to the Children of the 
Destitute in the City of Boston. For both 
sexes. Taught housekeeping and sewing, and 
places found in families. No. 277 Tremont 
Street. 

Church Home for Orphans and Destitute 
Children. For both sexes. South Boston, cor- 
ner of Broadway, N, and Fourth Streets. 

Consumptives' Home. For both sexes. Rox- 
bury district, Grove Hall ; corner of Warren 
Street and Blue-hill Avenue. 

Home for Aged Men. No. 133 West Spring- 
field Street. 

Home for Aged Women. No. 108 Revere 
Street. 

Home for Aged Colored Women. No. 27 
Myrtle Street. 

Home for the Aged Poor. For both sexes. 
Roxbury district, Dudley Street, corner of 
Woodward Avenue. 

House of the Angel Guardian. For orphan 
and deserted children, especially wayward boys. 
Roxbury district, No. 85 Vernon Street. 

House of the Good Samaritan. For women 
and children, especially incurables. No. 6 
McLean Street. 

Marcella-street Home. For boys, sentenced 
and pauper. Roxbury district, Marcella Street. 
(City Institution.) 

Mariners' House. Free to distressed sea- 
men. No. 11 North Square. 

Massachusetts Infant Asylum. For deserted 
and destitute infants. Jamaica-Plain district, 
Curtin Street. 

Massachusetts School for Idiotic and Feeble- 
minded Youth. For both sexes. South Boston, 
No. 723 East Eighth Street. 

Miss Burnap's Home for Aged and Friend- 
less. For aged Protestant women. No. 3 An- 
thony Place. 



ATHENJEUM 



38 



ATHEN^UM 



Mount-Hope Home for Fallen Women, and 
Summer Home for Children. Supported and 
managed by the Boston North-End Mission. 
West Roxbury district, Bourne Street. 

Nickerson Home for Children. For both 
sexes, mostly half-orphans or those having in- 
temperate fathers. No. 14 Tyler Street. 

Perkins Institution, and Massachusetts School 
for the Blind. For both sexes. South Boston, 
No. 553 East Broadway. 

Roxbury Home for Children and Aged 
Women. Roxbury district, Burton Avenue, 
off Copeland Street. 

Scots Temporary Home. No. 77 Camden 
Street. 

Spinal Home. For both sexes. Roxbury 
district ; Grove Hall, corner of Warren Street 
and Blue-hill Avenue. (A home attached for 
children of patients.) 

St. Joseph's Home for Sick and Destitute 
Servant-girls. Temporary home. Nos. 41 and 
45 East Brookline Street. 

St. Luke's Home for Convalescents. For 
women and children. Roxbury district, No. 
149 Roxbury Street. 

St. Mary's Infant Asylum and Lying-in Hos- 
pital. For foundlings, orphans, and half- 
orphans. Connected with Carney Hospital. 
South Boston ;' Old- Harbor Street. 

St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum. For orphans 
of both sexes. Shawmut Avenue, corner of 
Camden Street. 

Temporary Home for the Destitute. For 
children of both sexes. No. 1 Pine Place. 

Temporary Home for Working-women. 
Board given for work done ; women taught 
sewing, house and laundry work, and situations 
procured. No. 327 Tremont Street. 

Winchester Home for Aged Women. For 
American women, residents of Charlestown dis- 
trict. Charlestown district, No. 10 Eden Street. 

Athenaeum (The Boston). — On 
Beacon Street, between Tremont and 
Park Streets. It originated in a lit- 
erary club formed among a rather 
remarkable set of young men in 1804, 
called the Anthology Club, which for 
a while edited and published tne 
"Monthly Anthology," and in 1806 
established a reading-room, and a year 
later obtained an act of incorporation 
under the present title of the Boston 
Athenaeum. It was first located in the 
building long known as Scollay's Build- 
ing, which stood, until its removal in 
1873, "^ tne middle of Court Street, — 
now known as Scollay Square, — at the 
junction of Pemberton Square, Tre- 
mont Street, Court Street, and Corn- 
hill. From here, a short time after its 
establishment, the institution removed 



to a house on Tremont Street, occupy- 
ing the present site of the building of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society; 
and from thence to the mansion-house 
of the late James Perkins, on Pearl 
Street, which he presented to the cor- 
poration. Here was its abiding-place 
for a long term of years ; and here be- 
gan the formation of its present valu- 
able library and of its collection of 
paintings and other works of art. The 
library and gallery both rapidly in- 
creased, the former for many years 
taking rank as one of the best libraries 
of the country ; while the annual ex- 
hibitions held in the picture-gallery 
during a long period did more than any- 
thing else to foster in this community 
a knowledge and love of art. Many 
works of art became the permanent 
property of the Athenaeum, either by 
gift or purchase, which were seen from 
year to year ; and to these were added 
the new works of local artists in the 
annual exhibitions, with pictures from 
private collections in the city and else- 
where, which altogether made exhibi- 
tions of a very considerable degree of 
attractiveness and not a little merit. 
The library and gallery after a while 
outgrowing its Pearl-street quarters, in 
1842 arrangements were made which 
resulted eventually in the purchase 
of the estate on Beacon Street, on 
which the present Athenaeum Build- 
ing stands. The corner-stone was 
laid in 1847 ; and the edifice was com- 
pleted in 1849, at a cost °f about $200,- 
000, from designs of Edward C. Cabot, 
architect. The building is 114 feet in 
length, of irregular width, and 60 feet 
in height. The elevation is in the 
later style of Italian architecture, and 
resembles in the general arrangement 
some of the works of Palladio, although 
some of the details belong to a still 
later style. The material is of Pat- 
erson freestone, the texture of which 
is considerably harder than that of the 
freestone in general use ; and the color 
is a light brown. The basement story 
is of solid masonry, supporting the 
first floor on groined arches of brick. 



ATHENiEUM 



39 



ATHEN.EUM 



The entrance to the building opens 
into a vestibule containing the stair- 
case, giving access to all parts of the 
structure. The first story contains the 
reading-room, with a room for works 
of fiction adjoining, and the delivery 
desk ; and a room now occupied by 
the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences [see American Academy, etc.]. 
The second story is devoted to the 
Library Hall, extending the whole 
length of the building, which is sur- 
rounded by an iron gallery accessible 
by spiral iron staircases. This hall is 
divided by an archway, one compart- 
ment displaying the books in cases 
lining the walls, and containing the 
librarian's desk; the other contains 
the books in alcoves. It is finished in 
the Italian style, with a decorated ceil- 
ing, and is the most agreeable library- 
room in the city, — quiet, light, retired, 
and yet easy of access. The third story, 
designed for and originally occupied 
by the gallery of paintings, is now also 
devoted to the purposes of the li- 
brary, the paintings having been trans- 
ferred to the Museum of Fine Arts 
[see Museum of Fine Arts]. A few 
large paintings and statues, however, 
remain, which decorate the vestibule 
and lofty walls of the grand staircase. 
The institution in which Bostonians 
take a just pride is now established on 
a firm and solid basis ; its fund is 
about $300,000, the income of which 
is used for the increase of the library, 
the purchase of works of art, and other 
purposes of the institution. The li- 
brary has become large and valuable, 
now numbering nearly 125,000 vol- 
umes. About 3,000 volumes are annu- 
ally added by purchase and otherwise to 
its shelves ; and the annual circulation 
is about 50,000 volumes. Although 
the right to use the library is confined 
to the 1,049 shareholders and their 
families, — about 800 of whom pay the 
annual assessment that entitles them to 
take books from the building, — great 
liberality is shown to scholars and stran- 
gers, who are always welcomed with 
courtesy, and the library-shelves freely 



placed at their disposal. The library 
of George Washington, purchased by 
the corporation in 1848 at a cost of 
$4,000, is one of the many interesting 
collections which have come into the 
possession of the Athenaeum. The 
librarian, Charles A. Cutter, who has 
occupied the position for the past 
thirteen years, is one of the foremost 
of American bibliographers. The new 
catalogue, prepared under his direc- 
tion, was completed in the winter of 
1882, after twenty-five years of labor. 
It fills five large volumes, with an ag- 
gregate of over 3,400 pages. It cata- 
logues the contents of the library on 
Jan. 1, 1872, consisting of 92,000 vol- 
umes and 36,000 pamphlets, under a 
quarter of a million of separate entries, 
under the names of authors, titles, and 
some 6,000 subjects. These entries 
are all arranged in a single alphabet, 
so that one can find the works of any 
author under his name, or the title of 
a book under its first important word ; 
and in addition all that the library 
contained ten years ago on any given 
subject. The contents of collected 
works, of the publications of learned 
societies, of government documents, 
etc., are not only printed in full, but 
are also distributed throughout the 
catalogue under their authors and sub- 
jects. To do this has cost an immense 
amount of labor ; but it has opened to 
the student most valuable sources of 
knowledge, hitherto almost hermeti- 
cally sealed. Thus the nineteen vol- 
umes of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science fill eight 
closely-printed pages, while the con- 
tents of the various publications of the 
St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences 
fill eighteen pages. By this means 
not only are the separate works on 
astronomy designated under this head- 
ing, but the student finds that the 
publications of fourteen different so- 
cieties have been carefully searched 
through for papers on this science, and 
noted here for his use. The minister 
will find here twenty-two pages devoted 
to the various editions, translations, 



ATHENIAN CLUB 



4 



ATHLETICS 



commentaries, and other works illus- 
trative of the Bible, and twelve pages 
of theological works, together with 
references to forty-nine allied subjects. 
The historian of the United States 
has one hundred and nine pages of 
titles of books and documents pub- 
lished before 1872 to examine if he 
would consult all the available mate- 
rial for our national history. There 
are eight pages of titles under the 
heading Harvard College alone, for 
one who wishes to read its annals or 
find out its methods of instruction. 
The president of the Athenaeum cor- 
poration is Samuel Eliot, and the vice- 
president Charles Deane. The real 
estate and other property of the insti- 
tution are valued at $5500,000. 

Athenian Club. — See Press Club. 

Athene of America, The. — An 

epithet applied to Boston for many 
years, often in irony it must be con- 
fessed ; of which the origin seems to 
be in one of the letters of William 
Tudor, describing the city in 18 19, in 
which he says, "This town is perhaps 
the most perfect and certainly the best- 
regulated democracy that ever existed. 
There is something so imposing in the 
immortal fame of Athens, that the very 
name makes every thing modern shrink 
from comparison; but since the days 
of that glorious city I know of none 
that has approached so near in some 
points, distant as it may still be from 
that illustrious model." 

Athletics. — The interest in athletic 
sports, now so generally felt in Boston 
and its neighborhood, is due in no 
small degree to the efforts of a few 
gentlemen connected with the Young 
Men's Christian Union [see Young 
Men's Christian Union]. In 1874 the 
Union Pedestrian Club was formed, 
the Hon. George G. Crocker being its 
first president; and out of this, the 
following year, grew the now widely 
known Union Athletic Club. This 
club has spring and autumn meetings 
which are open to all amateurs ; and its 



liberal prizes, offered to be competed 
for at these meetings, have at times 
brought to Boston some of the best- 
known and most accomplished ath- 
letes. It has the use of the grounds 
of the Boston Base-ball Club. Its 
headquarters are in the Young Men's 
Christian Union Building. The en- 
trance-fee is but $2, and the member- 
ship is large. Its officers are Col. Wil- 
liam M. Olin (private secretary of 
Collector Worthington), president; 
and E. A. Church, secretary and treas- 
urer. The club has a Lacrosse depart- 
ment, which was inaugurated in the 
spring of 1878. In this the club holds 
the championship of the United States ; 
having won at Newport, R. I., the 
challenge-cup presented by James Gor- 
don Bennett of New York. It also 
won the cup offered by the city of 
Boston to be competed for by it and the 
Ravenwoods of Brooklyn, N.Y. The 
Indian team has played in Boston, at 
the expense of this club, showing the 
Lacrosse game to advantage. The Bos- 
ton Athletic Association formed about 
two years ago had a brief but eventful 
existence. It leased the fine grounds 
known as the Beacon Riding-park, sit- 
uated in the suburb of Allston (reached 
by rail from the Albany station, or by 
street-cars from Bowdoin Square) ; 
where it laid a quarter-of-a-mile track, 
25 feet wide, and graded Lacrosse, 
base-ball and cricket fields, together 
with many lawn-tennis plats, and a 
third-of-a-mile track for bicycles [see 
Bicycling]. The venture, however, did 
not prove a paying one; and in 1882 
the association was, to all intents and 
purposes, merged into the Longwood 
Cricket Club, which has ample grounds 
laid out for all kinds of athletic sports. 
The South-Boston Athletic Club is a 
new association, which gave its first 
public exhibition in the spring of 1882. 
It already has a large membership, and 
promises to take a prominent position 
in many sports. It has a hall on 
Broadway, where its meetings are held 
and exhibitions given. There is also 
an athletic association connected with 



ATLANTIC BETHEL 



41 



the Institute of Technology, the mem- 
bers of which appear prominently as 
contestants in all public institutions of 
good standard, where skill and strength 
are the principal factors. [See Gym- 
nasiums^ 

Atlantic Bethel. — See Boston Sea- 
men's Friend Society. 

Atlantic Monthly. — This leading 
literary magazine, established in 1857, 
with James Russell Lowell as the first 
editor, and Phillips, Sampson, & Co., 
its first publishers, is now edited by 
Thomas Bailey Aldrich, and published 
by Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., No. 4 
Park Street, this city, and the Riverside 
Press, Cambridge. From the first it 
has had among its contributors the fore- 
most writers of the time, among them 
Holmes, Longfellow, Whittier, Emer- 
son, Whipple, Trowbridge, Harriet 
Prescott Spofford, Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps, Louisa M. Alcott, Helen Hunt 
(Jackson), Nora Perry ; the later novel- 
ists of note, such as Henry James, Jr., 
William D. Howells, T. B. Aldrich; 
and many of the younger writers of 
genius and growing fame. The first 
number appeared in November, 1857. 
Four volumes were issued by the firm of 
Phillips, Sampson, & Co., when it was 
dissolved after the deaths successively 
of Mr. Phillips and Mr. Sampson, and 
the magazine passed into the hands of 
Ticknor & Fields. It was then, for 
several years, published by that firm 
and its several successors ; coming un- 
der the direction of its present pub- 
lishers when the firm of Houghton, 
Osgood, & Co. was dissolved, and the 
firm of Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. was 
formed. Professor Lowell was suc- 
ceeded by the late James T. Fields as 
editor; with whom, at a later period, 
William D. Howells was associated as 
assistant editor. Subsequently, in 1874, 
Mr. Howells became the chief editor ; 
and he in turn was succeeded, in 188 1, 
by Mr. Aldrich, the present editor. 
The editorial room of the Atlantic 
is in a quiet corner of the Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin, & Co.'s Boston 



rooms, on an upper floor, overlooking 
the old Granary Burying-ground. The 
first numbers of the magazine contained 
those famous "Autocrat of the Break- 
fast Table " papers, by Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, which were suc- 
ceeded by his " Professor at the Break- 
fast Table " papers. The high standard 
which was set for the Atlantic at the 
start has been successfully maintained 
through its whole career thus far, and 
it was never more acceptable than at 
the present time. The proprietors of 
the Atlantic have given occasional 
banquets in celebration of noteworthy 
events, at which a rare company of 
literary people have been brought to- 
gether in a most agreeable manner. 
The seventieth anniversary of Whit- 
tier's birth was so celebrated at the 
Hotel Brunswick in 1877, and that of 
Holmes two years after. 

Avenues. — An avenue, in the Bos- 
ton sense of the word, by no means 
implies a broad, long, and elegant 
thoroughfare ; though there are several 
such avenues in the city, famed for their 
generous proportions and beauty. The 
Boston avenue, particularly in the old 
portions of the city and " down-town," 
is, as likely as not, very like the streets 
of Genoa, of which one can touch 
either side with outstretched hands, — 
a narrow passage, meandering between 
back-yards and " areas," and scarcely 
having a raison d'etre, passable only 
for foot-passengers. Such are City- 
halbavenue, passing from School Street 
to Court Square ; Franklin Avenue, 
from Court Street to Brattle; Change 
Avenue, from State Street to Faneuil- 
hall Square ; Court Avenue, from 
Washington Street to Court Square; 
Hanover Avenue, from Hanover 
Street to North ; and a host of others, 
less known, however, and less fre- 
quented as thoroughfares. Those 
avenues corresponding to what is im- 
plied in the term are among the main 
arteries of the city, broad, well paved, 
well lighted ; several of them finely 
built up with elegant dwellings, and 



AVENUES 



42 



AVENUES 



others great business thoroughfares. 
Conspicuous among the former class 
are Commonwealth Avenue, from 
Arlington Street to West Chester- 
park Street [see Back-bay District] ; and 
Columbus Avenue, from Park Square 
to Camden Street. In the resident por- 
tions of the city are also Warren Ave- 
nue, from Berkeley Street to Columbus 
Avenue ; Shawmut Avenue, from Tre- 
mont to Roxbury Streets ; and Blue- 
hill Avenue, from Dudley Street in the 
Roxbury district to the Milton line. 
The chief business avenues are Atlan- 



tic Avenue, one hundred feet wide, 
extending along the harbor-line at the 
head of the principal wharves, from 
the junction of Commercial Street and 
Eastern Avenue to Federal Street, and 
having in its centre a railroad-track 
for the conveyance of heavy freight, 
and connecting the steam-railroads on 
the eastern side of the city ; and East- 
ern Avenue, from the junction of Com- 
mercial Street and Atlantic Avenue 
to the East-Boston South Ferry. [See 
Streets of the City.] 



BACK-BAY DISTRICT 



43 



BACK-BAY DISTRICT 



B. 



Back-Bay District (The).— Of all 
the made-land districts which form the 
greater part of the total area of the city 
proper, the " Back-Bay " is the largest 
and the most important one. It is the 
seat of the fashionable residence sec- 
tion now very generally known as the 
"New West End" [see West End]. 
At the beginning of the present century 
the aspect of the Back Bay was similar 
to that of Dorchester Bay to-day ; being 
at flood-tide a beautiful sheet of water, 
spreading out from the city, with the 
Brookline hills rising beyond, much as 
the Blue Hills are seen from South Bos- 
ton, with no bridge, dam, or causeway 
barring the view of rural Cambridge 
nestling amid its elms at the foot of 
Mount Auburn, between the West-Bos- 
ton and Brighton bridges. The enter- 
ing wedge for the great change was the 
chartering of the Boston and Roxbury 
Mill Corporation, in 1814. Its purpose 
was twofold, — the utilization of the 
water-power of the great basin made 
by dams thrown across it, and the use 
of these dams as causeways for com- 
munication between Boston and Rox- 
bury and the western suburbs. The 
" Mill-Dam,"now lower Beacon Street; 
the "Cross-Dam," or Parker Street; 
and the causeway now known as Brook- 
line Avenue, — were thrown across the 
Bay, shooting out like the first rays of 
crystals, to serve as the nucleus for the 
consolidation of the intervening mass. 
At this time the waters of the Bay 
lapped the margin of the present 
Washington Street at the Neck, and 
of the marsh since become the Public 
Garden. In 182 1 the Mill-Dam was 
finished. The business of the corpora- 
tion was divided in 1824, when the 
Boston Water-power Company was in- 



corporated to use the water-power of 
the mill corporation. In 1832 the new 
company took possession of the mills 
and water-power, and the lands south 
of the Mill-Dam; the mill corporation 
retaining the roads and the lands north 
of the dam. The incorporation of the 
Boston and Worcester and Boston and 
Providence Railroad Companies in 
1831, with lines across the Back Bay, 
and the concession to riparian owners 
of the right to fill their flats, so en- 
croached upon the water-power as to 
hasten the conversion of the company 
into a land-company. A large part of 
the city sewage flowing into the basin 
also rendered its filling necessary on 
sanitary grounds ; and thus in 1849 
began the famous outcry against the 
" Back-bay nuisance," which has only 
ceased since the last steps for its abate- 
ment were taken by the beginning of 
the Park Improvement in 1876 [see 
Public-Parks System]. The Common- 
wealth had the right to the flats below 
the line of riparian ownership ; and in 
1849 a land-commission was appointed 
to deal with the subject of creating 
new land here. A comprehensive plan 
was reported in 1852. The territory 
north of the Mill-Dam was to be filled 
by the mill-corporation. The Com- 
monwealth took possession of that 
north of an east-and-west line drawn 
from near the present Boston and 
Providence Railroad Station ; and the 
Water-power Company, all south of 
that line. A short-sighted policy was 
that which permitted the building-over 
of the territory between Beacon Street 
and Charles River, as that street might 
have been placed on the line of a 
beautiful embankment. Three times 
a proposition made, to give to the city 



BACK-BAY-PARK IMPROVEMENT 



44 



BANKS 



500,000 feet of land on condition that 
it fill the land, never allow it to be 
built on, and add the territory to the 
Public Garden, was rejected. The 
plan of the Back-bay improvement was 
the work of the late Arthur Gilman, 
one of the eminent architects of the 
country, as well as a famous wit and 
bon-vivant. The work of filling the 
land was begun energetically in 1857. 
Now there is but a small area in the 
neighborhood of the Park Improve- 
ment left unfilled. All the adjacent 
filled land, as far as the Providence 
Railroad, including Columbus Avenue, 
is now territorially identified with the 
South End ; the term "Back-bay lands" 
being applied only to those outside of 
the Providence Railroad. The Back 
Bay of to-day is characterized by broad, 
handsome streets, and the magnificence 
of its architecture, both in its public 
buildings and private dwellings. Com- 
monwealth Avenue, the principal street, 
is 200 feet wide, with a park in the 
centre, and the distance 240 feet from 
house to house. Among the splendid 
dwellings, particular attention is called 
to the houses of John P. Phillips, 
corner of Berkeley and Marlborough 
Streets ; Henry L. Higginson and Gen. 
C. A. Whittier, adjoining each other, 
on the north side of Beacon Street; 
and Oliver Ames, north corner of 
Commonwealth Avenue and West- 
Chester Park. The Back Bay is one 
of the most valuable parts of the city. 
The real-estate valuation of "Ward 11, 
which is mostly on the Back Bay, for 
1882, was more than $50,000,000. In 
1 8 57 the Commonwealth owned on the 
Back Bay 4,723,998 feet ; and its net 
profits on the sale of its land up to 
1882 were $3,068,636.28, with 102,593 
feet remaining unsold, valued at not 
less than $250,000. 

Back-Bay-Park Improvement. — 

See Public-Parks System. 

Baldwin-place Home for Little 

Wanderers. — Baldwin Place, at 
the North End, from No. 113 Salem 
Street. See Asylums and Homes, 



and Charitable and Benevolent Soci- 
eties. 

Banks. — The history of the Boston 
banks begins with 1686, when the first 
bank in America was established here. 
It loaned money on real and personal 
estate and imperishable merchandise, 
and it had a brief career. The second 
American bank was also opened in 
this city in 17 14. This latter issued 
$400,000 of scrip, called " merchants' 
notes ; " and it is related that it sustained 
a good credit during its career, which 
was likewise short. In 1740 the " Land 
Bank " was organized by several hun- 
dred persons, to afford relief at a time 
of scarcity of specie ; and the " Specie 
Bank " was in operation at the same 
time. In 1782 a branch of the Bank 
of North America, a Philadelphia in- 
stitution, was incorporated; and this 
was the model after which many banks 
were subsequently organized in the 
commercial cities of the country. In 
1784 the Massachusetts Bank, which 
still exists, was established ; and in 
1792 the Union was chartered, the 
State in its corporate capacity sub- 
scribing one-third of its capital stock 
of $1,200,000 ; and thereafter the State 
subscription was an ordinary feature 
of the bank-charters, until about 1812, 
when the State stock in these institu- 
tions was sold, and the custom aban- 
doned. In 1792 also, a branch of the 
United- States Bank was opened in 
Boston. In 18 10 the New-England 
Bank was chartered ; and in 181 1 the 
State Bank, designed to be the finan- 
cial agent of the Commonwealth, and 
which is still in existence, now under 
the name of the State National Bank. 
In 18 1 8 the Suffolk Bank was char- 
tered. Through this, the famous 
" Suffolk-bank system," for the redemp- 
tion of bank-notes issued by institutions 
outside of Boston, — which was called 
" foreign money," — was introduced. 
This system was put into systematic 
operation in 1824, at a time when the 
town was flooded with country-bank 
bills. All the Boston banks, with the 



BANKS 



45 



BANKS 



exception of the New-England, which 
had been in sharp competition with 
the Suffolk in the " foreign-money " 
business, entered into an arrangement 
by which the Suffolk became their 
agent to collect the bills of outside 
banks coming into the city, and provide 
for their redemption. The bills of 
country banks making fixed deposits 
with it, or deposits sufficient to meet 
their bills, were redeemed, and others 
sent home for redemption. The Suf- 
folk, as agent of the " associated 
banks," received and credited the 
" foreign money " taken by these 
banks ; and all expenses attending the 
business, as well as the losses sustained 
on the " foreign money " not redeemed, 
were borne by the institutions in pro- 
portion to the amount received on 
deposit by each. There was much 
opposition by outside banks to this 
arrangement ; but it was continued, 
and the " Suffolk-bank system " was 
maintained until 1858, when the Bank 
of Mutual Redemption was established 
for the special purpose of acting as the 
agent of the New-England banks gen- 
erally in the redemption of their bills. 
At the time of the financial distress in 
1837, there were 34 banks in the city. 
All of these suspended specie pay- 



ments, but not until after the New-York 
banks had suspended. Several failed, 
and their charters were annulled by 
the legislature ; but the older banks, 
those chartered before 1825, passed 
through the crisis without permanent 
injury. In 1856 the Clearing-house 
[see Clearing-house} was established, 
first by 29 banks, three others being 
soon after admitted. The exchanges 
in that year amounted to about $1,000,- 
000,000. The crisis of 1857 was passed 
through more successfully than that of 
1837, the banks being generally in bet- 
ter condition. Only one failed. There 
was a general suspension of specie 
payments in the autumn of that year, 
but all resumed in December follow- 
ing. Upon the passage of the na- 
tional banking law, the Boston banks 
promptly changed ; the Safety Fund 
being the pioneer, becoming the First 
National Bank of Boston. There are 
now (1883) 59 national banks in Boston, 
representing a capital stock paid in of 
$52, 1 50,000. There are, besides, several 
trust-companies doing a general bank- 
ing business, but issuing no circula- 
tion ; and there are several private 
banking-firms. Following is a list of 
the present Boston banks, and trust- 
companies doing a banking business: — 



Name of Bank. 


Capital. 


Location. 


Time Es- 
tablished. 


Atlantic National 

Atlas National 

Blackstone National 

Boston National 

Boylston National 

Broadway National 

Bunker-hill National 

Central National 

Columbian National 

Continental National 


$750,000 

1,500,000 

1,500,000 

1 ,000,000 

700,000 

200,000 

500,000 

500,000 

1 ,000,000' 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 

400,000 

1,000,000 

1,000,000 

200,000 

300,000 

800,000 

1 ,000,000 

750,000 


Kilby, cor. Doane. 

No. 8 Sears Building. 

132 Hanover, cor. Union. 

No. 95 Milk. 

No. 616 Washington. 

No. 150 Devonshire. 

No. 21 City Square, Chsn. 

No. 121 Devonshire. 

No. 65 State. 

No. 51 Summer. 

No. 131 Devonshire. 

Milk, cor. Congress. 

No. 3 South Market. 

No. 17 State. 

No. 1 Winthrop Blk., E.B. 

No. 34 Blackstone. 

No. in Summer. 

No. 40 State. 

No. 60 Devonshire. 


1828 
1833 
1851 
1853 
1845 
1853 
1825 

1873 
1822 
i860 

1853 
1865 
1851 
1863 
1864 
187S 
1836 
1824 
1832 




Everett National 

Faneuil-hall National 

First National 

First Ward National 

Fourth National 

Freeman's National 




Hamilton National 





4 6 



BANKS 



Name of Bank. 



Capital. 


Location. 


Time Es- 
tablished 


1,000,000 


No. 19 Congress. 


1853- 


200,000 


Equitable Building, Milk. 


1882 




500,000 


Summer, cor. Devonshire. 


1873 




800,000 


No. 86 State. 


1832 




800,000 


No. 60 Congress. 


1784 




400,000 


No. 50 Water. 


1854 




250,000 


No. 115 Dorchester Avenue. 


1836 




500,000 


Milk, cor. Congress. 


1875 




3,000,000 


No. 28 State. 


1831 




200,000 


No. 4 Post-office Square. 


187s 




150,000 


Thompson's Square, Chsn. 


1854 




200,000 


13 Franklin & 386 Wash'n. 


i860 




1,500,000 


No. 9 Sears Building. 


1850 




500,000 


Devonshire, cor. Water. 


1871 




1,000,000 


No. 106 Franklin. 


1850 




1,000,000 


No. 85 Devonshire. 


1858 




1,500,000 


No. 3 Merchants' Row. 


1859 




1,000,000 


No. 61 State. 


1822 




1,000,000 


No. 95 Milk. 


1822 




1 ,000,000 


No. 28 State. 


1847 




1,500,000 


No. 70 Federal. 


1857 




250,000 


Market Street, Brighton. 


1854 




1,500,000 


No. 100 Franklin. 


1859 




300,000 


No. 2343 Washington. 


1864 




250,000 


No. 79 Court. 


1867 




1,000,000 


No. 40 State. 


1792 




1,500,000 


Congress, cor. Milk. 


1853 




1,000,000 


No. 67 State. 


1813 




1,000,000 


No. 109 Franklin. 


1825 




900,000 


No. 48 State. 


1803 




300,000 


No. 114 Dudley, Roxbury. 


1832 




1,600,000 


No. 199 Washington. 


1832 




1,000,000 


No. 60 Congress. 


1836 




1,000,000 


No. 150 Devonshire. 


1836 




2,000,000 


No. 40 State. 


1811 




1,500,000 


iNo. 60 State. 


1818 




600,000 


No. 8 Congress. 


1864 




600,000 


No. 91 State. 


1831 




2,000,000 


No. 8 Congress. 


1814 




750,000 


No. 47 State. 


1825 




$52,150,000 







Howard National . . . 
Lincoln National . . . 
Manufacturers' National 
Market National . . . 
Massachusetts National . 
Maverick National . . 
Mechanics' National . . 
Merchandise National 
Merchants' National . . 
Metropolitan National 
Monument National . . 
Mount-Vernon National . 
N ational Commerce . . 
National Commonwealth 
National North America 
National Redemption . . 
National Republic . . . 
National City .... 
National Eagle .... 
National Exchange. . . 
National Hide and Leather 
National Market Brighton 
National Revere . . . 
National Rockland . . 
National Security . . . 
National Union .... 
National Webster . . . 
New-England National . 
North National .... 
Old Boston National . . 
People's National . . . 
Second National . . . 
Shawmut National . . . 
Shoe and Leather National 
State National .... 
Suffolk National . . . 
Third National .... 
Trader's National . . . 
Tremont National . . . 
Washington National 

Total 



Following are the leading trust-com- 
panies and private banking-firms : — 

American Loan and Trust Company, No. 55 
Congress. 

Boston Loan Company, No. 275 Washington. 

Bank of Deposit, No. 84 Devonshire, cor. 
Water. 

Boston Safe-Deposit and Trust Company, No. 
87 Milk. 

International Trust Company, capital $500,000, 
No. 45 Milk. 

Massachusetts Loan and Trust Company, cap- 
ital $500,000, No. 18 Post-office Square. 

New-England Mortgage Security Company, 
No. 43 Milk. 

Lee, Higginson, & Co., No. 44 State. 



New-England Trust Company, capital $500,000, 

No. 85 Devonshire. 
Richardson, Hill, and Co., No. 40 Water. 
Kidder, Peabody, and Co., No. 40 State. 
Brewster, Bassett, & Co., No. 35 Congress. 
Tower, Giddings, & Co., No. 85 Devonshire. 
G. W. Ballou and Co., No. 72 Devonshire. 
Downer and Co., No. 28 State. 
F. A. Hawley and Co., No. 84 Devonshire. 
Blake Bros. & Co., No. 28 State. 

Concerning the stability of the banks 
of Boston, Messrs. Henry P. Kidder 
and Francis H. Peabody, in their chap- 
ter on the financial history of the city, 
in the new " Memorial History of 



BAPTIST CHARITABLE SOCIETY 



47 



BAPTIST DENOMINATION AND CHURCHES 



Boston," bear this testimony : " The 
banks of Boston have been safe and 
strong at times when those of other 
cities have been weak. They have 
never led the way in a suspension of 
specie payments, nor have they ever 
been backward in resuming. Disasters 
among them have been rare, and sel- 
dom or never attended with serious 
consequences to sister institutions else- 
where, or to the commercial world. 
They have helped greatly in sustaining 
credit, both public and private ; and 
reciprocal assistance has been ren- 
dered to them in the shape of strong 
public sentiment, which was as free 
from unreasonable jealousy of their 
power as it was from toleration of 
dangerous tendencies in banking." 

Baptist Charitable Society (The 
Massachusetts) incorporated 1821. 
It aids, by semi-annual payments of 
money, widows and children of Baptist 
ministers who have died while pastors 
within the State. It aids about thirty 
families yearly, and spends therefor 
about $2,000. Application for aid 
must be made to the secretary, A. P. 
Mason, No. 28 School Street; and it 
must be accompanied by recommen- 
dation from the pastor of the church 
to which the widow belongs. 

Baptist Denomination and 
Churches. — The Baptists of the early 
days found it very difficult to obtain a 
foothold in Boston. They suffered 
much persecution, and endured fines, 
whipping, imprisonment, and exile, in 
maintaining their faith : even the doors 
of their little first church were nailed 
up at one time (in March, 1680), by 
order of the governor and council of 
the Colony. Nevertheless they obsti- 
nately and fearlessly adhered to their 
" abominable " doctrine, as it was then 
called, and slowly grew in numbers and 
strength ; in time receiving more toler- 
ation, as the Puritan spirit mellowed. 
The first Baptist church in the Colony 
was formed in Charlestown, in 1665, 
with nine members. It was subse- 
quently transferred to Boston; and the 



first house of worship was erected in 
1679, at tne corner of Stillman and Sa- 
lem Streets. In time a larger meeting- 
house was built on the same site ; and, 
150 years after the building of the first 
house, a removal was made to the cor- 
ner of Hanover and Union Streets. 
Here the third and larger and more 
commodious meeting-house was built, 
in which the society worshipped for 25 
years; removing in 1853 to Somerset 
Street, on Beacon Hill, when the fine 
church-building, which, with its tall 
spire, was a familiar and striking land- 
mark for so many years, was erected. 
In 1877 this fi rst society united with 
the Shawmut-avenue Baptist Church, 
organized in 1856, which took its name 
and inherited its history. When these 
two churches were united, the Shaw- 
mut-avenue Church was located on 
Shawmut Avenue and Rutland Street; 
but in the winter of 188-182 the society 
purchased the Brattle-square Church, 
on Commonwealth Avenue [see Brat- 
tle-square Church], and removal was 
subsequently made to this building, — 
the first church of its denomination to 
secure a location in the Back-bay dis- 
trict. The Second Baptist Church in 
Boston was formed in 1743, by former 
members of the First Church, who 
considered its pastor at that time, 
Rev. Jeremiah Condy, to be tainted 
with " Arminianism." The Second 
Church was well known as the Bald- 
win-place Church. A second house 
of worship was built here in 181 1, and 
the society continued to occupy it until 
some time after many of the families 
connected with it had moved to other 
portions of the city. The society finally 
reluctantly decided to remove to the 
South End ; and in 1865 its present 
church-building, on the corner of War- 
ren Avenue and Canton Street, was 
completed, and moved into ; and the 
old one was. disposed of to the "Home 
for Little Wanderers," which at present 
occupies it [see Baldwin-place Home 
for Little Wanderers']. Until the pres- 
ent century was well advanced, the 
growth of the Baptist denomination 



BAPTIST DENOMINATION AND CHURCHES 



4 8 



BAPTIST SOCIAL UNION 



was slow. Statistics published in 
1784 gave but 201 Baptists within the 
city-limits. Of the prominent Baptist 
churches of the present clay, the Dud- 
ley-street, Roxbury district, was formed 
in 1821; the Clarendon-street, formerly 
the Federal-street, and afterwards the 
Rowe-street Church, in 1827 ; the 
Union Temple, in 1839; the Bowdoin- 
square, in 1840; and the Shawmut- 
avenue (now united with the First), in 
1856. Long terms of service have been 
the rule with the pastors of the Bap- 
tist churches here. Rev. Samuel Still- 
man, D.D., one of the most famous of 
the early Baptist preachers, was pastor 
of the First Church for 42 years ; and 
Rev. Rollin H. Neale, D.D., was pas- 
tor of the same -church for 40 years, — 
from 1837 to 1877, — when his pastor- 



ate was concluded only by his death. 
Among other prominent Baptist cler- 
gymen in Boston were, Rev. Daniel 
Sharpe, who was pastor of the third 
church formed in Boston (afterward 
the Charles-street Church) from 181 2, 
five years after its organization, to 1853, 
a period of 41 years; Rev. Baron Stow, 
D.D., was pastor of the Second Church 
for 16 years, and then for 19 years 
pastor of the Rowe-street (now Clar- 
endon-street) Church; and Rev. Fran- 
cis Wayland, D.D., who for five years 
previous to his occupation of the pres- 
idency of Brown University was pastor 
of the First Church. The following 
is a list of the Baptist churches at 
present in Boston, with the dates of 
their formation, and their present pas- 
tors : — 



Name of Church. 


Location. 


Shed. Phesent Pastor. 


Baptist Bethel 


Hanover, cor. No. Bennet. 


1851 


Henry A. Cooke. 


Bowdoin-square Church . . 


Bowdoin Square. 


1840 


W. W. Downs. 


Brighton-avenue Baptist . 


Brighton Avenue (Allston). 


1853 


Francis E. Tower. 


Bunker-hill Baptist .... 


Bunker-hill, cor. Mystic (Chsn.). 


1851 




Central-square Church . . . 


Central Square (E. B.). 


1844 




Clarendon-street Church . . 


Clarendon, cor. Montgomery. 


1S27 


A. J. Gordon. 


Day-Star Baptist (colored) 


84 West Springfield. 


1876 


A. Ellis. 


Dearborn-street Church . . . 


Dearborn, 


1870 


Charles A. Reese. 


Dudley-street Baptist . . . 


137 Dudley. 


1821 


A. K. Potter, D.D. 


Ebenezer Baptist (colored) 


85 - West Concord. 


1871 




First Baptist 


Commonwealth Avenue. 


1665 


C. B. Crane. 


First Baptist 


Lawrence, cor. Austin (Chsn.). 


1801 




First Baptist 


South, opp. Poplar (Roslindale). 


1874 


G. W. Thomas. 


Fourth-street Baptist . . . 


Fourth, cor. L. 


1858 


C. H. Spalding. 


German Church 


Vernon, cor. Cabot. 


1879 


F. A. Licht. 


Harvard-street Church . . 


Harrison Avenue, cor. Harvard. 


1839 


O. T. Walker. 


Independent Baptist (colored), 


Joy. 


1805 


Peter Smith. 


Jamaica-Plain Baptist . . . 


Centre, cor. Myrtle (J. P.). 


1842 


D. H. Taylor. 


Neponset-avenue Church . . 


Chickatawbut (Nep.). 


1837 


Joseph Barnard. 


Ruggles-street Baptist . . . 


Ruggles. 


1870 


Robert G. Seymour. 


South Baptist 


Broadway, cor. F (S. B.). 


1828 


T. D. Anderson. 


Stoughton-street Church . . 


Stoughton, cor. Sumner (Dorch.). 


1845 


Albert T. Dunn. 


Trinity Baptist 


Trenton (E. B.). 


1878 


N. B. Jones. 


Twelfth Baptist (colored) . . 


Phillips. 


1848 




Union-Temple Church . . . 


Tremont Temple. 


1839 


F. M. Ellis. 


Warren-avenue Church . . . 


Warren Avenue, cor. W. Canton. 


1743 


0. P. Gifford. 



Baptist Social Union (The). — An 

association of Baptist laymen "for the 
purpose of more intimate acquaint- 
ance between members of the different 



churches " of this denomination, " and 
for consideration of topics of common 
practical interest." It was formed in 
1864, and has steadily increased in 



BAB ASSOCIATION 



49 



BASE -BALL CLTJB 



membership and usefulness in its cho- 
sen field, not only in strengthening the 
fellowship of the churches, but in stim- 
ulating them and systematizing their 
work. It meets monthly at the Baptist 
headquarters in the Tremont Temple 
building. [See Tremont Temple.] 

Bar Association. — The city of Bos- 
ton has always felt just pride in the 
character and ability of the bar of 
Suffolk County. The statutes of Mas- 
sachusetts provide that none shall be 
admitted as attorneys at law except up- 
on a rigid examination, or upon proof 
of membership of the bar of the high- 
est court of a sister State. Besides 
these statutory safeguards, the inter- 
ests and dignity of the profession are 
guarded by the voluntary association 
known as the "Bar Association of the 
City of Boston." This organization 
now numbers about 300 members, in- 
cluding nearly all the eminent practi- 
tioners of Suffolk County. It was 
formed in 1876-77 ; and its successive 
presidents have been the Hon. Sidney 
Bartlett, Judge Benjamin F. Thomas, 
the Hon. E. Rockwood Hoar, the Hon. 
William Gaston, and its present presid- 
ing officer, William G. Russell, Esq. 
The objects of the Association, as stat- 
ed in the constitution, are, " to promote 
social intercourse among the members 
of the bar, to insure conformity to a 
high standard of professional duty, and 
to make the practice of the law efficient 
in the administration of justice." In 
the pursuit of these objects, the As- 
sociation regard it their privilege and 
duty upon occasion to procure the ex- 
pulsion from the bar of lawyers guilty 
of professional misconduct, and in all 
proper ways to sustain the pure and 
able administration of law. The As- 
sociation is a voluntary and unofficial 
organization, but is recognized by the 
courts and the community as a valu- 
able force in the preservation of the 
honor of the profession. Membership 
of the bar does not of itself confer 
membership in the Association, but 
applicants are voted upon at meetings 



of the Association ; in which votes, neg- 
ative ballots amounting in number to 
one-fifth of those cast exclude a candi- 
date. The theory of the Association 
is, to exclude no candidate upon per- 
sonal or private grounds, but only for 
reasons which affect dishonorably his 
personal or professional character ; 
and the effect of this discrimination 
has been quite salutary. The Associa- 
tion holds stated and special meetings 
in the Supreme Judicial Court-room in 
Boston, and has an annual dinner in 
January which is recognized as per- 
haps the most noteworthy gathering 
of men of power and wit in the city. 
These occasions are regarded private, 
their reserve being protected by pro- 
fessional etiquette ; but* at this board 
many of the wittiest men in the com- 
munity have given utterance to their 
happiest efforts. 

Barrieado (The), sometimes called 
the "Sea-Wall," or "Out-Wharves," 
was an ancient harbor-defence, which 
was very nearly on the present line 
of Atlantic Avenue [see Streets of 
the City]. It connected the South 
Battery, which was on the spot where 
Rowe's Wharf now is [see Wharves], 
with the North Battery, which was at 
the North End, opposite Charlestown. 
It was provided with openings to 
allow shipping to pass within its line, 
and was calculated to mount heavy 
guns en barbette. It was erected by 
private enterprise in 1673. Proving 
to be unnecessary as a defence, and 
useless for commercial purposes, it 
fell into decay, and slowly disappeared 
through changes and improvements. 
It formed a line of about 2,200 feet in 
length, about 15 in height, and 20 feet 
in breadth at the top. 

Base-ball Club (The Boston). — 
Organized in 187 1. The nine first 
engaged was substantially the famous 
"Red-Stocking" team of Cincinnati, 
which in 1869 and 1870 had made such 
a sensation in the athletic world, and 
had fairly swept the country. Previ- 
ous to this time, a few professional 



BASE-BALL CLUB 



5° 



BATHS 



nines had been organized, and had laid 
the foundation for the national popu- 
larity of the game ; but the " Red- 
Stockings " were unquestionably the 
pioneers in what is now the League 
of Professional Base-ball Clubs. The 
Boston club adopted, and has always 
retained, the red stockings as the dis- 
tinctive feature of its uniform; and for 
four successive seasons the nine won 
the championship. Financial backing 
was afforded by the organization of 
the Boston Base-ball Association ; and 
Boston was active and prominent in 
forming the League of Professional 
Base-ball Clubs in 1876, which has con- 
tinued to the present time, and has re- 
duced the game to a business and well- 
nigh to a science. Headquarters were 
established under the management of 
the brothers Wright, Harry and 
George, who continued until within two 
or three years as members of the Bos- 
ton team ; Harry being the manager, 
and George the " short-stop," in which 
positions they have had few equals. 
The Boston team has included among 
its members many of the best players 
in their respective positions to be 
found in the country ; and though some 
seasons have proved pecuniarily unfor- 
tunate, and compelled the stockholders 
in the association to make up deficits, 
the organization has never been dis- 
solved, and, during the seasons from 
1880 to 1882 inclusive, has been very 
prosperous, that of 1882 being the 
best in the club's history. The head- 
quarters of the club and association 
ate at No. 765 Washington Street ; 
occupying as a club-room the rear 
room, the front being a shop for the 
sale of base-balls and other sporting 
goods. For the season of 1883 the 
club has engaged a team embracing 
the best elements of that of 1882, with 
the additions of two former members, 
and three new but promising players. 
J. J. Burdock, for several years the sec- 
ond baseman, and who stands second 
to none in that position, is captain of 
the nine. A. H. Soden is the pres- 
ident, and F. P. Roundy the clerk of 



the Association. The annual meeting 
occurs on the third Wednesday in 
December. The Boston association 
is to be commended for the high stand 
it has always taken in demanding 
good conduct, and the observance of 
thorough discipline on the part of its 
players, and in preserving the morale 
of the game. The grounds of the club 
are at the South End, alongside the 
Boston and Providence railway-track. 
The entrance is from Walpole Street, 
leading off Tremont Street. The 
grounds are among the largest and 
best in the country, and are provided 
with excellent accommodations for 
spectators and players. 

Baths. — Boston was the first city 
in the country to establish free public 
baths. They are now to be found in 
various quarters of the city. The 
bathing-houses are floating swimming- 
baths. They are open daily from June 
1 to Sept. 1 : those for males, on week- 
days from 5 a.m. to 9 p.m., and on 
Sundays from 5 A.M. to 9 A.M. ; and 
those for females, on weekdays from 6 
a.m. to 8 p.m., and on Sundays from 6 
a.m. to 9 a.m. Boys and girls under 
fifteen years of age are not admitted 
to the bathing-houses after 7 o'clock 
p.m. ; and all the baths are closed at 
10 p.m. on weekdays, and 9^ -a.m. on 
Sundays. Following is a list of those 
at present established: — 

For Men and Boys. — West-Boston Bridge, 
foot of Cambridge Street; Cragie's Bridge, foot 
of Leverett Street; Charles-river Bridge, near 
Causeway Street; East-Boston Sectional 
Dock, 96 Border Street; Mount- Washington- 
avenue Bridge, near Federal Street; South 
Boston, foot of L Street, Dorchester Bay; 
Dover-street Bridge, at South Pier; Maverick 
Street, Jeffries Point (East Boston) ; Chelsea 
Bridge (Charlestown) ; and Maiden Bridge 
(Charlestovvn). 

For Women and Girls. — Warren Bridge, 
near Causeway Street; East Boston Sectional 
Dock, 96 Border Street; South Boston, foot of 
Fifth Street; Dover Street, at South Pier; Com- 
mercial Point, Dorchester; Chelsea Bridge 
(Charlestown) ; Maiden Bridge (Charlestown) . 

Turkish, Russian, and vapor baths 
can be had at several establishments 



BATTERIES 



5' 



in the city, the location of which can 
be found in the Boston Directory. 

Batteries, the Old North and 
South. — These ancient constructions 
were built, the first in 1646, and the 
second in 1666, under the direction of 
Major-Gen. John Leverett, afterwards 
elected in 1673 governor of the Colony, 
and "with the advice of the committee 
of militia in Boston." The North Bat- 
tery was situated near the present Lewis 
Wharf; and the South Battery, more 
frequently called " the Sconce," at the 
foot of Fort Hill [see Fort mil], near 
the present Rowe's Wharf. The first 
was erected to command the harbor 
and the mouth of the Charles. The 
South Battery was the larger and more 
important of the two. Both were care- 
fully maintained until the war of the 
Revolution was ended, and traces of 
them were to be seen long after. The 
memory of the North Battery is perpet- 
uated in the name of Battery Wharf. 

Battle-Flags. — In the Doric Hall 
of the State House, appropriately 
grouped around the statues of Wash- 
ington and Andrew, are the tattered 
and stained flags carried by the several 
regiments and batteries of Massachu- 
setts in the war of the Rebellion. They 
are enclosed behind plate-glass, to 
preserve them from the action of the 
air, and from the mutilation of hunters 
for relics as well. Among the most 
conspicuous in the front are the colors 
of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry (of 
colored- troops), which stormed the 
parapet at Fort Wagner. The color- 
bearer, Sergt. Carney, was seriously 
wounded in the breast, and fell upon 
his knees ; but with one hand pressed 
upon his wound, with the other the 
brave fellow held the stars and stripes 
erect, and so, and still on his knees, he 
bore them off the field. Still bearing 
the flag, he was carried to the hospital ; 
and as he entered, his wounded com- 
rades, lying there, gave cheers for the 
flag and its bearer, who, almost faint- 
ing with the loss of blood, cried exult- 
ingly, " Boys, the old flag never touched 



the ground ! " The surrender of the 
flags to Gov. Andrew on the 22d of 
December, 1865, was one of the most 
imposing and touching spectacles of 
that memorable time. The regiments 
paraded before the State House, and 
one after another gave their colors into 
the hands of the governor, who ap- 
peared on this occasion for the last 
time as "the Governor and Command- 
er-in-chief of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts." The colors were first 
grouped around the pillars in Doric 
Hall, and were removed to the niches 
on the north side, and in the sides of 
the recess occupied by the Washing- 
ton statue, in 1866. Their arrange- 
ment is according to a plan of the late 
Alexander R. Esty, architect, in whose 
charge the matter was placed by the 
governor and council. The flags are 
269 in number, — 194 of them of in- 
fantry regiments, and 75 of cavalry 
and artillery. The infantry flags are 
those in the Washington statue recess ; 
the cavalry, in the north-west angle 
niche ; and the artillery and battery 
flags in the north-eastern niche. In 
the statue recess the national colors 
are arranged in numerical order upon 
the lowest shelf on either side of the 
statue, with the State and other colors 
in the background. 

Beacon (The), on Beacon Hill.— 

The beacon, which gave the name to 
Beacon Hill [see Beacon Hill], was first 
established by order of the General 
Court in 1634. It was placed on the 
summit of the hill, the exact spot being 
just below the corner of the present 
Mount- Vernon and Temple Streets, at 
the south-east corner of the old reser- 
voir [see Beacon-kill Reservoir]. Its 
object was to alarm the country in case 
of invasion, or give notice of danger of 
any sort. The beacon was an iron skil- 
let, filled with combustibles ready to be 
fired on occasion of alarm, and suspend- 
ed from a crane of iron at the top of a 
tall mast, which could be ascended by 
treenails driven into it. The pole 
stood on cross-timbers placed upon a 



BEACON 



5 2 



BEACON HILL 



stone foundation, supported by braces. 
When fired, it could be seen for a great 
distance inland. It was provided, that, 
when the beacon was seen fired, a gen- 
eral alarm should be given, and mes- 
sengers sent by that town where the 
danger existed to all other towns within 
their jurisdiction. The first beacon fell 
from some cause unknown, and was 
rebuilt in 1768. In 1775 this was taken 
down by the British troops, and a small 
square fort erected in its stead; and 
after their retirement in 1776, it was 
placed by the town in its old position. 
In 1789 this beacon was blown down 
during a gale. Then, on its site, in 
1790-91, was erected a monument of 
brick, 60 feet high and four in diameter, 
a plain Doric column of the Roman 
style, to the memory of those who fell 
at Bunker Hill, — the first monument 
to commemorate that memorable bat- 
tle. This, in turn, had to give way to 
modern improvements when, in 181 1, 
the hill was cut down. The monument 
levelled, the tablets with their stirring 
and patriotic inscriptions were placed 
in the Doric Hall of the State House ; 
and the gilded eagle with outspread 
wings, which surmounted it, placed in 
the House of Representatives, above 
the chair of the speaker [see State 
House], The inscription on the east side 
of the monument read as follows : — 

AMERICANS . 

WHILE . FROM . THIS . EMINENCE 

SCENES . OF . LUXURIANT . FERTILITY 

OF . FLOURISHING . COMMERCE 

AND . THE . ABODES . OF . SOCIAL . HAPPINESS 

MEET . YOUR . VIEW 

FORGET . NOT . THOSE 

WHO . BY . THEIR . EXERTIONS 

HAVE . SECURED . TO . YOU 

THESE . BLESSINGS. 

That on the south side : 

TO . COMMEMORATE 

THAT . TRAIN . OF . EVENTS 

WHICH . LED 

TO . THE . AMERICAN . REVOLUTION 

AND . FINALLY . SECURED 

LIBERTY . AND . INDEPENDENCE 

TO . THE .. UNITED . STATES 

THIS . COLUMN . IS . ERECTED 

BY . THE . VOLUNTARY . CONTRIBUTIONS 

OF . THE . CITIZENS 

OF . BOSTON 

MDCCXC. 



On the west side : — 

Stamp act passed 1765. repealed 1766. 

Board of customs established 1767. 

British troops fired on the inhabitants of Boston 

March 5. 1770. 

Tea act passed 1773. 

Tea destroyed in Boston Decern: 16. 

Port of Boston shut and guarded June 1. 1774. 

General Congress at Philadelphia Sept : 4. 

Provincial congress at Concord Oct: n. 

Battle of Lexington April 19. 1775. 

Battle of Bunker Hill June 17. 

Washington took command of the army July 2. 

Boston evacuated March 17. 1776. 

Independence declared by Congress July 4. 1776. 

Hancock President. • 

On the north side : — 

Capture of Hessians at Trenton Dec: 26. 1776. 

Capture of Hessians at Bennington. Aug 16. 1777. 

Capture of British army at Saratoga Oct: 17. 

Alliance with France Feb: 6. 1778. 

Confederation of United States formed July 9. 

Constitution of Massachusetts formed 1780. 

Bowdoin President of Convention. 

Capture of British army at York Oct: 19. 1781. 

Preliminaries of Peace Nov: 30. 1782. 

Definitive treaty of Peace Sept: 10. 1783. 

Federal constitution formed Sept: 17. 1787, 

and ratified by the United States 1787. to. 1790. 

NewCongress assembled at New York Ap. 6. 1789. 

Washington inaugurated President April 30. 

Public debts funded Aug: 4. 1790. 

The Hon. Thomas Dawes had the 
reputation of being the author of the 
above inscriptions. 

Beacon Hill was the highest of the 
three great hills of Boston when the 
town was first settled, the others being 
Copp's Hill and Fort Hill [see Copp's 
Hill and Fort Hill}. Its summit pre- 
sented three eminences, which gave 
to it its first name of " Treamount," 
and to the town, before it was named 
Boston, the designation of " Trimoun- 
taine," instead of the name of Shaw- 
mut, by which it was called by the 
Indians. These eminences were sit- 
uated, one behind where the State 
House now stands, near Mount-Ver- 
non, Temple, and Hancock Streets, 
and where the old Beacon stood [see 
Beacon\ which was for a while called 
"Centry Hill;" another farther west 
called "Copley's Hill," and later, 
" Mount Vernon," from which the 
present Mount- Vernon Street took 
its name; and the third, to the east 



BEACON HILL 



53 



BEACON SOCIETY 



of "Centry Hill," first known as 
''Cotton's Hill," and afterwards as 
"Pemberton's Hill," from which the 
present Pemberton Square took its 
name [see Streets of Boston]. The 
westerly portion of the original Trea- 
mount stretched nearly to the present 
line of West-Cedar Street, where it ter- 
minated in a high bluff, for some time 
known as " West Hill ; " and its bound- 
aries were from the head of the present 
Hanover Street on the east to the 
water near the present Charles Street 
on the west, and from Cambridge 
Street on the north to the Common 
on the south ; and its loftiest eminence 
was 138 feet above the level of the sea. 
The easterly slope, the site of the 
present Tremont Rqw, was at first the 
fashionable side ; and here, in the early 
days, were some of the finest mansion- 
houses in the town : but later Thomas 
Hancock, the uncle of Gov. Hancock, 
selecting the westerly slope for his 
stone mansion-house, erected in 1737 
[see Old Landmarks], the fashion 
turned in that direction; and since 
that time this has been the side occu- 
pied by the stateliest residences, the 
other sides in time being, in large part, 
turned over to trade or to humbler 
residences. The site of the present 
State House was for a while the cow- 
pasture on the Hancock estate, and 
was bought by the town, and given 
conditionally to the State for the ere'c- 
tion of a State House, the corner-stone 
of which was laid on the 4th of July, 
1795 [ see State House]. The great 
changes in the appearance of the hill 
began in 181 1, when the town sold off 
a quantity of its public lands in order 
to raise money to reduce its debts, 
which were pressing heavily upon it. 
During the years following, the various 
eminences were removed, much of the 
soil having been used to raise the low 
land in the neighborhood of Charles 
Street at the foot of the hill, and to 
fill up other waste places ; new streets 
were laid out, and the entire appear- 
ance of the ancient landmark was 
greatly changed. The " great digging " 



continued for about twelve years. [See 
Streets of Boston.\ 

Beacon - Hill Reservoir. — The 

massive, gloomy structure of granite 
on Derne Street, occupying the block 
between Temple and Hancock Streets, 
now nearly removed, was once an im- 
portant part of the system of the Co- 
chituate Water-works. It was built 
in 1849, was a b out 200 feet square, 
covering 37,012 square feet of land, and 
was capable of containing 2,678,961 
gallons of water. It was built for a 
distributing reservoir, and was the 
most costly reservoir of that class 
owned by the city. Its use was aban- 
doned when connection of the Beacon- 
hill district of the city was made with 
the high-service works on Parker Hill, 
Roxbury district [see Water -Works]. 
It is proposed to utilize the stone, of 
which it is constructed, in part, in the 
proposed sea-wall of the contemplated 
Charles-river embankment, and in the 
work on the Back-bay Park [see Public 
Parks System]. . On its site it has been 
proposed to erect a new and modern 
court-house, but this plan has not yet 
(1883) been fully determined upon [see 
Court House]. 

Beacon Society (The). — During 
the year 1881 the project of a World's 
Fair in Boston in 1885 was considered 
by committees of citizens, and exten- 
sively discussed in the newspapers ; 
and the matter was finally left with a 
committee of thirteen, chosen at a meet- 
ing of the general committee, to thor- 
oughly canvass the question, and report 
in January, 1882, upon the feasibility of 
the project. This committee reported 
that the scheme be abandoned for the 
present. The final meeting to close 
up its work was held at the Hotel Ven- 
dome on the evening of Saturday, Feb. 
25; on which occasion a dinner was 
enjoyed, to which prominent business 
men, who had contributed towards the 
expenses of the working-fund during 
the time that the project was under 
consideration, were invited as guests. 
In an after-dinner speech, Mr. John C. 



BEER AND BREWERIES 



54 



BEER AND BREWERIES 



Paige, one of the committee of thirteen, 
and its treasurer, proposed the organi- 
zation of an association or club, to' be 
known as the " Beacon Society ; " " the 
word ' Beacon ' being adopted," he ex- 
plained, "as an evidence of the inten- 
tion of the society in its humble way to 
throw light upon all questions of im- 
portance to the advancement of the 
city of Boston." The proposition was 
warmly received and indorsed ; and the 
society then and there organized, with 
Gen. A. P. Martin as president, Gen. 
James H. Wilson vice-president, John 
C. Paige secretary and treasurer. 
These officers subsequently organized 
an executive committee, and a con- 
stitution and by-laws were adopted. 
The original committee of thirteen 
form the nucleus of the association, 
and membership is limited to sixty. The 
society meets monthly — the fourth 
Saturday in each month — at dinner at 
the Hotel Vendome, after the fashion 
observed by the other business and 
political clubs of the city. [See Com- 
mercial Club, Merchants Club, and Po- 
litical Chtbs.] Any member is privi- 
leged to invite a friend to a club-dinner 
for whose entertainment he is person- 
ally assessed. At these meetings the 
discussions take the direction indicated 
in the first article of the by-laws : viz., 
" the purpose of advancing the materi- 
al, commercial, and social prosperity of 
Boston and of the members of the 
Beacon Society, and a free and unre- 
strained interchange of views upon all 
topics pertaining to its objects." The 
membership committee consists of the 
officers ex-officiis, with Charles W. 
Wilder, James R. Osgood, and C. M. 
Haley. 

Beer and Breweries. — A very 
large amount of beer is sold, and much 
is consumed, in Boston. The larger 
breweries are mostly situated in the 
Roxbury district. The first German 
brewery established here was doubt- 
less that of Michael Ludwig, who began 
to brew small or table beer in a little 
wooden building on the corner of 



Washington and Plymouth (now 
Hunneman) Streets, Roxbury district, 
in 1846. He ran his brewery for about 
a year, when he was bought out by 
Matthias Kramer and Charles Roessfe 
(father of John Roessle, the prominent 
brewer of the present day). After a 
short continuance in the old place, the 
firm removed to Lowell (now Pynchon) 
Street, fitting up an old building on an 
island in what was known as " Smith's 
Pond," a small body of water fed by, 
and really a widening of, " Stony 
Brook," which still courses its way 
under the stables of the Metropolitan 
Railroad, and other buildings, which 
occupy the site of the former pond, 
near the " Roxbury Crossing," where 
Tremont Street .crosses the Boston 
and Providence Railroad. The old 
pond was formerly a prominent place, 
and furnished power for an old-fash- 
ioned saw-mill, to which lumber was 
drawn from the surrounding towns. 
Kramer and Roessle continued making 
small beer here until January, 1848, 
when they shut down their brewery until 
the middle of April. Re-opening, they 
hired a young but experienced brewer, 
just from Germany, whose name was 
Gottlieb F. Burkhardt ; and they con- 
tinued to brew table-beer until autumn, 
when Burkhardt made the first lager- 
beer ever brewed in this vicinity, bring- 
ing the yeast from Philadelphia. In 
December, 1849, Roessle bought out 
Kramer, the latter going into other 
business ; and in place of Burkhardt, 
whose wages were considered by 
Roessle to be too high, another brewer 
was hired at a less price. Burkhardt 
thereupon formed a partnership with 
a man who had been a cooper in 
Kramer's employ ; Burkhardt putting 
in as capital $250 which he had saved, 
and the other man agreeing to put in 
some 500 florins which he expected to 
get from Germany, but which never 
came. An old, low brick building, No. 
62 Northampton Street, near Harrison 
Avenue, was hired by the new firm, 
and a copper kettle was ordered and 
delivered. When the remittance from 



BEER AND BREWERIES 



55 



BEER AND BREWERIES 



Germany failed to arrive, the kettle 
could not be paid for ; and the copper- 
smith had to take his choice of re- 
moving his property, or trusting Burk- 
hardt, who had terminated the part- 
nership, and was pushing the business 
alone. The coppersmith took the 
latter course, and never had reason to 
regret his choice. Mr. Burkhardt 
continued brewing small-beer at this 
place until 1856, but in 1853 he began 
to brew lager-beer also. In 1854 he 
bought land on the site of his present 
brewery, corner of Parker and Station 
Streets, Roxbury district, and built 
vaults for the storage of lager-beer 
there. In 1856 he sold out his place 
in Northampton Street to William 
Baker, who continued its use as a 
brewery. Meantime Charles Roessle, 
at the old wooden brewery on the isl- 
and in " Smith's Pond," had begun 
brewing lager-beer in 1851 ; and 
Joseph Hechenger had started a small 
beer-brewery on what is now Texas 
Place, off Tremont Street, where 
subsequent, to 1853 he also began 
to brew lager-beer. H. and J. Pfaff 
began business in 1858, on Pynchon 
Street, near Cedar, Roxbury district, 
and have continued with rapidly grow- 
ing business ever since. These were 
the pioneer lager-beer breweries of 
Boston, whose number has increased 
until now a large area of country in the 
Roxbury district is covered with their 
solid brick buildings, yards, and vaults. 
Ale had been manufactured in Boston 
for many years, probably almost from 
the first settlement of the town ; but 
the brewing of lager-beer, dating back 
as it does less than 35 years, has shown 
a growth that is marvellous for a new 
industry. In 1869 Rueter & Alley 
began the manufacture of lager-beer 
at the Highland-spring Brewery, on 
Terrace Street; and in four years' 
time their production had increased 
from 25,000 to 130,000 barrels yearly. 
They employ from 60 to 70 men, and 
their buildings and yards cover a large 
tract of land. On March 7, 1872, the 
" Brewers' Association of New Eng- 



land " was formed, for the protection 
of the interests of the brewers, and 
their harmonious and united action on 
all matters of general importance ; 
and almost all the brewers of the 
city are members of the organization. 
William T. Van Nostrand is its pres- 
ident, and Charles A. King secretary. 
The present breweries of Boston are : 
G. F. Burkhardt & Co., Parker and 
Station Streets ; Haffenreffer & Co., 
Boylston Brewery, Boylston Station ; 
Continental Brewery, Lang & King, 
on Longwood Avenue ; J. W. Kenney, 
Park Brewery, Terrace Street; Nor- 
folk Brewery (ale), Centre and Cedar 
Streets ; H. & J. Pfaff, 102 Pynchon ; 
John Roessle, 60 Pynchon ; Rueter & 
Alley, Highland-spring Brewery, Ter- 
race and Heath Streets ; J. K. Souther, 
Burton Brewery, Parker and Heath 
Streets ; A. J. Houghton & Co., Vien- 
na Brewery, Station and Hallock 
Streets, — all in the Roxbury district. 
Boston Beer Company, Second and D 
Streets ; Jones, Cook, & Co., 524 East 
Second ; Suffolk Brewing Company, 
Eighth and G Streets, — all in South 
Boston; Isaac Cook & Co., C. H. 
Decher, Marginal Street, East Bos- 
ton ; W. T. Van Nostrand & Co., Crys- 
tal-lake Brewery, 40 Alford Street, 
Charlestown district. The Boston mar- 
ket is supplied not only by the home 
breweries, but from Cincinnati, New 
York, Rochester, Milwaukee, Niagara 
Falls, and St. Louis. The Boston 
breweries also have a large trade with 
distant markets in various sections of 
the country. The sale and consump- 
tion of beer in Boston are very large, 
and are steadily increasing. Something 
of the extent of the beer-drinking and 
beer-manufacture in the country at large 
is shown by the following statistics : The 
amount of beer produced in the entire 
country from May 1, 1879, to May : > 
1880, was 12,800,900 barrels ; the year 
after, it was 14,125,466 barrels; dur- 
ing the year ended June 30, 1882, it 
was over 16,000,000 barrels. Over 
#150,000,000 are invested in the busi- 



BENEVOLENT ORDER OF ELKS 



56 



BERKELEY-STREET CHURCH 



Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks. — A secret benevolent or- 
ganization, incorporated in 1879; its 
membership at first confined chiefly to 
actors, but now including persons from 
all professions. It gives assistance to 
members ill or out of employment, 
according to the discretion of a relief 
committee charged with this duty ; 
also $100, when needed, for the 
burial of a member. The initiation- 
fee is $50, and the yearly assessment, 
$6. It is a national organization, and 
has lodges in different cities. The 
Boston lodge is No. 10, and has rooms 
at No. 176 Tremont Street. It was 
organized among the first, in 1878. As 
the theatrical element is still predomi- 
nant, the lodges located in the cities 
secure annual " benefits " at leading 
theatres. There is within the organi- 
zation an " Elks' Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation," a co-operative life-insurance 
organization. At the death of a mem- 
ber, each of the surviving members 
pays $1, the amount being given to 
the heirs of the deceased. 

Benevolent Fraternity of 
Churches (The). — An organization 
established and sustained by Unitarian 
churches, though not sectarian in its 
work, whose aim is to teach industry 
among the poor, to warn against indis- 
criminate giving, and to make the poor 
self-supporting. Its field is large, and 
its work is admirably done. It was 
established in 1834 by the following 
churches : Brattle-street, New North, 
King's Chapel, the Second Church, 
Federal-street, New South, Hollis- 
street, Purchase-street, and South Con- 
gregational. The same churches or 
their successors sustain it now. One 
of the leading spirits in its formation, 
who conceived its plan, was the late 
Rev. Ezra S. Gannett, D.D., then of 
the Federal-street Church, now known 
as the Arlington-street Church [see 
Arlington-street ChurcJi\. In 1839 it 
was incorporated. It supports four 
chapels : the Bulfinch-place Chapel ; 
the New South Free Church, corner 



of Tremont and Camden Streets ; the 
Hanover-street Chapel, No. 175 Han- 
over Street; and Washington-village 
Chapel, Dorchester Street, near Dor- 
chester Avenue. There are regular 
Sunday worship and school sessions 
at each, and visiting at the homes of 
the poor, by ministers and assistants, 
in the different districts in the city. 
At the Hanover-street Chapel and the 
New-South Free Church, are sewing- 
schools ; and the girls who are in- 
structed at these are given the garments 
made. Delegates from the churches 
sustaining the Fraternity appoint 
monthly visiting committees to the 
chapels. The first minister-at-large 
for the Fraternity was Rev. Joseph 
Tuckerman, who began his work 
among the poor of Boston in 1826, and 
continued it faithfully and zealously 
until his death. The present minister- 
at-large is Rev. S. W. Winkley. The 
ministry has charge of four hundred 
families living in every ward in the 
city, Chelsea, Somerville, and Cam- 
bridge. The present president of the 
Fraternity is Rev. Edward A. Horton, 
pastor of the Second Church. 

Benevolent Societies. — See Char- 
itable and Benevolent Societies. 

Berkeley-street Church (Congre- 
gational Trinitarian), junction of War- 
ren Avenue with Tremont, Dover, 
and Berkeley Streets. This is the 
successor of the " Pine-street Church," 
built in 1827, in which year the church 
was formed by a colony from other 
churches. The " Pine-street Church " 
long stood on the corner of Washington 
and Pine Streets. The present is the 
second church-building of the society ; 
It was moved into in 1862, and at that 
time the present name of the church 
was assumed. The building is believed 
to be the largest Protestant house of 
worship in New England. On Sept. 
30, 1877, the semi-centennial anniver- 
sary of the church was celebrated; 
and in the summer of the following 
year a debt which had oppressed the 
church from its origin was cancelled. 



BETHEL CHURCH 



57 



In the list of its pastors are some of 
the most illustrious names in the Bos- 
ton ministry. Rev. Thomas H. Skin- 
ner, D.D., was the first pastor. Other 
pastors were, Rev. Messrs. John 
Brown, D.D., 1821-31 ; Amos A. 
Phelps, 1831-34 ; Artemas Boies, 1834- 
40 ; Austin Phelps, 1842-48 ; and Hen- 
ry M. Dexter, D.D., 1849-67 (now editor 
of the " Congregationalist "). William 
Burnet Wright, engaged in 1867, is the 
present pastor. [See Congregational- 
ism {Trinitarian) and Congregational 
Churches^ 

Bethel Church. — " Father _ Tay- 
lor's " Bethel, in North Square, is the 
best known of all the seamen's churches 
in the city. It is the property of the 
Boston Port and Seamen' s-Aid So- 
ciety, and was built in 1828 by the 
Boston Port Society, afterwards united 
with the Seamen's-Aid Society under 
the name as above. [See Boston Port 
and Seamen's-Aid Society \ It is a 
modest structure, opposite the more 
imposing Mariner's House [see Mari- 
ner's House]. The life-long services 
of Rev. Edward T. Taylor, one of 
nature's orators, who was born to be a 
preacher and pastor of seafaring men, 
and whose hand and voice were ready 
for every good work, made this little 
church, years ago, famous. Rev. E. 
R. Watson is the pastor now. 

Bicycling. — Since the introduc- 
tion of the bicycle in 1877, the growth 
of bicycling in Boston has been steady 
and sure; and the wheel occupies a 
prominent place among the vehicles 
used for business, pleasure, and health- 
ful recreation on the street and the 
fine suburban roads. There is scarcely 
a profession that is not represented by 
wheelmen, even the clergy finding the 
bicycle useful in making pastoral calls. 
Many of them are expert riders, and 
are frequent visitors to the bicycle 
school in the " Pilot " newspaper build- 
ing, on Washington Street. Besides 
this school, there are a number of bi- 
cycle-clubs in various parts of the city. 
The oldest and most prominent of 



these is the Boston Club, organized 
Feb. 11, 1878, by 14 gentlemen, and 
which to-day numbers 140 members, 
80 of whom are associate members. 
The entire membership of the club is 
limited to 310. The combining of its 
active bicycling interest with social 
features has aided largely in bringing it 
to its present prosperous condition. It 
had for its first president C. E. Pratt, 
ex-president of the Common Council, 
and awell-known lawyer; and its officers 
are generally representative profession- 
al and business men. The entrance-fee 
is $10 for associate, and $5 for active 
members. The dues are $10 a. year 
for associate, and $3 a quarter for 
active members. Any gentleman is 
eligible for associate membership ; but 
no person can be an active member 
unless he is an amateur wheelman 
in good standing, and an associate 
member of the club at least one 
month previous to being proposed. 
Any member in good standing can be- 
come a life-member on the payment of 
$150, which exempts him from all dues 
and assessments. The regular busi- 
ness-meetings of the club are held on 
the first Wednesday in each month; 
and at least once a year all the mem- 
bers are expected to participate in 
an excursion on the wheel, of two 
or more days' duration. Once a year 
there is a race of not less than twen- 
ty miles for the championship of the 
club, and a gold trophy, which, when 
it is won by one competitor three 
times, becomes his private property. 
In addition to the above, each of the 
riders up to three who covers the 
distance within an hour and a half 
receives a silver medal suitably in- 
scribed. The club uniform is dark- 
green throughout, and consists of a 
parole jacket, knee-breeches, stockings, 
and cap. The colors are silver and 
green. The club occupies what is 
claimed to be the finest house in the 
world devoted to bicycling purposes. 
It is a large five-story brick building 
situated at No. 53 Union Park, on the 
corner of Tremont Street. In the 



BICYCLING 



58 



BIJOU THEATRE 



basement are the wheel and dressing 
rooms, opening directly on to the 
street, and provided with ample ac- 
commodations for the storage of bi- 
cycles. Parlor, reading-rooms, pool, 
card, smoking, and bath rooms, and 
six dormitories, elegantly furnished, 
comprise the rest of the building. 
Entertainments are given at stated 
intervals; and special evenings in the 
week are designated as being devoted 
to chess, whist, and pool. The Massa- 
chusetts Bicycle Club is second only 
in importance to the Boston Club. It 
has 66 members, all of whom are 
active. It admits no associate mem- 
bers. Its officers and members com- 
prise many prominent citizens, who 
are enthusiastic wheelmen. Every 
candidate for membership must be 
recommended by two members of the 
club, but three black balls reject. An 
admission-fee of $5 is required ; and the 
assessments are $2 per quarter, payable 
in advance. An annual meeting is 
held on the first Tuesday in February, 
when officers are elected ; and a gen- 
eral meeting of the club is held on the 
first Tuesday of each month. On or 
about the fifteenth day of each month, 
from April to November, the members 
have all-day runs into the country. 
The club as a whole is a member of 
the League of American Wheelmen, 
the annual dues to which are paid from 
the treasury. The uniform is dark-blue 
throughout. The club-house is at No. 
194 Columbus Avenue, and is admira- 
bly adapted to the purposes for which 
it is used. It contains a large room 
for the storage of bicycles, easily access- 
ible to the avenue and the main thor- 
oughfares of the city. The Crescent 
Bicycle Club is inferior to those men- 
tioned only in respect to the number 
of its members. It is the youngest of 
the lot, having been organized less than 
two years. It has 35 active members. 
The rules for its government are sub- 
stantially the same as those adopted 
by the other clubs. It has a very hand- 
some uniform, consisting of a blue cap, 
cadet-gray coat with a blue-velvet 



collar, cadet-gray breeches, and blue 
stockings. It occupies the house of 
the Massachusetts Club. There are 
other bicycle-clubs in Roxbury, South 
Boston, East Boston, and in the sub- 
urbs, all having an active and rapidlv 
increasing membership. The regular 
bicycle season opens formally on Fast 
Day, and does not close until the 
ground is covered with snow. Even 
this does not dampen the ardor of 
some of the more enthusiastic wheel- 
men, and riders are seen occasionally 
working their way down town to their 
places of business through a deep snow. 
There is a monthly journal devoted 
exclusively to bicycling, and other peri- 
odicals have departments devoted to 
bicycling news. There is scarcely an 
athletic exhibition given in which fast 
and trick riding does not form a promi- 
nent feature ; and the bicycle-races in 
the Institute Fair Building on Hunting- 
ton Avenue, during the winter, attract 
large and fashionable gatherings. 

Bijou Theatre (The Boston), 

Washington Street, just beyond the 
Boston Theatre, is the newest of the 
playhouses in Boston. It is built on 
the site of the Gaiety Theatre, which 
was formed from the old Melodeon, 
and had a successful career of several 
years, beginning Oct. 15, 1878, and 
closing with the season of 1881-82. 
The Bijou was projected by Fred. 
Vokes, of the famous Vokes family, 
and George H. Tyler, formerly of the 
Park Theatre ; but before the comple- 
tion of the playhouse Mr. Vokes re- 
tired, and Mr. Tyler continued alone 
for a while, ultimately joining in the or- 
ganization of the " Bijou Theatre Com- 
pany," which was duly incorporated in 
November, 1882, with a capital stock of 
$50,000 in shares of $100 each. The 
incorporators were T.Nelson Hastings, 
Edward H. Hastings, and George H. 
Tyler. In February, 1882, Mr. Tyler 
withdrew, selling his interest to T. Nel- 
son Hastings. The arrangement of the 
auditorium of the theatre is unique, 
the plan contemplating a playhouse 






BIJOU THEATRE 



59 



BIJOU THEATRE 



in which every seat commands a fair 
view of the stage, with an interior 
attractive to the eye and elegant in 
its appointments. The seating ca- 
pacity is for 900, of which 550 seats 
are on the main floor, which is at a 
pitch of five feet, and the remain- 
der in the horseshoe-shaped balcony, 
with the exception of 16 in the boxes. 
Each seat is of comfortable width,— 
20 inches, — with closely woven cane 
bottoms set on springs, plush backs 
and arm-frames. The stage is without 
flies or wings; the scenery being let 
down from the sides and rear, and each 
curtain or flat supplied with compen- 
sation balances. The proscenium arch 
is of the horse-shoe form. There are 
no footlights ; but around the proscen- 
ium arch, on the stage side, is a circle 
of incandescent electric lights. The 
stage is 55x29 feet 8 inches, with an 
opening of 36 feet, and a height in front 
of 65 feet. The drop-curtain is of a 
rich velvet, of flax in a silvery blue, 
with a simple band of applique. The 
two dainty boxes are removed entirely 
from the stage. The walls of the thea- 
tre are metallized on the inside, and 
are decorated in warm color of a cop- 
pery hue, in some respects after the 
Egyptian pattern. There are five fig- 
ure-compositions, which meet the eye 
of the spectator as he sits facing the 
stage. These were painted by Francis 
Lathrop of New York, the painter of 
the flower-friezes of Trinity Church 
[see Trinity Church], and George W. 
Maynard, a young artist of this city. 
Mr. Lathrop's designs occupy the two 
spaces above the curving sides of the 
proscenium arch, and a long frieze 
still higher. At the right a reclining 
female figure of heroic dimensions 
represents " Study." Attending her 
is a small " cherubic character " hold- 
ing an open book, who represents the 
prompter. At the left another female 
figure represents " Declamation," with 
an attendant playing upon pipes to 
represent the orchestra. The design 
for the frieze is from the " Midsummer 
Night's Dream," and depicts the fairies 



dancing about Titania, and waving gar- 
lands of poppies while they sing her 
to sleep. Mr. Maynard's two designs 
occupy the two wall-spaces over the 
ends of the balcony. Each consists of 
three aerial female figures. " Morning, 
Entrance, and Music " are on the left, 
and " Night, Exit, and Dance " on the 
right. The ceiling is covered with a 
raised plaster pattern of what is called 
"Arabic interlace," colored to corre- 
spond with the general scheme. The 
dome, 43 feet high, is also metallized 
with decorations harmonizing with 
those of the walls, and with the Egyp- 
tian tone of the entire theatre. From 
its centre a large three-pointed star, 
of Egyptian-Moresque design, depends, 
with a chandelier at each point, and in 
the centre of the star the main chande- 
lier. Should the burning of gas be at 
any time desired (the house is now 
lighted by the Edison electric light), 
there is a large circle of burners around 
the dome ceiling. There are no inside 
doors to the theatre, but, in their place, 
heavy damask curtains, also of Egyp- 
tian design, as well as the carpets on 
the floor. The entrance to the theatre 
is not the least of its attractions. On 
the street is a large, decorated vesti- 
bule, from which spacious flights of 
stairs lead to the foyer and auditorium. 
Bridges connect the theatre-building 
proper, which is in the rear of the 
Washington-street front, with the en- 
trance-building both on the orchestra 
and balcony floors ; so that the means 
of exit are ample in every particular. 
The main exit from the stage is had 
by the way of Mason Street; and addi- 
tional exits are provided for from the 
balcony to the stage exit, for use in an 
emergency. There are 13 exits in all, 
two of them from the stalls. Above 
the vestibule, on the Washington-street 
front, opening from the landing at the 
head of the entrance stairways, is the 
apartment which serves as the foyer 
for the theatre, and a picture-gallery as 
well, which is to be freely open to the 
public. Under the stairs leading from 
the foyer to the balcony is a handsome 



BLACK SEA" 



60 



BLACK SEA' 



tile fireplace. Special attention in the 
design and construction of the building 
is given to ventilation, and precautions 
against fire. The arched dome takes 
the place of the ordinary ceiling ; and 
each alternate section is made of open- 
work, for the passage of air. As a pre- 
caution against fire, the entire flooring 
under both stage and auditorium is un- 
derlaid with a heavy coating of cement. 
The stage ceiling has ten large skylights, 
which render it easy to uncover nearly 
the whole surface. There is also an 
automatic sensitive sprinkler on the 
stage, an iron sprinkler-pipe around 
the face of the proscenium, and fire 
hose and buckets in different parts of 
the house. The main exit from the 
auditorium is 15 feet wide. On the 
floor above is one of similar width. 
The house is designed for light operas 
and dramatic performances. The sea- 
son opened on Dec. 11, 1882, with the 
first performance in Boston of Gilbert 
and Sullivan's "Iolanthe." The archi- 
tect of the theatre was G. H. Wether- 
ell, of the firm of Bradlee & Co. Mr. 
Tyler was the first manager of the 
theatre ; and on his retirement in Feb- 
ruary, 1883, E. H. Hastings became 
the general manager. 

" Black Sea (The)," was the name 
many years ago applied to a court, or 
alley, running off North Street, to- 
wards the water, near Richmond 
Street. It was so called because in 
this court congregated most of the 
negro denizens of the quarter, the 
general population of this locality being 
white. Of late years the term " Black 
Sea " has lost its specific and taken on 
a more generic meaning, and has been 
applied without much discrimination 
to the swarming and not over-savory 
district lying about North, Richmond, 
Fleet, Hanover, Prince, and Salem 
Streets. But a few years ago, com- 
paratively, these streets, particularly 
North (more anciently Ann Street), 
were almost wholly devoted to sailors' 
boarding and dance houses, and other 
dens of iniquity. Every ground-floor, 



and many a cellar, was a bar-room and 
dancing-floor combined ; and Jack was 
pretty sure to part with most of his 
hard-earned cash, and to mortgage his 
advance-money heavily, before he es- 
caped the fascinations of "the street." 
At this period, as many staid Bosto- 
nians less than half a century old can 
testify, it was quite the thing for the 
up-town boys who desired a night's 
sport in the slums, to combine in a 
sufficiently strong party for mutual 
defence and protection, and make the 
tour of the "Black Sea." Down 
North Street, every door stood invit- 
ingly open : sounds of revelry and 
music issued from within ; and floods 
of light streamed over the brightness 
of the bar and the brilliant attire and 
meretricious charms of the painted 
sirens along the walls. The up-town 
crowd would enter, cheerily salute the 
proprietor, and proceed to select part- 
ners from among the best-looking 
girls. The keeper's voice would be 
heard, " Clear the floor : some gen- 
tlemen want to dance ; " and the fid- 
dles would strike up, and the gilded 
youths and their partners would whirl 
for five minutes or so in the dance, 
when the prompter's final call, " Prom- 
enade all, you know whar," would 
be the signal for the well-knowny?7z#/<?, 
— " treating " the girls at the bar. 
The experienced and sensible up- 
towners would simply drink water, 
pay for two drinks each, and, with a 
" Good-night all," would pass out, and 
repeat the programme next door. 
Such parties were rarely molested; 
and they had a good view of the night 
side of life in the city, with little ex- 
pense or risk. But woe to the incau- 
tious youth who separated from his 
party, or partook of the strange pota- 
tions set before him, or made too lav- 
ish a display of money ! Many such 
a one has waked up next morning 
wondering where he was, and why he 
had such a lump on his head, and 
what had become of his watch and 
cash. More recently, wholesale busi- 
ness, especially in the iron, furniture, 



BLACKSTONE 



61 



BLACKSTONE SQUARE 



and salt-meat lines, has encroached 
upon the gaudy divas of North Street, 
and driven them farther and farther 
down toward the water. At present 
but few of the old-fashioned dance- 
halls exist, and the " Black Sea " is 
no longer the show place for visitors 
who wish to see the shady side of 
Boston. Portland, Merrimac, and 
Friend Streets have succeeded to much 
of the peculiar fame ; and a good deal 
of the wickedness of the ancient 
Ann Street and the "Black Sea" 
has overflowed into "the Whaling- 
Ground," as that section was formerly 
known. But now Portland Street has 
been widened, Merrimac Street lighted 
with electricity, and trade has usurped 
almost the whole length of all these 
streets. The dance-houses are few 
and far between ; not every door opens 
into a rum-shop, and the former deni- 
zens have scattered hither and thither. 
The North End must yield the palm 
for wickedness to the South Cove, 
and to parts of East and South Bos- 
ton [see South Cove]. Part of this 
gratifying decadence is due to the 
causes already noted, — the increase 
of trade, and the city's agency in open- 
ing and lighting these dark purlieus. 
But another prime cause is the decay 
of our merchant-marine, and especially 
the substitution of steam for the old 
sailing-vessels. So few sailors, com- 
paratively, now come ashore here from 
long cruises, with large sums of money 
burning their pockets out, that the 
harpies who naturally used to prey 
upon them have been driven else- 
where for lack of game. 

Blackstone (or Blaxton). — The 
Rev. William Blackstone (or Blaxton, 
as sometimes spelled), a retired Epis- 
copal clergyman, was the first English- 
man resident of Boston, which, at the 
time he built his cottage on the side 
of one of its hills, was called by the 
Indians " Shawmut," signifying in their 
language "living fountains." It was 
at his solicitation largely that Gov. 
Winthrop's colony removed to the 



peninsula from Charlestown, where 
it had first planted itself. " He came 
and acquainted the governor of an 
excellent spring there, withal inviting 
him and soliciting him thither." Mr. 
Blackstone's cottage was on the slope 
of the present Beacon Hill, near Pinck- 
ney and West-Cedar Streets ; east of 
it was his garden ; and the spring, 
which was the earliest inducement that 
led the fathers of the town hither, was 
not far from the centre of the grass- 
plat in the present enclosure of Louis- 
burg Square. About four years after 
the removal of the colonists to the 
peninsula, Blackstone, being ill at 
ease among his Puritan neighbors, 
sold out all his interest in it to them, 
with the exception of six acres where 
his house stood ; and with the money 
received bought some cows and other 
things, and moved farther into the 
wilderness, establishing a new home, 
which he called " Study Hill," not far 
from Providence, R.I., on the banks 
of the picturesque river which is now 
known as the Blackstone, named after 
him. Here he died, May 26, 1675. 
He was evidently a man of some learn- 
ing, and had a considerable library. 
He was evidently, too, of an indepen- 
dent spirit; and it is related that he 
said, when he determined to move 
away, " I came from England because 
I did not like the Lord Bishops, but 
I cannot join with you because I would 
not be under' the Lords Brethren." 
The price for which he disposed of the 
peninsula was ,£30 ; and the money 
was raised by a rate, each householder 
paying six shillings. 

Blackstone Square is at the South 
End, on the west side of Washington 
Street, opposite Franklin Square [see 
Franklin Square] ; bounded by Wash- 
ington, West- Brookline, and West- 
Newton Streets, and Shawmut Avenue. 
The square is not now enclosed, the 
fence having been removed. The place 
is beautified by trees ; has a fountain, 
which, when in operation pleasant sum- 
mer afternoons, is a refreshing feature ; 



BLIND ASYLUM 



62 



BOATING 



and is provided with a few seats for 
loungers. This square is much affected 
by children and nurse-girls. It contains 
about two and a third acres. It was 
laid out in 1849. 

Blind Asylum. — See Perkins In- 
stitution and Massachusetts Asylum 
for the Blind. 

Board of Marine Underwriters 
(The Boston). — Merchants' Ex- 
change Building, State Street. This 
was organized in 1850 ; its object being 
" to obtain such benefit, as may be 
derived from consultations on measures 
of general interest, and from concerted 
action where such action is likely to 
promote the interests of its members." 
Its membership comprises the Boston 
insurance-companies doing a marine 
business. It has agents in all parts 
of the world, from whom it receives 
valuable information regarding vessels 
in trouble. Its inspectors inspect and 
rate all vessels arriving in port. It 
also makes the tariff of charges for 
marine insurance. Isaac Sweetser is 
president of the Board, and George H. 
Folger secretary. 

Board of Trade. — See Merchants' 
Exchange. 

Boating has for years held a promi- 
nent place among Bostonians as a man- 
ly and invigorating sport. Its votaries 
are to be found among the best classes 
of citizens ; and it receives substantial 
encouragement from the city govern- 
ment, which, on the Fourth of July an- 
nually, offers prizes to be competed for 
on the Charles River, by clubs in this 
vicinity. There are several of these 
clubs in Boston. The principal one is 
the Union Boat-club, which was organ- 
ized May 26, 1851, and is the oldest, 
with one exception, in the United 
States. It has a membership of 160; 
and its president, Henry Parkman, is a 
successful lawyer. It is exclusively an 
amateur association ; no member being 
allowed to enter into negotiation to 
row a race for a stated sum of money, 
nor can the funds of the club be ap- 



propriated for prizes. An entrance- 
fee of $10 is charged ; and an annual 
assessment of $25 is levied on all ac- 
tive members of less than five years' 
continuous membership ; $20 for more 
than five, and less than ten; $15 for 
more than ten, and less than fifteen; 
$10 for more than fifteen, and less than 
twenty ; and $5 for more than twenty 
years' continuous membership. Two 
negative votes exclude a candidate 
from membership, and no candidate 
once rejected can be again proposed 
within six months. The annual meet- 
ing of the club is held on the second 
Monday of November, and the spring 
meeting on the first Monday of April. 
The club-house is an attractive and 
commodious structure, situated on the 
Charles River, at the foot of Chestnut 
Street. It is admirably adapted for 
the uses to which it is put, having been 
specially designed for the club. Be- 
sides two large rooms used exclusively 
for the storage of boats, there are an 
elegantly furnished parlor, smoking, 
bath, and meeting rooms, all on an 
extensive scale, a gymnasium, and a 
locker for every member. A balcony, 
extending the whole front of the build- 
ing, commands a view of the entire 
Charles-river course, so that the boats 
at the two-mile turn can be seen as 
they round the stake-boat. On the 
roof, seats have been provided for 600 
persons, from the letting of which a 
good revenue is obtained. None but 
members and guests, or visitors intro- 
duced by members, are admitted to the 
club-house; but the privileges of the 
house may be extended to residents of 
Boston and vicinity as often as twice a 
month. The house was built in 1870. 
The "navy," to which additions are 
constantly being made, consists of 
eight-oar barges and shells, six and 
four oared light laps, a number of 
double and single sculls (heavy and 
light), a racing-canoe, and many other 
boats of scarcely less importance. The 
club uniform is navy blue and white ; 
and the ensign is of a dark-blue field, 
with the letters " U. B. C." in white. 



BOATING 



63 



BOOKSTORES 



The Shawmut Rowing-Club, or- 
ganized in 1869, has its headquarters 
in its boat-house at the Dover-street 
Bridge. It has 55 members, the limit 
being 60. An entrance-fee of $15 is 
charged, and there is a monthly assess- 
ment of 50 cents. Membership is 
open alike to amateurs and profession- 
als, and a two-thirds vote of members 
present elects. Meetings are held on 
the first Monday of the month; and 
once a year races are. given for the 
championship of the club, open to 
seniors and juniors. The club colors 
are blue and white. The boat-house 
is 60 feet long by 30 feet wide, and two 
stories high. The lower story is used 
for the storage of boats, and the upper 
for meeting and dressing-rooms, and 
lockers, of which there is one for each 
member. The club has about 40 boats, 
consisting of six-oars, four-oars, pairs, 
and singles. Its practice is done in 

the South Bay and Harbor. The 

West-End Boat-Club (headquarters on 
the Charles River, near the East-Cam- 
bridge Bridge) has been in existence 
for several years, and in that time it 
has turned out some good oarsmen. 
George H. Hosmer is a member of 
the club, and Hani on and the Ward 
brothers are frequently its guests. It 
has 25 members, and is open to pro- 
fessionals as well as amateurs. The 
entrance-fee is $5, with monthly dues 
of $1. Two black balls reject. Its 
meetings are held on the first Monday 
of the month; and regattas are held 
during the season, and gold and silver 
medals are offered as prizes, to be 
competed for by members only. The 
club colors are white and blue. The 
Charles-river course is used for the 
purpose of practice. The boat-house 
floats on spars, and is the only one of 
its kind in New England. It is 65 feet 
long, 35 feet wide, and about 22 feet 
high. It has twelve dressing-rooms, 
bath-rooms, and lavatories. The fleet 
of the club consists of two six-oared 
shells, eight or nine single-scull shells, 
five open working-boats, three paired- 
oared shells, two double-sculled shells, 



two whitehalls, and three four-oared 
working-boats. The club-rooms are at 
the corner of Leverett and Brighton 

Streets. There are also several 

other clubs of less importance, one 
being the Dolphin Boat Club, situated 
near the foot of Chestnut Street; and 
one or two North-End clubs that dis- 
band after the rowing season has passed. 

Boffin's Bower. — Established in 
1870 by Miss Jennie Collins, to assist 
working-girls, and lend them a helping 
hand in time of distress, hardship, or 
temptation. It is one of the most origi- 
nal and useful charities, an organized 
helper to those who often greatly need 
help. Shelter is given in the pleasant 
rooms of the Bower, at No. 103 1 Wash- 
ington Street; food is supplied, relief 
afforded in small sums of money, cloth- 
ing furnished, employment found, legal 
advice secured in cases of trouble, 
pardons for unfortunate criminals se- 
cured, and good influences brought to 
bear upon the erring and wayward. A 
noteworthy feature is the every-day 
dinner throughout the winter months, 
given to those willing to work. There 
is a reading-room connected with the 
Bower, supplied with newspapers and 
books ; and women are allowed to bring 
their work here. The institution is 
supported by voluntary contributions ; 
and Miss Collins is indefatigable in se- 
curing support and co-operation in her 
work, and in increasing the usefulness 
of her kindly enterprise. 

Bookstores. — The bookstores of 
Boston have for many years been fa- 
vorite gathering-places for literary and 
professional men. For a long time the 
" Old Corner Bookstore," on the corner 
of Washington and School Streets, 
which has become widely known by 
numerous references in modern books 
[see Old Corner Bookstore], was the 
principal authors' meeting-place in the 
city, where one was likely to see the men 
conspicuous in literature in their day,. 
— Longfellow, Lowell, Hawthorne, 
Holmes, Whittier, Emerson, and oth- 
ers of wide fame in the world of Ameri- 



BOOKSTORES 



6 4 



BOSTON AND ALBANY STATION 



can letters : but of late years the liter- 
ary meeting-places have multiplied, as 
have the literary people ; and Boston 
writers find all the leading bookstores 
agreeable places for frequent visits. 
Some of the Boston bookstores of the 
present time have " authors' rooms," 
comfortably arranged, and supplied 
with conveniences which are appreciat- 
ed by the craft. Such a room, ample in 
proportions and inviting in furnishings 
and fittings, is to be found in the estab- 
lishment of James R. Osgood & Co., 
No. 211 Tremont Street. The book- 
rooms of Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., No. 
4 Park Street, a series of most attrac- 
tive and tastefully arranged rooms, lined 
with shelves of books, and with tables 
in place of counters, having the appear- 
ance more of a finely equipped library 
than a place of business, are also a 
favorite resort of literary characters. 
So also are the bookstores of Lee & 
Shepard, on Franklin Street ; Lock- 
wood, Brooks, & Co., on Franklin 
Street ; Estes & Lauriat, 301 Washing- 
ton Street, opposite the Old South; 
and the cosey rooms of Roberts Broth- 
ers, the next door below, on Washing- 
ton Street ; as well as the " Old Corner 
Bookstore," which, under the conduct 
of A. Williams & Co., admirably holds 
its old fragrant reputation. The long- 
established store of Little, Brown, & 
Co., on Washington Street, attracts the 
members of the legal profession and 
those looking for the finest English 
editions of standard works : while 
clergymen are drawn to the several 
denominational bookstores, — that of 
the Universalists, on Bromfield Street ; 
the Congregationalists, in the Congre- 
gational House, on Beacon Street, cor- 
ner of Somerset Street ; the Baptists, in 
Tremont Temple ; and the Methodists, 
on Bromfield Street. Of antiquarian 
bookstores there is a goodly number, 
where many a rare old volume may be 
picked up by the curious scholar, and 
where a stock may be found which 
would have fascinated a Charles Lamb 
or a Johnson, as powerfully as the old 
London book-stalls, which had such a 



potent charm for them. Such is " Burn- 
ham's," in School Street, a step below 
Tremont, next adjoining the Parker 
House, whose ample premises are 
stocked from eaves to cellar with liter- 
ary odds and ends of every sort. Oth- 
ers are to be found, mainly at the 
upper end of Cornhill and in Brat- 
tle Street. On the sidewalk edges, 
and backed against the shop-fronts, 
shelves of miscellaneous books are 
daily displayed by these old-book shop- 
keepers, with tags stating the low price 
at which the volumes are offered ; serv- 
ing the twofold purpose of advertising 
their places, and inviting the curious 
book-buyer to the greater treasures 
within. The Boston book-trade is a 
very important branch of the city's busi- 
ness ; and there are many firms con- 
cerned in the manufacture and publish- 
ing of every sort, educational and mis- 
cellaneous, on the largest scale ; and 
Boston books are found in every part 
of the country, while the market for 
them increases with every advancing 
forward step of civilization, as it moves 
westward. [See Ptiblishers.] 

Boston Asylum and Farm School 
for Indigent Boys." — See Asylums 
and Homes ; also Thompson's Island. 

Boston City Hospital. — See City 

Hospital. 

Boston and Albany Station and 
Line. — The present passenger-sta- 
tion of this road occupies the block 
bounded by Kneeland, Lincoln, and 
Utica Streets, and, like the other 
modern railway-stations in the city, is 
convenient in its arrangements for 
passengers, as well as for the prompt 
despatch of trains without confusion, 
and attractive in its general appear- 
ance. It was completed in September, 
1881. The front is chiefly of pressed 
brick, with heavy granite trimmings. 
The entrance is through two large 
porticos on Kneeland Street. The 
"head-house," n8£ by 140 feet, con- 
tains a vestibule 42 by 120 feet, and 
42 feet high, amply lighted in the day- 



BOSTON AND ALBANY STATION 



65 



BOSTON AND FITCHBURG STATION 



time by a skylight covering the whole 
inner court, and at night by the electric 
light. On one side is the ladies' wait- 
ing-room, 35 by 75 feet, comfortably 
and handsomely furnished, and pro- 
vided with three large fireplaces fifteen 
feet in height, built of McGregor free- 
stone, — a recognition of the aesthetic 
tendencies of the times. There are 
ample toilet-rooms also connected with 
the ladies' room; and the ticket-office 
has a window opening into it, with 
a counter at which ladies can buy 
tickets without inconvenience or suf- 
fering the jostling of the crowd always 
pressing at the main window. On the 
opposite side of the large vestibule is 
the gentlemen's waiting-room, 35 by 38 
feet ; and by its side is the news-stand, 
and Armstrong's dining-room, a model 
of convenience and elegance. The 
second story is used for the company's 
offices. A mezzanine story contains 
the treasurer's vault, rooms for station- 
master and porters, and a laundry and 
culinary department. The third story 
is used by numerous clerks of the com- 
pany. The train-house opens directly 
from the vestibule. It is 444 feet long, 
and n8£ feet wide. Its tracks are 
numbered from 1 to 6 inclusive, each 
with capacity of from four to seven 
cars. On the sides of the tracks are 
inward and outward baggage-rooms, 
and accommodations for passengers 
coming and going in hacks and other 
vehicles. The train-house and the 
passenger-rooms are all lighted by 
electricity. The Boston and Albany 
succeeded the Boston and Worcester 
Railroad, and now forms one continu- 
ous line to the Hudson River, so long 
desired and contemplated at the very 
beginning of the railroad-system con- 
ceived by Boston men. The present 
corporation was chartered in 1869, 
upon the consolidation of the Worces- 
ter and Western Railroads, with all 
their branches and leased lines ; the 
Western road having been opened 
from Worcester to the Connecticut 
River eight years after the opening of 
the Worcester road, and two years later 



to the State line. The length of the 
present main line of the Boston and Al- 
bany is 201.65 miles, all double-tracked; 
and the total length of line owned, 
leased, and operated is 323.66 miles. 
It now owns and operates the Grand- 
Junction Railroad, and its extensive 
wharves at East Boston, the comple- 
tion of which did not at the time realize 
the expectation of its projectors, and 
for some years was practically aban- 
doned. This line has been connected 
with the main line of the Boston and 
Albany, and a deep-water connection 
thus secured. Ample facilities are af- 
forded for unloading freight-steamers, 
and moving large numbers of im- 
migrants in a speedy and comfortable 
manner ; avoiding the confusion and 
danger of a passage through the city, 
and protecting them from sharpers. 
The Boston and Albany also owns and 
operates a substantial grain-elevator 
at East Boston, with a capacity of 
1,000,000 bushels; and another at the 
corner of Chandler and Berkeley 
Streets in the city proper, with a capa- 
city of about 500,000 bushels. The 
object of the latter is to supply and 
accommodate city trade. Two addi- 
tional lines of track are now building 
as far as Auburndale station in New- 
ton, for the exclusive accommodation 
of the special suburban service of the 
company. The car-shops of the road 
are at Allston in the Brighton district. 
Up to 1882 the State owned a large 
portion of the stock of the road ; but 
that year its interest was disposed of 
to the corporation, an enabling-act 
having been passed by the legislature. 
The president of the Boston and Al- 
bany is William Bliss ; the general 
manager, C. O. Russell ; the general 
passenger-agent, Edward Gallup. [See 
Railroads?[ 

Boston and Fitchburg Station 
and Line. — Causeway Street, corner 
of Charlestown Street. This is a 
massive structure of undressed granite, 
with two towers on the front. It was 
built in 1847, five years after the com- 



BOSTON AND FITCHBURG STATION 



66 



BOSTON AND LOWELL STATION 



pletion of the road, the terminus of 
which had previously been in Charles- 
town. In a great hall in the upper 
part of the building, the Jenny Lind 
concerts (managed by Barnum) were 
given, in October, 1850, to overflowing 
audiences ; 4,000 people obtaining ad- 
mittance to each concert, while many 
more besieged the entrances, unable 
to get in. Jenny Lind received $1,000 
for each concert, and the profits of the 
season were immense. The station is 
at present well arranged. In place of 
the old hall, are offices of the railroad- 
officials. The Fitchburg Railroad 
Company was chartered, on March 18, 
1842. It was opened for travel, first 
to Waltham, on Dec. 20, 1843 ! next to 
Concord, on June 17, 1844; and to 
Fitchburg on March 5, 1845. It now 
operates a continuous line to the 
Hoosac Tunnel. The Vermont and 
Massachusetts road, a part of the pres- 
ent line, extending from Fitchburg 
to Greenfield, is operated by the Fitch- 
burg, under a lease for 999 years ; 
and the Troy and Greenfield, from 
Greenfield to North Adams, is oper- 
ated by it under contract with the 
State, for a term of seven years, be- 
ginning in 1880. For the passage 
of its cars through the tunnel it pays 
the State tolls, as do other railway 
corporations. During the year 1878, 
extensive improvements were begun 
at this end of the road, properly to 
accommodate the great volume of 
freight business resulting from the 
road's direct connection with the tun- 
nel, and the completion of the Hoosac 
Tunnel and Western Railway, largely 
owned by Boston capital, and con- 
necting with the Erie system. The 
Hoosac -Tunnel Dock and Elevator 
Company, also to provide increased 
terminal facilities in connection with 
this line, -was incorporated in 1879 
[see Terminal Facilities}. The line 
of the main road of the Fitchburg, 
extending from Boston to Fitchburg, 
is 49.60 miles ; and that of the Ver- 
mont and Massachusetts, practically 
a continuation of the main line, from 



Fitchburg to Greenfield, is 56 miles. 
The total length of road owned, 
leased, and operated by the Fitchburg 
is 292.29 miles. The Fitchburg com- 
pany has a contract with the Leyland 
line of steamships, running between 
Boston and Liverpool [see Steamships 
and Steamship Trade of Boston], by 
which two or three steamships weekly 
receive and deliver cargoes at Con- 
stitution Wharf. The president of 
the Fitchburg road is William B. 
Stearns, and the general superintend- 
ent is John Adams. [See Railroads] 

Boston and Lowell and Concord 
Station and Line. — The passenger- 
station of these practically united 
roads, on Causeway Street, is a com- 
paratively new structure, built upon a 
generous plan, to accommodate an 
already large and steadily increasing 
traffic ; this road having extensive con- 
nections, and being a terminus of one 
of the great trunk-lines. It is 700 feet 
long, and has a front on Causeway 
Street of 205 feet. The head-house 
is imposing in both exterior and inte- 
rior. In the centre of the head-house 
is a lofty hall, magnificent in its pro- 
portions, marble paved, and finished 
in hard wood. Out of this open the 
various waiting-rooms, the baggage- 
room, bundle-room, the restaurant, 
barber-shop, and ticket-office. The 
ladies' waiting-room is large and well 
furnished, and extends along almost 
the entire front of the building. The 
upper stories are occupied by the busi- 
ness offices of the several officials of 
the line having headquarters in this 
city. The train-house is broad, spa- 
cious, and long; and its great arch 
has a clear span of 120 feet. It has 
five tracks, and room for more as the 
need is manifested. The station is 
built of face-brick, with trimmings of 
Nova-Scotia freestone. It is flanked 
by two massive towers, the westerly 
one being much taller than the other. 
The outward appearance of the struc- 
ture, and its convenience, were greatly 
improved in 1878, by the addition of 



BOSTON AND LOWELL STATION 



67 



BOSTON AND PROVIDENCE STATION 



two broad entrances in the front. 
The arrangement for the convenience 
of passengers coming to the station 
and going from it in carriages is 
admirable. The Boston and Lowell 
road is now part of a system con- 
necting with the leading railroads of 
New Hampshire, the Central Ver- 
mont, and the Grand Trunk, and form- 
ing a continuous line to Montreal and 
other parts of Canada and the West. 
In 1857 the Boston and Lowell formed 
a combination with the Nashua and 
Lowell for the joint operation of the 
main roads and their branches. On 
this basis the length of line directly 
operated by the company was 133 
miles. At the close of 1878 this com- 
bination came to an end. For a while 
the two roads were operated indepen- 
dently; but in October, 1880, the 
Nashua road was leased by the Lowell 
for 99 years. In the present year 
(1882) the Boston and Lowell and the 
Concord roads were practically united. 
In March, 1880, a lease of the Mas- 
sachusetts Central was made to the 
Boston and Lowell for a term of 25 
years from its completion ; the rental 
being 25 per cent of the gross earnings. 
The Massachusetts Central road has 
been building under a special charter, 
granted in 1869, and subsequent acts 
providing for its extension ; and the 
present plan of its projectors is to 
make a connection with the Troy and 
Greenfield Railroad, and so connect 
with the Hoosac Tunnel. The line is 
but partly built ; and at present work 
is practically at a standstill, the com- 
pany being embarrassed by the need 
of further funds. It is hoped, by the 
friends of the line, and the investors 
in it, that the embarrassment can be 
in time overcome, and the project 
carried through. The Boston and 
Lowell was chartered in 1831, and was 
one of the earliest to be built. The 
president is Josiah G. Abbott, and 
the general manager C. E. A. Bartlett. 
In 1882 the Lowell and the Concord 
roads were practically united by an 
operating contract for five years. The 



combined roads have a terminus at 
tide-water on the Mystic River. [See 
Railroads ; also Terminal Facilities, \ 

Boston and Maine Station and 
Line. — The passenger-station of this 
road, in Haymarket Square, at the 
foot of Washington Street, is an old- 
style building, plain and unpretentious ; 
but it is roomy, convenient, and com- 
fortable, and answers the purpose of 
the road and its patrons. In late 
years it has been extended, and its 
interior re-arranged to good advantage. 
The waiting-rooms open from the 
long platform by the side of the tracks ; 
and on the floor above are the offices 
of the railway-officials. The Boston and 
Maine Railroad, as now constructed, 
was formed by the consolidation of 
the Boston and Portland Railroad, 
chartered in Massachusetts in 1833 ; 
the Boston and Maine, chartered 
in New Hampshire in. 1835 ; and the 
Maine, New Hampshire, and Massa- 
chusetts, chartered in Maine in 1836. 
This consolidation was effected Jan. 
1, 1842 ; and was opened to the junc- 
tion with the Portland, Saco, and 
Portsmouth, at South Berwick, Me., in 
1843. The latter road up to 187 1 was 
leased to and operated by the Boston 
and Maine and the Eastern roads 
jointly, but in 1873 the Boston and 
Maine was opened direct to Portland. 
The main line from Boston to Port- 
land is 115 miles long; and in addi- 
tion 83 miles of branches and leased 
lines are operated. The main line 
passes through a thickly settled por- 
tion of New England, including 42 
cities, towns, and villages, many of 
them devoted to manufacturing inter- 
ests. The road does a large White- 
mountain business in summer, by its 
connections at Lake Winnepesaukee 
and Portland. James T. Furber is the 
general superintendent of the line. 
[See Railroads .] 

Boston and Providence Station 
and Line. — The passenger-station of 
the Boston and Providence Railroad, 
on Columbus Avenue, a few steps from 



BOSTON AND PROVIDENCE STATION 



68 



BOSTON BOYS AND GENERAL GAGE 



Park Square, is one of the finest and 
most beautiful, in design and architec- 
ture, in the country. Indeed, it is one 
of the " show buildings " of the Back- 
bay district, on the outer edge of which 
it stands. It is, moreover, one of the 
most convenient in its arrangement, 
and comfortable in its appointments. 
It is also the longest passenger-sta- 
tion in the world, measuring 850 feet 
from end to end. The portion as- 
signed to the accommodation of pas- 
sengers, the "head-house," contains 
large and well-equipped waiting-rooms, 
dining, reading, billiard, and smoking 
rooms, a barber-shop, and washrooms, 
all finely finished, and furnished on a 
superior scale. An index of stations 
and distances, with maps of the coun- 
try passed through by the road and its 
connections, is painted upon the walls 
of the passenger-rooms. On the sec- 
ond floor are the offices of the compa- 
ny, which are approached from a gal- 
lery running around the grand and lofty 
central hall, one of the finest and most 
effective features of the building, out 
of which open the waiting-rooms and 
other apartments described above, with 
the train-house at its farther end. The 
train-house is 600 feet long, and 130 
feet wide. Its great iron trusses cover 
five tracks and three platforms. The 
entrance of this building forms a fine 
feature of the facade. The lofty and 
finely proportioned tower at the Colum- 
bus-avenue corner has a large illumi- 
nated clock, which can be seen at a 
considerable distance. The Boston 
and Providence line was the second 
opened from Boston ; and it to-day 
maintains the distinction which it has 
long enjoyed, of being one of the most 
completely appointed railroads in the 
country. The road proper, from Bos- 
ton to Providence, is 44 miles; and 
the branches and leased lines are 23^ 
miles in length. The road runs many 
trains daily, with ease and safety, al- 
most invariably making perfect time. 
The Shore-line express-train to New 
York, which leaves Boston at 1 p.m., 
arrives at Providence with remarkable 



regularity, at precisely 2 P. M. The 
6.30 P. M. express-train carries large 
numbers of passengers to Stonington, 
where they take the famous Stoning- 
ton Line of Sound steamers for New 
York. The Boston and Providence 
is an important part of the all-rail 
" Shore-line route " to New York, via 
Providence, New London, and New 
Haven ; the terminal stations being 
the two finest in the country. The 
president of the Boston and Provi- 
dence is Henry A. Whitney, and the 
superintendent Albert A. Folsom. The 
cost of the station in this city was 
$800,000. It stands on historic ground, 
or near it ; for from this point the 
British soldiers embarked for their 
raid on Lexington and Concord. [See 
Railroads^ 

Boston Base-Ball Club. — See 

Base-Ball Club (The Boston). 

Boston Benefit Society. — Estab- 
lished in 1839. Helps members in 
case of sickness, and their heirs in 
ca%e of death. It gives $5 per week 
for 13 weeks in one year to sick mem- 
bers, and heirs of members dying 
receive $100. Members must have 
paid $11 before receiving benefits. 
Initiation-fee is $5, and assessment 
50 cents a month. 

Boston Boys and General Gage. 

— The story of the Boston boys, and 
their spirited interview with Gen. 
Gage, in the stirring early Revolution 
days, to whom they complained of the 
British soldiers for destroying their 
coast on the Common, and declared 
that they would bear it no longer, is 
familiar to every Boston schoolboy; 
and the supposed unquestioned historic 
incident has been embalmed in song 
and story, and also made the subject 
of a large painting by Henry Bacon, a 
widely known Boston artist resident in 
Paris, which is hung in the parlors of 
the Merchants' Association on Bedford 
Street [see Merchants' Association]. 
Thus runs the legend: "In Boston 
the troops made themselves still more 



BOSTON BOYS AND GENERAL GAGE 



69 



BOSTON CHILDREN'S-AIB SOCIETY 



unpopular. There was soon a quarrel 
between them and the boys, for the 
soldiers used to beat down the snow- 
hills that the 'boys had heaped up on 
the Common. After appealing in vain 
to the captain, the boys finally went to 
Gov. Gage, and complained. ' What ! ' 
he said, ' have your fathers been teach- 
ing you rebellion, and sent you here 
to exhibit it ? ' — ' Nobody sent us, sir,' 
said one of the boys. ' We have never 
injured nor insulted, your troops ; but 
they have trodden down our snow- 
hills, and broken the ice on our skat- 
ing-ground. We complained ; and they 
called us young rebels, and told us to 
help ourselves if we could. We told 
the captains of this, and they laughed 
at us. Yesterday our works were de- 
stroyed the third time, and we will bear 
it no longer.' The governor said with 
surprise to one of his officers, 'The 
very children here draw in a love of 
liberty with the air they breathe. — 
You may go, my brave boys; and 
be assured, if my troops trouble you 
again, they shall be punished.' " [From 
Higginson's " Young Folks' History 
of the United States."] So much for 
the story. The cold facts, as discovered 
by a closer examination of the history 
of those days, are as follows : " The 
coast was not on the Common ; it was 
not destroyed by the British soldiers ; 
the boys did not call on Gen. Gage at 
the Province House; and he did not 
know of the matter until told of it, 
after all was over, by the officer on 
whom they did call. Rev. Dr. Hale, 
who, at the dinner of the Latin-school 
Association in 1877, first pointed out 
the inaccuracy of the picture, told the 
story as it had been told to him thirty 
years before by one of the boys. The 
coast was from near the corner of 
Beacon and Somerset Streets, down 
the hill to the foot of School Street. 
The boys of the Latin School used to 
bring their sleds to school, and after 
school coast down the street. In a 
house opposite the school, near the 
present site of the City Hall, lived 
the British general, Haldimand, the 



colonel of Gage's own regiment. His 
servant spread ashes on the coast; and 
the boys of the Latin School appointed 
a committee from the first class to see 
the general, and complain of the ser- 
vant. He received them kindly ; said 
he had trouble enough with the Boston 
men, and would not have any with the 
boys ; and sent a servant out to brush 
off the coast. Afterwards he men- 
tioned the visit to Gen. Gage ; who 
made in reply a remark sufficiently 
resembling that which he is reported 
to have made to the boys, to render it 
possible that it was the foundation of 
the common tale." [From the " Latin- 
school Register," and now accepted as 
the correct version.] 

Boston Children's -Aid Society. — 

Incorporated 1865. Rescues vagrant, 
destitute, and exposed children of 
tender age from moral ruin ; cares for 
them at its " Home for Boys at Pine 
Farm," West Newton ; and good 
homes in private families are eventu- 
ally found for them. At the farm 
there are generally about 30 boys, from 
ten to thirteen years of age. They are 
taught the common-school branches, 
farming, printing, etc. Girls are placed 
in private homes ; and, when neces- 
sary, board is paid for them from 
the Shaw Fund for Girls. There is a 
general agent of the society, widely 
known as "Uncle" Rufus R. Cook, 
who gives bail in city courts for boys 
who are most in need, and who he 
thinks will be most benefited by the 
reformatory influences of the Farm, 
or can be improved, under supervision, 
in their own homes. He has an assist- 
ant, Miss S. P. Burnham, who visits 
children in the city jail daily, loans 
them books, and acquaints herself 
with their history, homes, and families. 
She also visits children at their homes, 
after their discharge from jail. Appli- 
cation for boys is to be made to the 
general agent," at 36 Woodbine Street ; 
and for girls, to Miss Lawrence, care 
of A. A. Lawrence, Boston. Visitors 
at the Farm are always welcome. 



BOSTON CHILDREN'S-FRIEND SOCIETY 



7 



BOSTON CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 



Boston Children's -Friend So- 
ciety. — Established 1833 ; incorpo- 
rated 1834. Provides for the support 
of indigent children who are either 
fully surrendered to it, or received as 
temporary boarders. Common-school 
branches are taught them, and the 
girls are taught to sew. Some of the 
children are adopted ; others are in- 
dentured, when about the age of 14, 
in proper families, but remain under 
the guardianship of the society until 
they attain majority ; and others re- 
main in the institution until they are 
18. The home is at No. 48 Rutland 
Street, and provides for 70 children. 
The society originated in the personal 
labors of a Mrs. Burns, a woman of 
moderate means, who for a long time 
received, in her own modest home at 
the North End, a number of poor chil- 
dren, and cared for them. 

Boston (formerly Banks) Club. — 
See Political Clubs. 

Boston Cooking - School. — See 

Cooking-School. 

Boston College, on Harrison Ave- 
nue, next adjoining the Church of the 
Immaculate Conception. It is a Catho- 
lic college, and was founded in i860 
by the Fathers of the Society of Jesus, 
and is conducted by them. Its dedi- 
cation occurred on Sept. 17, i860. In 
1863 it was incorporated with power 
"to confer such degrees as are usually 
conferred by colleges in the Common- 
wealth, except medical degrees." The 
value of its buildings and grounds is 
estimated at about $200,000. The 
college course is long and thorough, 
and classical studies occupy a promi- 
nent place in it. The corps of pro- 
fessors numbers 16, and there are 
other instructors. The number of 
students of late years has averaged 
150, and steadily increases. The Rev. 
Robert Fulton, S. J., was long its 
president. The Rev. Jeremiah O'Con- 
nor, S.J., succeeded him in 1881, when 
Father Fulton assumed the charge of 
a college in Georgetown, D.C. The 



students have several societies. The 
" Sodality of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion," under the patronage of St. 
Stanislaus Kostka, is intended as a 
means to incite the students to greater 
piety, "and especially to devotion to 
the Blessed Virgin." The "Sodality 
of the Holy Angels " has for its object 
the fostering of piety among the 
younger students. The " Society of 
St. Cecilia " supplies the music at 
the daily mass, and gives its aid when 
needed at celebrations, either of the 
college or of the Church of the Im- 
maculate Conception. There is also a 
debating society, and the " Boston 
College Battalion." The institution 
holds a leading position among those 
of its class. 

Boston Conservatory of Music. 
— No. 154 Tremont Street. Estab- 
lished in 1867, this has been one of the 
most successful of the systematically 
conducted and thorough schools of the 
country. The director is Julius Eich- 
berg, one of the highest rank of mu- 
sicians, who, before he came to this 
country, was a pupil of Rietz, and 
afterward a professor of violin-playing 
in the Conservatoire of Geneva; and 
during his long residence in Boston has 
held a foremost position as a violinist, 
a teacher, and a composer. For seven 
years he was director of music in the 
Boston Museum; and since 1867 he 
has been superintendent of music in 
the Boston Public Schools, a position 
created for him. While at the Mu- 
seum he became known as the first 
composer in America of English 
operas ; his " Doctor of Alcantara," 
composed in 1862, was the most popu- 
lar of his several compositions of this 
class. The teaching of the conser- 
vatory is by classes, which are never 
allowed to be large in number. In- 
struction is given in all the practical 
and theoretical branches of music, but 
the most noteworthy work is that done 
in the teaching of the violin. It is 
the testimony of Mr. Louis C. Elson, 
in his elaborate article on " Musical 



BOSTON DEAF-MUTE SOCIETY 



71 



BOSTON LIBRARY 



Boston," published in the summer of 
1882 in " Music and the Drama," that 
Mr. Eichberg has formed more artists 
than any violinist in the country, and 
that many of his pupils are among the 
best of America's concert and orches- 
tral performers. The violin school of 
the conservatory is large ; and among 
the pupils are many ladies and young 
girls, who are coming to study the 
violin as an accomplishment almost 
as necessary to a "finished" musical 
education as the piano. Chamber- 
concerts are at intervals provided for 
the benefit of the pupils of the con- 
servatory. 

Boston Deaf-Mute Society. — Es- 
tablished in 1877. Gives pecuniary 
relief to the deserving and needy deaf- 
mutes ; though its primary objects are 
to furnish religious instruction, and 
promote the social and intellectual 
interests of these unfortunates. Its 
headquarters are in Boylston Hall. 

Boston Dispensary. — See Dispen- 
saries. 

Boston Fatherless and Widows' 
Society. — Assists poor widows and 
fatherless children, as its name im- 
plies. The character of each recipient 
is investigated with patient care, and 
monthly visits are made. The relief 
is distributed by a board of twelve 
ladies. The beneficiaries are mostly 
those who shrink from publicity; and 
to help this class, especially persons 
who- have been removed from com- 
petence to poverty, the society was 
organized. About $10,000 are dis- 
tributed annually to about 400 persons. 
The office of the treasurer, Charles J. 
Nazro, is at 54 Kilby Street; and the 
address of the secretary, Miss Cornelia 
L. Warren, is 67 Mount- Vernon Street. 

Boston Female Asylum. — Estab- 
lished 1800 ; incorporated 1803. Re- 
ceives destitute girls between three and 
ten, preference being given to orphans, 
though others are sometimes admitted ; 
teaches them common-school branches, 
sewing, and domestic service ; places 



them in families by indenture until 18, 
a few being always retained during 
their minority to serve in the asylum. 
Full surrender of a child is required 
on admission ; but a child may be re- 
turned, or otherwise provided for, 
within three months, if discovered to 
be an improper subject. No child 
under 12 placed out, except by adop- 
tion, when consent of the guardian 
must be obtained. The asylum is at 
No. 1008 Washington Street. Public 
admitted Thursdays. [See Asylums 
and Homes.] 

Boston Flower and Fruit Mis- 
sions. — See Flower and Fruit Mis- 
sions. 

Boston Highlands. — See Roxbury 
District. 

Boston Industrial Temporary 
Home. — Established 1874; incorpo- 
rated 1877. Affords temporary lodg- 
ing, and furnishes food, to worthy and 
destitute persons of both sexes, who 
are willing to work, and comply with 
the rules of the institution. Kindling- 
wood is prepared, sold, and delivered ; 
coal sold by the basket or ton; laun- 
dry-work, machine-stitching, and plain 
sewing done ; male and female help 
furnished for work outside the Home 
by the day or hour, and permanent 
situations sometimes filled. Entertain- 
ments are furnished for the inmates; 
and they are encouraged to habits of 
industry, frugality, and temperance. 
Tickets sold to the public, 8 for $1.00, 
to be given to those soliciting alms ; 
each entitles the bearer to meals and 
lodgings in payment for work. The 
Home is at No. 17 Davis Street, corner 
of Harrison Avenue. About 20,000 
persons are annually helped, at an ex- 
penditure of about $8,000. 

Boston Library (The). — No. 18 
Boylston Place, in the rooms of the 
Boston Library Society. This is a 
proprietary library, one of the oldest 
in the city, and now numbers 25,000 
volumes. It was incorporated as early 
as 1794. The society owns property 



BOSTON LIGHT 



72 



BOSTON MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION 



valued at $33,812.75 ; of which $21,500 
is in real estate, and the remainder 
stocks and bonds. The number of 
shareholders in the society was, in 1882, 
107. The library is a very valuable 
one, and of practical service to those 
who enjoy its use. The officers of 
the society for 1 88 2-83 are Thomas C. 
Amory, president; D. W. Salisbury, 
treasurer; Lemuel Shaw, secretary; 
Messrs. Amory, Henry G. Denny, 
Dvvight Foster, Charles D. Homans, 
Henry P. Kidder, Francis M inot, Fran- 
cis H. Peabody, Oliver W. Peabody, 
George O. Shattuck, and H. W. Wil- 
liams, trustees>. 

Boston Light stands at the en- 
trance of Boston Harbor, on the Little 
Brewster Island, so named after the 
family of William Brewster, the ruling 
elder of the First Church of New 
Plymouth. It is a second-class revolv- 
ing white light, visible 16 miles at sea. 
The light was first established in 171 5, 
improved from time to time, and in 
1776 was destroyed by the British ships 
as they passed out of the harbor after 
the evacuation of the town. The pres- 
ent lighthouse was erected in 1783. It 
is of stone, and is 98 feet above the sea- 
level. It has since been several times 
enlarged and refitted. The tower can 
be seen a great distance even by day. 
A heavy fog-horn is also placed here 
to warn approaching vessels in the 
foggy weather which often prevails. 
[See Harbor, The Boston^ 

Boston Lying-in Hospital. — See 

Lying-in Hospital, Boston. 

Boston Marine Society. — Estab- 
lished in 1742; incorporated 1754. 
For the benefit of present or past mas- 
ters of vessels, and their families. Re- 
lieves unfortunate and aged members 
of at least two years' standing; and, on 
the decease of a member, his widow 
(so long as she remains so), his minor 
children, and, in extreme cases, older 
children. Should a member die within 
two years after joining, leaving a desti- 
tute widow or children, whatever mon- 



eys he has paid in may be remitted to 
them, and they have no further claim 
on the society. Funeral expenses of 
a member, to the amount of $50, are 
paid when needed, and trustees grant 
relief not exceeding $50 in any one 
case. Entrance-fee, $25; annual as- 
sessment, $3; life-members, $10 to 
$25, according to age. Office, No. 13 
Merchants' Exchange. 

Boston Masonic Mutual Benefit 
Association. — Incorporated 1879. 
Gives as many dollars as there are 
members to the family of a deceased 
member, or to a person specially 
assigned by him. Admission-fee for 
master-mason under 50, in good stand- 
ing and health, $3 or more, according 
to age. Each member assessed $1.10 
whenever a death occurs. Headquar- 
ters, room No. 30 Masonic Temple, 
corner Tremont and Boylston Streets. 

Boston Massacre. — See Massacre, 
The Boston. 

Boston Memorial Association 
(The), comprising in its membership 
many of the foremost citizens of Boston, 
was organized to supply the want of 
any corporate body to which bequests 
and legacies for the improvement and 
beautifying of the city might be left in 
trust, and for perpetuating in substan- 
tial and enduring form the memorials 
of distinguished citizens. Its object, 
as stated in the articles of incorpora- 
tion, is " the ornamentation of the city 
of Boston, the care of its memorials, 
the preservation and improvement of 
its public grounds, and the erection of 
works of art within the limits of the 
city." The projected statue of Theo- 
dore Parker [see Statues and Monu- 
ments} is an illustration of the purposes 
to which its energies are to be devoted. 
A sum for this purpose was left in trust 
to the association by the late ex-Alder- 
man Nash; to which, from time to 
time, othet sums are to be added till 
the aggregate reaches a sufficient 
amount, when the monument will be 
erected. The membership, exclusive 



BOSTON METHODIST BOOK DEPOSITORY 



73 



BOSTON MUSEUM 



of life-members, is limited to 150; and 
a membership-fee of $5, with annual 
dues of $5 after the first year, are the 
terms ; while $50 is the fee for a life- 
member. The first president, chosen 
Jan. 19, 1880, was Alexander H. Rice, 
ex-governor of the Commonwealth; 
and he was succeeded in 1882 by 
Martin P. Kennard, United-States sub- 
treasurer in this city [see Post-office 
and Sub -Treasury]. The officers of 
the organization last chosen, in No- 
vember, 1882, are : president, M. P. 
Kennard ; vice-presidents, Samuel A. 
Green, then mayor of Boston, ex- 
officio, James L. Little, Francis Jaques, 
Charles U. Cotting, and Charles G. 
Wood ; treasurer, Henry H. Edes ; 
secretary, E. D. Barbour ; trustees, 
Frederic W. Lincoln, Alexander H. 
Rice, Frederick O. Prince, Samuel C. 
Cobb, and William Gaston, — all ex- 
mayors of Boston; executive com- 
mittee, the president and treasurer 
ex-officio, Samuel A. Green, W. P. P. 
Longfellow, Charles W. Slack, E. H. 
Clement, W. S. Appleton, Prentiss 
Cummings, and Thomas C. Amory. 

Boston Methodist Book Deposi- 
tory. — See Methodist Book Deposi- 
tory (The Boston). 

Boston Methodist Social Union. 

— See Methodist Social Union (The 
Boston). 

Boston Missionary and Church- 
Extension Society, etc. — See Mis- 
sionary and Church-Extension Society 
of the Methodist-Episcopal Church 
(The Boston). 

Boston Museum. — On Tremont 
Street, between Court and School 
Streets. This is the oldest of the 
existing theatres in the city, its history 
dating back to 1841. The original 
Museum occupied the spot, a little to 
the south of the present building, 
where the Horticultural Building now 
stands, and was opened in June, 1841. 
It was first called " The Boston Mu- 
seum and Gallery of Fine Arts ; " and 
the performances, which were subor- 



dinate to the exhibition of curiosities 
and paintings, consisted of light musi- 
cal entertainments. In the old building 
the celebrated Boston contralto, the late 
Adelaide Phillips, became first known 
to the stage in juvenile parts, and as 
a danseuse ; and here the first regular 
dramatic company was established in 
1843. The success of the undertaking 
was so decided, that the present build- 
ing was erected in 1846, at a cost of 
nearly a quarter of a million. The 
opening performance here was given on 
Nov. 2 of that year. William Warren, 
the famous veteran comedian, became 
connected with the Museum in 1847, 
and made his first acquaintance with 
the Boston public — which has so long 
regarded him with pride and affection 
as its chief favorite — on the 23d of 
August that year, as Billy Lackaday in 
" Sweethearts and Wives." Mrs. J. 
R. Vincent, who has long been an es- 
tablished favorite in Boston, and has 
achieved a long list of successes in 
leading old-women's parts in the high- 
est comedy, made her first appearance 
May 10, 1852, and has since been con- 
nected with the stock-company. Miss 
Annie Clarke, now the leading lady, 
whose reputation is so firmly fixed 
with Boston audiences, began her 
career on this stage in 1861 ; and 
Charles Barron, the present leading 
man, first became a member of the 
company in 186S. The first stage- 
manager was W. H. Smith. After 16 
years' service he was succeeded by E. 
F. Keach as general manager, who 
had for many years been the leading 
man of the company. Mr. Keach 
managed from 1859 until his death, 
Jan. 31, 1864; when the sole manage- 
ment was assumed by R. M. Field, 
who has since conducted the theatre 
with signal success and exceptional 
ability. The Museum is owned by 
Moses Kimball, who established it in 
1841. It is a four-story building, pre- 
senting a handsome granite front, or- 
namented with three rows of large 
gas-jets with heavy globes, which when 
lighted at night - admirably advertise 



BOSTON MUSEUM 



74 



EOSTON MUSEUM 



the playhouse. It covers 20,000 square 
feet of land, extending from Tremont 
Street through to Court Square, upon 
which there is an exit. The auditori- 
um has been reconstructed four times, 
— in 1868, 1872, 1876, and 1880. The 
last was a most extensive reconstruc- 
tion, the interior having been practi- 
cally rebuilt. It is now one of the 
most elegant theatres in the city in ap- 
pearance, decoration, and furnishings. 
Every modern improvement which has 
proved efficient and advantageous has 
been introduced, and an improved sys- 
tem of ventilation has been adopted. 
The latter is peculiar in its arrange- 
ment. Fresh air is admitted through 3 
inlets, each 3 feet square, into the floor 
of the auditorium, where it is cooled 
in summer by passing over ice, and 
warmed in winter by passing over 
steam -radiators. Thence it passes 
through many minute orifices, so as to 
prevent any perceptible currents of 
air being felt by the audience. The 
vitiated air is removed from the build- 
ing by means of an exhaust-fan, oper- 
ated by a powerful gas-engine, through 
16 galvanized -iron pipes, 2 feet in 
diameter, 8 of them leading from 
under the balconies, and 8 from the 
colonnade under the main ceiling of 
the auditorium. The ceiling over the 
second balcony also has 5 ventilating 
registers, each 3 feet in diameter ; 
and there is a ventilating dome over 
the second-balcony staircase, 8 feet in 
diameter. The ventilating apparatus 
is designed to supply 50,000 cubic 
feet of fresh air per minute to the 
1,500 persons whom the auditorium 
seats ; the whole system making a 
complete change in the air of the 
house every four minutes. By the 
latest arrangement of the house, there 
are orchestra and proscenium chairs, 
a parquet-circle, a double balcony, 
and six private boxes. The stage is 
ample ; and the conveniences behind 
the scenes, including the actors' and 
actresses' dressing-rooms, are com- 
plete. The theatre is built with great 
care ; and the exits and entrances are 



spacious and convenient, so that the 
safety of the audiences is assured as 
well as their comfort and enjoyment. 
All the partitions are fire-proof; a 
heavy iron fire-proof curtain separates 
the stage from the auditorium; and 
the entire proscenium-wall is built of 
fire-proof blocks. The finish of the 
interior is elegant and tasteful ; and 
the decoration of the ceiling and of 
the curtain-opening and proscenium- 
arch is especially noticeable for its 
design and execution. This work is 
by a Boston artist, I. Gangengigl. 
For years the Museum proper, with its 
curiosities, was the leading attraction, 
and the theatre was called the " lecture- 
room ; " and long after its establish- 
ment and recognition as one of the 
leading playhouses of the city, it was 
patronized by many people who were 
not in the habit of attending theatres 
or theatrical performances generally. 
The noble hall through which the vis- 
itor now entering by the southern en- 
trance, nearest to School Street, passes 
on his way to the auditorium, was long 
known as the "Grand Hall of Cabi- 
nets ; " and its statuary, paintings, 
and glass cases of curiosities from all 
parts of the world, used to be the 
wonder and delight of throngs of 
sight-seers. In the highest gallery 
was the famous collection of wax 
figures, single and in groups, which 
used to strike terror to the hearts of 
the younger spectators, and were realis- 
tic to the highest degree. For years 
the " Feejee Mermaid," alluded to by 
P. T. Barnum in his Autobiography, 
was here exhibited, and thousands of 
other curious things. The collection 
of paintings, which is still maintained, 
with many of the most valuable curi- 
osities, includes Sully's " Washington 
crossing the Delaware," and portraits 
by Copley, Stuart, West, and other 
painters of earlier days. A noteworthy 
theatrical event was the celebration at 
the Boston Museum on Saturday, Oct. 
28, 1882, of the 70th year of Mr. War- 
ren, the veteran comedian, and the 50th 
anniversary of his entrance upon the 



BOSTON NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 



75 



BOSTON POLICE RELIEF ASSOCIATION 



stage. There were two performances, 
one in the afternoon, and the other in 
the evening, attended by the finest of 
Boston audiences. A feature of the 
event was the public exhibition of a 
portrait of Mr. Warren, by Frederick 
P. Vinton, ordered by a number of 
the admirers of the actor, tq, be ulti- 
mately placed in the Museum of Fine 
Arts. ' Mr. Warren also received many 
gifts, and a " loving cup " from several 
of his professional friends. [See 
Drama in Boston.] 

Boston Natural History Society. 

— See Natural History Society. 

Boston North-End Diet Kitchen. 

— Established 1874. Gives nourish- 
ing food daily to applicants bringing 
orders from dispensary physicians, and 
sells diets at cost to those able to pur- 
chase them. From 40,000 to 50,000 
diets given out annually. Operations 
limited to the district bounded by the 
water, Central Wharf, Milk, Wash- 
ington, Winter, Tremont, Boylston, 
and Arlington Streets, Commonwealth 
Avenue, and Parker Street ; including 
the North and West End. Rooms at 
No. 34 Lynde Street. Open daily 
from 11 to 1. [See Diet Kitchen^ 

Boston North-End Mission. — 

Established 1865 ; incorporated 1870. 
Gives relief of all kinds to the worthy 
poor. Conducts an industrial school 
for women, teaching sewing, and selling 
garments made to the pupils for five 
or ten cents each, or for housework in 
the mission ; a girls' industrial school, 
also teaching sewing ; a nursery and 
kindergarten school for children of 
hard-working women, receiving chil- 
dren for the day or permanently, the 
mothers, unless out of work or ill, pay- 
ing a small board for them ; a reading- 
room for unemployed men, open daily ; 
and the Mount-Hope home for fallen 
women, and summer home for chil- 
dren, on Bourne Street, Forest Hills, 
where laundry-work, sewing, garden- 
ing, and domestic service are taught. 
The headquarters of the Mission are 
at No. 201 North Street. 



Boston Pier is the name formerly 
given at times to Long Wharf. It was 
thus described in 17 19 by Daniel Neal : 
" At the bottom of the Bay is a noble 
Pier, 1800 or 2000 feet long with a 
Row of Warehouses on the North side 
for the Use of merchants. The pier 
runs so far into the Bay that Ships of 
the greatest Burthen may unload with- 
out the Help of Boats or Lighters. 
From the Head of the Pier you go up 
the chief street of the Town, at the 
upper end of which is the Town House 
or Exchange [the present Old State 
House] a fine piece of Building con- 
taining beside the Walk for the Mer- 
chants, the Council Chamber, the 
House of Commons, and another 
spacious Room for the Sessions of the 
Court of Justice." This description 
of the pier held good until a large part 
of the dock was filled over 25 years 
ago, and the present State-street block 
of granite buildings was built in the 
place where ships formerly lay. [See 
Wharves^ 

Boston Pilots' Relief Association. 

— No. 41 Lewis Wharf. Incorporated 
in 1866, to help destitute members and 
their families. The members are act- 
ing pilots of this port. The admission- 
fee is $25, and there is a quarterly 
assessment of $1. Help is extended 
at the discretion of a committee of 
relief ; and a condition is, that the re- 
cipient must be temperate. 

Boston Police Relief Association. 

— Headquarters, Charity Building, 
Chardon Street. Established in 1871, 
and incorporated in 1876. During 
sickness of a member, $1 a day is paid 
for not over 180 consecutive days ; 
$1,000 on the death of a member (pro- 
vided he has been connected with the 
association and the force at least five 
years, unless he has been retired after 
slighter service in consequence of in- 
juries received during the discharge of 
duty), to such person or persons as 
he designates previous to his death, 
and $100 to a member on the death of 
his wife. Police-officers of good moral 



BOSTON PORT AND SEAMEN'S-AID SOC. 



7 6 



BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



character, and able to do active police- 
duty, are eligible to membership. The 
admission-fee is $10, and there is a 
semi-annual assessment of $3. A 
chief source of revenue is an annual 
police-ball. There are visiting com- 
mittees of three for each station, and 
the work of relief is thoroughly or- 
ganized. About 150 are aided an- 
nually. [See Police-Service.'] 

Boston Port and Seamen's-Aid 
Society. — Headquarters, Mariners' 
House, No. 11 North Square. Incor- 
porated in 1867. It aims to improve the 
general condition of seamen and their 
families, aid the deserving poor among 
them, promote the education of the 
children of sailors, and relieve the sick 
and disabled. It also helps needy 
sailors, giving them board and cloth- 
ing, assists them to voyages, and main- 
tains the Mariners' House as a free 
home to the shipwrecked and dis- 
tressed [see Mariners' 1 House] ; a sail- 
ors' coffee and free reading rooms in 
Cockerel Hall, No. 287 Hanover 
Street ; and the Bethel Chapel, op- 
posite the Mariners' House. Rev. 
Dr. S. K. Lothrop is president of the 
society. 

Boston Port-Bill. — See Port-Bill. 

Boston Post-Office Mutual Belief 
Association. — Headquarters, Post- 
office. Incorporated in 1878. Aids 
members in case of sickness, accident, 
or other temporary disability neces- 
sitating absence from duty beyond 30 
days, by paying each one so afflicted 
$2 per week, not exceeding ten weeks 
in any one sickness, etc., and 20 
weeks in any one year. A death- 
benefit of $2 from each member is paid 
to the heirs of a deceased member. 
Employees of the Post-office only are 
eligible to membership. The admis- 
sion-fee is $1 ; assessments 25c. per 
month, and $2 at the death of any 
member. A committee of visitation 
investigates cases for relief. 

Boston Provident Association. 
— Central office, Charity Building, 



Chardon Street. Established in 1851; 
incorporated in 1854. Extends tem- 
porary aid of various kinds to the de- 
serving poor all over the city proper, 
and South and East Boston, through 
a general agent and sectional visitors. 
It also performs some such work as is 
undertaken by the Associated Chari- 
ties [see Associated Charities], in seek- 
ing to direct the unfortunate and de- 
pendent directly to the societies and 
charitable organizations, to meet spe- 
cial wants, and afford specific relief. 
Orders for food, fuel, shoes, clothing, 
bedding, and furniture are given at the 
general office, at the Charity Building, 
to those who are found or believed 
to be deserving, and in actual need; 
orders for such goods are also given 
by the sectional visitors at the homes 
of the poor; rent is paid when pay- 
ment is necessary to save a family 
from being ejected; transportation is 
sometimes paid by the general agent ; 
laborers are furnished with employ- 
ment at the Provident Wood-yard 
on Broadway-extension Bridge, South 
Boston, from which the wood prepared 
for kindlings and firewood is sold ; 
sewing is given to women, in special 
cases designated by private individ- 
uals who furnish the money, and the 
clothing made by them is distributed 
through the association. The associ- 
ation gives seasonable advice; seeks 
to promote frequent intercourse with 
the poor, to suppress street-beggary, 
and to give every assistance to those 
who try to help themselves. It aids 
about 5,000 families annually, expend- 
ing about $20,000. Charles R. Cod- 
man is president of the society, and 
Edward Frothingham is general agent. 
An annual payment of $1 or more 
constitutes membership. 

Boston Public Latin School. — 
See Latin School. 

Boston Public Latin School for 
Girls. — See Latin School for Girls. 

Boston Public Schools. — See 

Public Schools. 



BOSTON, REVERE BEACH, AND LYNN 



77 



BOSTON THEATRE 



Boston, Revere-Beach, and Lynn 
Railroad. — This is a breezy little road, 
narrow-gauge, running from East Bos- 
ton to Lynn, along the crest of Revere 
Beach. It is connected with the city 
proper by a ferry starting from Atlan- 
tic Avenue at the foot of High Street. 
The magnificent beach, more famil- 
iarly known to old citizens as Chelsea 
Beach, is dotted at short intervals with 
hotels, several of which have gained 
such reputation, that, during the sum- 
mer season, thousands are attracted to 
them daily. The chief of these are at 
the "Point of Pines," and are of mod- 
ern build, calculated to afford enter- 
tainment for guests in great numbers, 
on the scale of the great summer- 
resort for transient excursionists at 
Nantasket Beach. Trains run hourly 
on the Revere-beach road; and the 
cars are attractive and comfortable, 
especially the summer so-called " ob- 
servation-cars." The three-feet gauge 
is admirably adapted for the purposes 
of the road. The Boston, Winthrop, 
and Point-Shirley road connects with 
the main line at Winthrop Junction, 
and runs thence to the watering-place 
of Ocean Spray, in the town of Win- 
throp. 

Boston Scientific Society. — See 
Scientific Society, The Boston. 

Boston Seamen' s-Friend Society, 

No. 187 Atlantic Avenue, opposite 
T Wharf. Incorporated in 1829. A 
missionary association. It furnishes 
a chapel and reading-room for sailors, 
and employs a chaplain, S. S. Nicker- 
son, and an assistant-chaplain, C. W. 
Woods. The reading-room is made 
cheerful with plants and birds, and is 
daily visited by seamen and longshore- 
men. The chapel is called the Atlan- 
tic Bethel, and from its windows the 
incoming and outgoing ships are seen. 
Religious services are held in the Bethel 
every Sunday forenoon and evening. 
On Sunday afternoons the Boston Re- 
form-Club holds temperance meetings, 
and on Thursday evenings similar 
meetings are held by the Franklin 



Snow Christian Prohibitory Union. 
Every weekday a noon prayer-meeting 
is also held in the Bethel, which is at- 
tended by merchants and marketmen 
of the neighborhood as well as seamen. 

Boston Sewing- Circle, Charity 
Building, Chardon Street. Incorpo- 
rated 1861. An association to furnish 
cut-out garments to private individuals 
and societies, by whom they are given 
to the poor women in their neighbor- 
hoods and districts to make, the ladies 
themselves paying for the sewing. The 
clothing is distributed among the ladies 
who cut for the circle. About 10,000 
garments are cut out and distributed 
annually. 

Boston Society of Decorative Art. 
— See Decorative Art, the Boston So- 
ciety of. 

Boston Stone. — Going out of Han- 
over .Street into Marshall Street, one 
may observe near the ground, a round 
stone about two feet in diameter, em- 
bedded in the wall, and on the stone 
which supports it, the inscription, 
"Boston Stone, 1737." This curious 
object, now an old landmark, was 
originally a paint-mill, and was im- 
ported from England in 1700. It is 
hollow, and of conical form. For some 
time after more modern machines had 
superseded it as a paint-rnill, the stone 
was used as a starting-point for sur- 
veyors. It w r as named, probably, for 
the famous " London Stone." 

Boston Tea-Party. — See " Tea- 
Party. " 

Boston Theatre, Washington, 
near West Street. This is one of the 
largest and finest theatres in the coun- 
try. Unlike great theatres abroad, it 
has no showy exterior, being buried 
from sight behind the shops on the 
street, and approached by a long, 
broad passage-way from the Wash- 
ington-street opening. Within, it is 
in every respect imposing and beauti- 
ful. The lobbies are spacious, the 
staircases broad and elegant, and every 
convenience for the comfort of the 



BOSTON THEATRE 



78 



BOSTON THEATRE 



audience is abundantly supplied. The 
auditorium is vast and well propor- 
tioned, seating 3,000 persons ; and 
the stage is very large, and fitted with 
all the modern improvements, so as to 
be able to present plays on the finest 
scale when desired. The auditorium 
is about 90 feet in diameter, and about 
54 feet in height. There are three 
large balconies, known respectively as 
the dress-circle, the family-circle, and 
the gallery; and proscenium-boxes on 
either side of the stage. The stage is 
67 feet deep from the curtain, and 
from the extreme front, or the foot- 
lights, is 85 feet. The curtain-opening 
is about 48 feet in width by 41 in 
height. Below the stage there is a 
depth of about 30 feet ; and the height 
from the stage to the fly-floor is 66 
feet. From the parquet lobby are 
convenient rooms, the conspicuous 
feature being the "grand promenade 
saloon," an apartment 46 by 26 feet in 
dimensions, and 26 feet high, for the 
use of the audiences between the acts. 
It is, however, not generally used by 
audiences nowadays, though its doors 
always stand invitingly open. The 
stairway leading to the dress-circle 
lobby is built of solid oak, and sepa- 
rates, on a broad landing, into two 
branches, each 9 feet in width. It is a 
remarkably graceful piece of workman- 
ship, and adds greatly to the general 
effect of this part of the building. 
There is a rear entrance to the theatre 
on Mason Street, which is used mostly 
by patrons coming to and leaving the 
theatre in carriages. On Mason Street 
is also the stage-door. The green- 
room is on a level with the stage, and 
is a very attractive apartment 34 by 
18 feet in dimensions. Adjoining it, 
and on the floor above, on either side 
of the stage, are " star " and other 
dressing-rooms, the manager's, and 
property rooms; and the stage-ward- 
robe room and property storeroom are 
on an upper floor. Below the stage is 
the usual apartment for the orchestra, 
dressing-rooms for supernumeraries, 
and a great variety of stage and other 



machinery. The walls separating the 
stage from the auditorium are of brick, 
and the curtain-opening is provided 
with a safety-screen of iron network, 
the machinery for the dropping of 
which is so arranged that it can be 
operated from either side of the cur- 
tain-wall. The " Boston " was built in 
1854 by a stock-company. It opened 
on the nth of September of that year, 
under the management of the late 
Thomas Barry. Wyzeman Marshall 
succeeded Mr Barry as manager ; and 
for some time the management was in 
the hands of Junius Brutus Booth. In 
time the ownership of the theatre 
passed out of the hands of the com- 
pany establishing it, and was largely 
acquired by Messrs. Thayer and Tomp- 
kins. After the death of Mr. Thayer, 
Mr. Tompkins associated with him- 
self Mr. Hill, who had been a promi- 
nent stockholder ; and they have since 
continued as proprietors. The present 
general manager is Eugene Tompkins, 
son of the leading proprietor. The 
most famous actors and singers of the 
last 25 or 30 years have appeared on 
the Boston's stage. It is a favorite 
theatre with " stars," and can always 
furnish a satisfactory supporting com- 
pany of its own. Some of the most 
elaborate spectacular plays have been 
presented here, with superior and 
elaborate stage-effects ; and it is ad- 
mirably equipped for the grand opera, 
one or more seasons being given each 
year by the great companies in the 
country. This theatre has also long 
been a favorite place for the giving of 
grand balls, and the scene wdren the 
auditorium is floored over for this pur- 
pose is very brilliant and beautiful. 
Here were given those memorable 
balls in honor of the Prince of Wales, 
of the Russian Prince Alexis, and 
that in aid of the Sanitary Commission 
during the war. The Boston-Theatre 
management usually maintains one or 
more large companies " on the road ; " 
presenting in all the large cities of the 
country noteworthy productions which 
have, as a general thing, been first 



BOSTON TITLE COMPANY 



79 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 



brought out on its own boards here. 
[See Drama in Boston.} 

Boston Title Company (The), in- 
corporated under the general laws of 
the State in 1881, is making a complete 
record of every piece of property in 
the city, with an abstract showing the 
various hands through which the prop- 
erty has passed during the last 50 years, 
and its present ownership. It is ex- 
pected that the work will be completed 
in 1883. In a commodious fire-proof 
building off Dartmouth Street, a large 
force of clerks is engaged in transcrib- 
ing into volumes the preliminary labors 
of other clerks at the Registry of 
Deeds, which reach the former in the 
form of slips, containing a perfect de- 
scription of each piece of real estate, 
with a memorandum of incumbrances 
and other information required by 
conveyancers in the examination of 
titles. The starting-point in the enter- 
prise was the preparation of plans of 
all the estates in the city, so arranged 
in blocks that the history of any one 
of them can readily be traced from a 
sufficiently remote time to its present 
ownership, so as to leave no question 
as to the person in whom the title rests. 
A single estate is subjected to the ex- 
amination of seven different persons 
before it is finally recorded in the 
books; and the system of checks is 
such that any inaccuracy must be dis- 
covered. The company is responsible 
for any defect in a title taken from its 
books, and guarantees to indemnify the 
purchaser to the extent of the valuation 
which was placed on the property at 
the time the fee for the examination 
and the record was paid; the rates 
charged being graduated according to 
valuation. Dwight Foster is president 
of the company. 

Boston Training-school for 

Nurses. — See Training-schools for 
Nurses. 

Boston University. — This insti- 
tution for the liberal education of both 
sexes was incorporated in 1869 ; and 



its development has been surprisingly 
rapid. The first to suggest its estab- 
lishment was the late Lee Claflin, 
father of the Hon. William Claflin, 
ex-governor of the State, and for sev- 
eral terms representative in Congress 
from the eighth district of Massachu- 
setts. Lee Claflin, Jacob Sleeper, and 
Isaac Rich were the original corpora- 
tors in the Act of 1869, gi ym g the ne- 
cessary authority for the founding of 
the institution. The departments in its 
organization were classified as follows : 
(1) the Preparatory Departments; (2) 
the Colleges ; (3) the Professional 
Schools ; (4) the School of all Sciences. 
The board of government was vested 
in trustees, consisting of the president, 
ex officio, and five classes of trustees, 
each elected for a term of five years ; 
a university council, consisting of the 
president, and deans of the depart- 
ments, was provided for ; and a univer- 
sity senate, composed of the council, 
with the regular professors, was made 
the governing faculty of the School of 
all Sciences. In 187 1 the trustees of 
the Boston Theological Seminary, by 
an enabling Act from the Legislature, 
conveyed that school to the trustees 
of the university, together with all the 
property and trusts belonging to it ; the 
same year the College of Music and 
the School of Law were established ; 
and in the autumn of 1873 tne College 
of Liberal Arts, the School of Oratory, 
and the School of Medicine were 
opened. The College of Agriculture 
is represented by the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, organized in 1867, 
and located at Amherst, this State, 
and of which Paul A. Chadbourne, 
formerly president of Williams College, 
is president ; and a School of Fine 
Arts is projected, to be established as 
soon as practicable. In January, 1882, 
the university came into possession of 
a large bequest from the estate of the 
late Isaac Rich, one of its founders as 
stated above, who died on the 2d of 
January, 1872. By his will he left his 
entire estate to the university, after the 
payment of certain other bequests and 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 



80 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 



claims, but provided that the property 
should not pass to the university for 
a period of ten years. As appraised 
at the time, the estate was valued at 
over $1,700,000; and the other bequests 
and claims, the payment of which was 
provided for in the will, amounted to 
about $700,000. The property con- 
sisted mostly of real estate in city 
business blocks, and securities. The 
former was seriously affected by the 
great fire of 1872 [see Great Fire of 
1872, T/ie] ; and the latter were depre- 
ciated in value by the long-continued 
business depression of 1876-78. The 
trustees in charge of the property, how- 
ever, so carefully managed it, and so 
improved the real estate, that they were 
enabled to pay over to the university, 
upon the expiration of the allotted 
period, about $800,000, which, together 
with the assets of the institution at the 
time, makes a fund in its favor of over 
$1,000,000. This amount is to be em- 
ployed in increasing the facilities 
already afforded for the liberal educa- 
tion of those who avail themselves of 
its privileges. Soon after the recep- 
tion of the Rich bequest, the trustees 
of the university established in the 
academic department, or College of 
Liberal Arts, 64 free scholarships, to 
be known as " The Isaac Rich Scholar- 
ships," for the benefit of deserving and 
needy students, and divided equally 
between the sexes. The university 
council is at present composed of 
the following : William ' F. Warren, 
S.T.D., LL.D., president and registrar ; 
James E. Latimer, S.T.D., dean of the 
School of Theology ; Edmund H. 
Bennett, LL.D., dean of the School 
of Law; I. Tisdale Talbot, M.D., 
dean of the School of Medicine ; J. 
W. Lindsay, S.T.D., dean of the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts ; Eben Tourjee, 
Mus. D., dean of the College of Music ; 
Paul A. Chadbourne, LL.D., president 
of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College. The senate and other of- 
ficers of instruction and government 
comprise a list of nearly one hundred 
representative men. No honorary 



degrees are conferred by the university. 
Below are sketches of the different 
colleges and schools comprising the 
university. 

The School of Theology. — This was 
projected in 1839, an ^- opened in 1847. The 
regular course is for three years, and embraces 
exegetical, historical, systematic, and practical 
theology. Frequent lectures on these subjects 
are given, with a regular weekly missionary 
lecture by the professor of systematic theology. 
During the course, opportunity for home mis- 
sionary labor in connection v/ith the Boston 
City Missionary Society [see City Missionary 
Society} is afforded. A select course of reading 
is required ; courses in German and Spanish 
are provided for students preparing for labor 
among the peoples speaking these languages ; 
and extra courses in Arabic, Syriac, Talmudic 
Hebrew, and Samaritan, for those who desire to 
study them. Instruction in music and vocal 
culture, and a course of medical lectures, are 
also provided for those preparing for missionary 
service. The students have the use of books 
from the school library, which contains about 
5,000 volumes, the State Library of over 30,000 
volumes [see State Library}, the Boston 
Public Library of 400,000 volumes [see Public 
Library, Boston], and the General Theological 
Library [see Ge?ieral Theological Library]. 
The Egyptological collection of antiquities, and 
the missionary cabinet of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions [see 
Americaji Board, etc.], are also accessible to 
students of this school. Exercises in extempore 
speaking and debate are provided weekly ; and 
opportunities for practice in ministerial labor 
are afforded in supplying vacant pulpits in the 
neighborhood, and in pursuing the calls of the 
city missions. The annual charges for tuition 
are $50, expenses $10. Pecuniary aid is ex- 
tended when required in the shape of a remit- 
tance of the tuition-fee, loans from different 
educational societies or the school-loan fund, 
and scholarships established by friends of the 
school. Graduates who have taken their first 
degree in arts are eligible to the degree of 
bachelor of divinity. The school is located at 
No. 36 Bromfield Street. 

The College of Music. — Organized in 
1872, and designed to furnish advantages for 
general musical culture, and to fit students for 
responsible positions as teachers. Candidates 
for admission are required to pass a satisfactory 
examination in the department they may desire 
to enter. The regular courses include one for 
vocalists, one for pianists, one for organists, and 
one for orchestral performers. All these include 
the study of musical theory, and the history and 
aesthetics of music. Lectures and concerts are 
given at various times, the students performing 
whenever appointed. Students have free access 
to the Boston Public Library, and the special 
musical library of the dean. The musical 
course usually occupies about three years, at 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 



the end of which the university diploma is 
awarded to graduates. The college year is 
divided into two terms of 20 weeks each. The 
charges for tuition for pianoforte, organ, or 
voice, including composition and lectures, are, 
in class of four, $150 per year; class of three, 
$200; class of two, $300. Private tuition and 
special courses at special rates. The college 
was long located at Music Hall, but in 1882 re- 
moved to spacious quarters in the building for- 
merly occupied as the St. James Hotel. [See 
New-England Conservatory of Music, .] 

The School of Law. — Organized in 1872. 
The method of instruction includes the regular 
oral text-book exposition and recitation, free 
and written lectures, reviews, examinations, 
exercises in draughting contracts, conveyances, 
pleadings, indictments, and other legal papers, 
the criticism of briefs, and arguments in moot- 
courts, courses of reading, etc. Lectures and 
practical instruction in elocution and forensic 
oratory are also given throughout the course. 
The course is for three years, and the final ex- 
aminations cover all the required and two-thirds 
of all the elective work. A " court of the uni- 
versity," or moot-court, is established, in which 
suits are commenced in law and equity, and 
conducted through all their stages to a final 
hearing and decision on questions of law, and 
are carried up by exceptions, appeal, writ of 
error, etc. It has a clerk, seal, docket, crier, 
sheriff, etc., and is presided over weekly by 
some member of the faculty. Students enjoy 
facilities for observing the organization and 
working of courts, progress of notable cases, 
arguments of eminent counsel, rulings of judges, 
processes of decision, exception, appeal, etc., in 
the regular courts in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the school; and the University-Law, 
the State, and the Public Libraries are accessi- 
ble to them. The degree of bachelor of laws is 
conferred upon all graduates. The charges for 
instruction for the three-years' course are $250; 
special rates being made to special students 
desiring only part of the course. The school is 
located at No. 36 Bromfield Street. 

The College of Liberal Arts. — Organ- 
ized in 1873. It provides thorough and sys- 
tematic instruction in all those branches of 
literature, philosophy, and science, known as 
the liberal arts. The course covers a period of 
four years: for the freshman year are included 
Latin, Greek, German, ancient history, algebra, 
trigonometry, elocution, English composition 
(all required;) for the sophomore year, Latin, 
Greek, rhetoric, English literature, physics, elo- 
cution, and composition (all required) , analytics, 
French, German, history (elective) ; junior 
year, psychology, logic, ethics, elocution, and 
composition (all required), biology, calculus, 
chemistry, French, German, Greek, Latin, 
Spanish, Italian, zoology, physiology, geology, 
Roman law (elective) ; and senior year, theistic 
philosophy, evidences of Christianity, elocution, 
and composition (all required) , astronomy, cal- 
culus, chemistry, English literature, French, 
German, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, Sanscrit, 



Spanish, Italian, Anglo-Saxon, United-States 
Constitution, metaphysics, political economy, 
zoology, botany, geology, international law, 
Roman law (elective) . In a number of branches 
the instruction is supplemented by lectures. 
Two examinations are held, a preliminary and 
final one, each covering one-half the require- 
ments for admission; and these requirements 
include Latin, Greek, mathematics, English 
composition, French, modern and ancient his- 
tory, geography, and physics. The degree of 
bachelor of arts is conferred upon all graduates. 
Students of the college enjoy free of charge the 
use of books in the Boston Public Library, and 
admission to other special libraries and reading- 
rooms on payment of a small fee; and access to 
the several museums and collections of the dif- 
ferent societies in the city. Several literary and 
debating societies are organized among the stu- 
dents. The college exercises are so arranged 
that students residing in any of the neighboring 
cities and towns may conveniently attend. All 
are required to be present at regular morning 
devotions, conducted by members of the faculty. 
From 15 to 17 recitations are required weekly 
from regular students. The expense of tuition 
is $100, with $10 for incidental expenses. It is 
stated officially, in the college Year-book, that 
students who are able to live at home can pro- 
cure their entire college course of four years for 
$500. The Massachusetts Society for the Uni- 
versity Education of Women [see University 
Education of Women] maintains a number of 
free scholarships in the college; and students 
preparing for the Christian ministry can usually 
receive aid from education societies of their re- 
spective denominations, amounting to $100 or 
more per annum. The college year consists of 
three terms and three vacations. Of the total 
number of students in the College of Liberal 
Arts, in 1882, one-third were young women. 
The college is located in Sleeper Hall on Som- 
erset Street. 

The School of Oratory. — Organized in 
1S73 by the late Professor Lewis B. Monroe. 
After a successful existence of four years, it was 
terminated by the unexpected death of its origin- 
ator and patron. It is^however, to be continued 
on a higher plane of requirement in the School 
of All Sciences. 

The School of Medicine. — Organized in 
1873. Its course is for three years. The de- 
partments of instruction embrace clinical medi- 
cine, materia medica, pathology, therapeutics, 
surgery, obstetrics, female diseases, ophthalmol- 
ogy, physiology, anatomy, and chemistry. Spe- 
cial lecture-courses are furnished upon various 
subjects. Surgical operations performed in the 
Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital [see 
Homoeopathic Hospital] are open to the class 
as witnesses, and male students are allowed to 
be present at the surgical operations performed 
at the Boston City Hospital [see City Hospital] . 
A museum connected with the school contains 
many fine preparations in wax, besides anatomi- 
cal, pathological, and physiological specimens, 
and a valuable histological and microscopical 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 



82 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 



cabinet. In 1874, by Act of the Massachusetts 
Legislature, the New-England Female Medical 
College was united with this school. The tuition- 
fee for the full three-years' course is $250. The 
school-building is on East Concord Street, ad- 
joining the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital. It contains three ample lecture-rooms, 
including an amphitheatre capable of seating 
300 students, laboratories, a large dissecting- 
room, museum, library, cloak and dressing rooms 
for the students of both sexes. 

The School of All Sciences. — Organized 
in 1874, and open to graduates only. It is de- 
signed, first, for the benefit of bachelors of arts, 
philosophy, or science, of whatsoever college, 
who may desire to receive post-graduate in- 
struction; and, secondly, to meet the wants of 
graduates in law, theology, medicine, or other 
professional courses, who may wish to supple- 
ment their studies with higher education. Being 
a department for elective post-graduate study 
only, it presents no strictly prescribed courses. 
Its aim is to provide thorough instruction in all 
cultivated languages, natural and mathematical 
sciences, theological, legal, and mental studies, 
the fine arts, branches of special historical study, 
etc. Members of the School of All Sciences 
who are bachelors of arts can pursue approved 
courses of study in the National University of 
Athens without expense for tuition; and, on re- 
turning and passing a satisfactory examination, 
receive their appropriate degree precisely as if 
they had remained in residence. Such students 
can also pursue approved studies in the Royal 
University at Rome ; and, on returning, receive 
their appropriate degree, passing the examina- 
tion satisfactorily. Degrees of doctor of science, 
doctor of philosophy, doctor of music, doctor of 
civil law, master of arts, and master of laws, are 
conferred. 

The College of Agriculture, represent- 
ed by the Massachusetts Agricultural College. 
This was organized in 1867. It is provided with 
new and excellent buildings, and is situated on 
a farm of 400 acres in the fertile valley of the 
Connecticut. Candidates are examined in Eng- 
lish grammar, geography, arithmetic, algebra, 
and United-States history. The course occupies 
four years. Instruction is given chiefly by 
lectures and practical exercises, and includes 
botany, horticulture, agriculture, chemistry, ge- 
ology, veterinary science, zoology, mathematics, 
physics, civil engineering, military science with 
drill exercises, English, French, German, mental, 
moral, and social science. Graduates receive 
the degree of bachelor of science. The annual 
expenses of tuition, including books, are from 
$200 to $350. 

The headquarters and business 
offices of the University are on Somer- 
set Street, near Beacon, in a building 
of its own, completed in the winter of 
1882. It stands on the site of the old 
Somerset-street Church. It is built of 



pressed brick and terra-cotta. The style 
is a freely treated Renaissance. A part 
of the windows have the transom lights 
glazed with quarry-glass ; and other 
sashes are filled in with cathedral-glass 
in delicate tints, in small squares. The 
transom-light over the front doorway 
is of quarry-glass in quiet colors, form- 
ing the monograms " B. U." (Boston 
University) and "J. S." (Jacob Sleeper) 
on either side of a central wreath of 
laurel. The entrance-doors are of oak. 
On the street-floor are the offices of 
the registrar and treasurer, a "young 
men's study," and the "university 
chapel." A private entrance for women 
students at the left of the front opens 
into a corridor extending the whole 
depth of the building to the women's 
gymnasium, dressing-rooms, and par- 
lor and study. On the second floor 
are the rooms of the president and 
dean, a large room for mineralogical 
and other collections, and a parlor for 
the meetings of the corporation. A 
wide, well-lighted corridor, leading to 
the rear of the building, gives access 
on either side to class-rooms and the 
professors' waiting-room and lavatory. 
At the rear is a door opening from the 
corridor into the "ladies' study," a 
room of ample proportion and height. 
A brick fireplace of generous width is 
built the whole height of the room, 
ornamented with moulded brick, in- 
scribed terra-cotta panels, and Chelsea 
tiles. A niche above the fireplace con- 
tains a cast of Minerva. At either 
side of the chimney is a deep oaken 
settle. The ends of the room are 
semicircular in plan, and have wide 
upholstered seats of corresponding 
shape. The side of the room opposite 
to the fireplace has a carved oak book- 
case for the reference-library, with 
desks and writing-appliances extending 
its whole length ; while high above is 
a triplet window, glazed with antique 
quarry-work, cut crystals, and opales- 
cent glass. These windows make a 
beautiful bit of color set into the 
deep terra-cotta colored walls. A pol- 
ished hard-wood floor, Turkey rugs, 



BOSTON WIDOW AND ORPHAN ASSO. 



83 



BOWDOIN SQUARE 



and large leather-covered library-tables, 
complete the fittings of this room. 
The third-story front range of rooms, 
on Somerset Street, comprises two large 
class-rooms, and an office for the dean 
of the School of Theology. At the 
rear is a large hall for general exer- 
cises and public occasions. A small 
gallery for musicians is opposite the 
platform. In the fourth story the front 
range affords two class-rooms, and the 
quarters assigned to the janitor. In 
the basement a large room has been 
finished for the young men's gymna- 
sium, lavatory, toilet, dressing-boxes, 
etc. Both the gymnasiums have been 
fitted up by Dr. D. A. Sargent, director 
of the Hemenway gymnasium of Har- 
vard College. In constructing the 
building, every effort has been made 
to render it as thoroughly fire-proof as 
possible. A thorough system of venti- 
lation has also been introduced. The 
cost of the building, with its furnish- 
ings, was $80,000. It is called "Jacob 
Sleeper Hall," in honor of Jacob 
Sleeper, one of the three founders of 
the university, as stated above. 

Boston Widow and Orphan As- 
sociation. — No. 3 Tremont Row. Es- 
tablished 1872; incorporated in 1876. 
A Catholic benefit organization. Aids 
sick members by giving each of them 
$5 per week for not more than 13 
weeks ; and $50 is allowed each for 
burial. Members during sickness are 
visited twice a week by members of 
the visiting committee. Candidates 
for membership must be fron 18 to 40 
years of age. The admission-fee is $2, 
and assessments 50 cents per month. 

Bostonian Society (The). — Incor- 
porated December, 1881, "to promote 
the study of the history of Boston, and 
the preservation of its antiquities." 
Its purpose is to collect and preserve 
valuable memorials of the history of 
the city; and to prevent, as far as 
possible, the reckless destruction of 
monuments of the past, for whose pres- 
ervation good reason can be shown. 
That portion of the Old State House 



[see Old State House\ reserved by the 
action of the City Council in 1881, pro- 
viding for its restoration, has been com- 
mitted to the custody of this society. 
It consists of the ancient Council 
Chamber and Legislative Hall, which 
it holds under a ten-years' lease. The 
immediate task set before itself by the 
new corporation is properly to regulate 
and provide for the admission of the 
public to these memorial halls, and 
the gradual establishment therein of 
an historical museum peculiarly Bos- 
tonian in its character; which work is 
slowly progressing. The admission- 
fee to the association is fixed at $5, 
and the subsequent annual assessment 
at the same sum. The Antiquarian 
Club, established in 1879 f° r a some- 
what similar purpose, — the preserva- 
tion of historical records, — dissolved 
as a distinct organization on the for- 
mation of the Bostonian Society, and 
merged itself into that. The presi- 
dent of the Bostonian is Curtis Guild ; 
Samuel M. Quincy, No. 16 Pemberton 
Square, is clerk; and there is a board 
of seven directors. The society has 
now about 300 members, an illustrious 
list, including members of Congress, 
of the State Legislature, and the Gov- 
ernor's Council, railroad-presidents, the 
most distinguished resident clergymen, 
eminent authors, and many respected 
and honored citizens. Already many 
rare maps, engravings, and papers, re- 
lating to the early history of Boston, 
have come into the possession of the 
society. 

Bowdoin Square, between Court, 
Bulfinch, Cambridge, Green, and Char- 
don Streets, on which are the Revere 
House, the Coolidge House, and the 
Bowdoin-square Church, was named 
for Gov. Bowdoin. In its palmy days, 
before business had taken possession 
of it, it took rank as an aristocratic 
quarter. " It was the seat of many 
elegant old-time estates," says Drake, 
" with broad acres, gardens, and noble 
trees." Where the Revere House 
stands were the grounds and residence 



BOWDOIN-SQUARE BAPTIST CHURCH 



BOXING 



of Kirk Boott, a leading merchant of 
his time, whose son in later years was 
connected with the great manufactur- 
ing enterprises of Lowell. The corner 
opposite the Revere House used to be 
the estate of Lieut.-Gov. Armstrong. 
The two old-fashioned but stately stone 
houses between the head of Cambridge 
and Green Streets were built by Sam- 
uel Parkman, father of Dr. George 
Parkman. On the site of the Baptist 
Church was the mansion-house of 
Theodore Lyman, while on that of 
the Coolidge House adjoining was the 
estate of Joseph Coolidge. The square, 
in the days of its glory, was adorned 
with beautiful shade-trees, and it must 
have been an attractive spot. To-day 
it is a street-car centre, especially for 
Cambridge cars ; and the Herdics have 
a stand here [see Hacks, Herdic Phae- 
tons, etc.], 

Bowdoin-square Baptist Church. 
— The church-building which stands 
on the north side of Bowdoin Square 
used to be enclosed from the street 
with a row of handsome trees in front 
of it. Its front, with its tower and its 
six turrets, is of granite ; and the tower 
projecting from the main building is 
28 feet square and no feet high. The 
original cost of the building, includ- 
ing furniture and organ, was about 
$70,000. This church was constituted 
Sept. 17, 1840, with 137 members ; and 
Rev. R. W. Cushman was the first set- 
tled pastor. He was installed July 8, 
1 84 1. Rev. Pharcellus Church, D.D., 
succeeded him in 1848, and continued 
as pastor until 1852. Among other 
pastors have been Rev. William H. 
Wines, and Rev. John N. Murdoch. 
The pastor at this time is Rev. W. W. 
Downs. [See Baptist Denomination 
and Churches.] 

Boxing. — Staid Bostonians have 
slight if any notion of the extent to 
which the so-called noble art of self- 
defence is cultivated in this com- 
munity, not alone by " sporting-men," 
but by those belonging to the best 
classes in town. It is asserted that 



probably not since the " palmy days " 
when Heenan and Sayers pommelled 
each other in the British prize-ring, has 
so much interest been manifested in 
the "manly art" as at present; though 
not, happily, because of a growing 
admiration or respect for the brutal 
pastime of the ring, but because of the 
increased attention to athletic sports 
and the healthy development of the 
muscles. While " sporting-men " have 
always had a fondness for boxing and 
the like, the interest of others has 
been turned toward it, heightened 
somewhat in, 1882 by the winning of 
the heavy-weight amateur glove cham- 
pionship of America, by Raymond 
Guiteras, amateur sparring-teacher of 
Harvard men. The leading sporting- 
houses of the city are the " Saracen's 
Head," kept by "Joe" Goss, an 
English ex-champion, and "Tom" 
Earley's "crib," both on Lagrange 
Street; "The Abbey," on Hayward 
Place, presided over by "Patsey" 
Shepard, an American ex-champion ; 
and "Jim" Keenan's sporting-house 
on Portland Street. At all these 
places sparring is taught and practised 
by professionals and amateurs. There 
are many other similar places of less 
note, but they differ from those men- 
tioned in not making boxing a spe- 
cialty. Teachers of the art are by no 
means scarce, nor do they suffer from 
want of patronage. The oldest and 
best-known among these is probably 
Professor Bailey, who has a school on 
Tremont Row, and numbers among 
his pupils gentlemen of the best social 
standing. Many of these receive in- 
structions at their homes; and "blue 
blood " is frequently spilled in teaching 
fine men of Boston how to handle 
scientifically their "bunch of fives." 
Boxing also finds its place among the 
athletic sports. The most important 
of the boxing-clubs is the Cribb Club, 
named for the English champion, 
"Tom" Cribb, which has rooms in 
Avery Street. It has been in exist- 
ence for several years. It has over 100 
members ; and, as good standing in 



85 



BOYLSTON EDUCATIONAL FUND 



society is an essential qualification for 
membership, it numbers among its pa- 
trons journalists, lawyers, physicians, 
and business-men. Its president is a 
well-known literary gentleman and 
editor, and an active promoter of 
all kinds of out-of-door sports. The 
admission of new members is confided 
to an election-committee, and their 
nomination must be seconded by two 
members. There is no stated initia- 
tion-fee, but assessments are levied 
from time to time to defray the current 
expenses. The rooms are fitted up 
with all the appliances for boxing, 
fencing, and wrestling; and are open 
to members from three to six o'clock 
every afternoon, when a professor of 
sparring is in attendance to give lessons 
to such as may desire them. Meetings 
are held at the call of the president; 
and exhibitions are given, in which 
not only members, but professional 
boxers and sparrers, participate. On 
such occasions strangers are some- 
times admitted, but only when intro- 
duced by a member. The Commercial 
Athletic Club is a North-end institu- 
tion, which is devoted exclusively to 
boxing. It was organized in February, 
1882, and meets every Thursday night 
at No. 242 Commercial Street. It has 
50 members, many of whom, besides 
being experienced sparrers, are oars- 
men who find boxing capital exercise 
for keeping themselves in condition 
during the winter months. The con- 
ditions of membership in this club 
are not so stringent as are those of the 
Cribb Club ; but care is taken to 
exclude all unruly and turbulent spir- 
its. An entrance-fee of $2 is charged, 
and slight monthly dues are collected. 
The club-rooms are conveniently fitted 
up for boxing purposes ; and besides 
a ring roped in with stout cords, and 
padded walls, — suggestive of hard 
blows and heavy falls, — dressing- 
rooms and lockers are provided for 
the use of the members. Sand-bags, 
gloves, fleshings, and Indian clubs are 
in abundance, and are at the disposal 
of the members and their friends dur- 



ing the day and evening. The main 
room has a seating capacity for about 
200, and is completely packed by the 
admirers of pugilism once a month, 
when private exhibitions are given, in 
which local boxers and athletes par- 
ticipate. 

Boylston Club, The. — A private 
musical society, organized in May, 
1873, f° r tne study and performance 
of music for male voices alone, and 
enlarged in 1877 by the addition of an 
auxiliary chorus of ladies. It contains 
three distinct bodies, — a complete and 
carefully trained male chorus, a four- 
part female chorus, and a mixed chorus 
so formed that it is in fact a combina- 
tion of two complete choruses, a first 
and second. In its public perform- 
ances, each of these three bodies is 
fully represented. It gives cantatas, 
masses, psalms, and four-part songs of 
the great composers, leaving oratorios 
to the Handel and Haydn Society [see 
Handel and Haydn Society] with its 
greater number of members. In 1878 
it gave a complete mass by Palestrina, 
and the famous B-flat motet of Bach, 
both for the first time in this country. 
The voices are carefully picked ; and 
none but competent singers are admit- 
ted to active membership, always under 
stringent regulations as to attendance 
at rehearsals. The active membership 
now numbers 90 gentlemen and 90 
ladies. The rehearsals are given in 
the Mechanics' Hall, in the building 
of the Massachusetts Charitable Me- 
chanic Association [see Charitable 
Mechanic Association, The Massachu- 
setts], and its concerts generally in 
Music Hall ; and admission is by tick- 
ets obtainable only from members of 
the club. The first performance of the 
club was in 1873. Its first director 
was J. B. Sharland, and George L. Os- 
good is director now. [See Music in 
Boston^ 

Boylston Educational Fund. — 

A fund of $108,660.66, the income of 
which is applied to "nurture and in- 
struct poor orphans and deserted chil- 



BOYLSTON RELIEF FUND 



86 



BRATTLE -SQUARE CHURCH 



dren under 14." It is under the control 
of the overseers of the poor, and 25 
boys at the Farm School on Thomp- 
son's Island are maintained by it. [See 
Overseers of the Poor.] 

Boylston Relief Fund. — A fund 
of $18,333.56, the income of which is 
given in semi-annual payments to " poor 
and decayed householders not under 
fifty years of age, of good character, 
and reduced by acts of Providence, 
not by indolence, extravagance, or 
other vice." This is in the hands of 
the overseers of the poor. [See Over- 
seers of the Poor.] 

Boylston Market. — This building, 
on the corner of Washington and Boyl- 
ston Streets, was built in 1809, on what 
was then considered the outer margin 
of the town, and was opened the year 
following. It was named for Ward 
Nicholas Boylston, a great benefactor 
of Harvard College (which has named 
its chemical laboratory in his honor), 
and a descendant of Dr. Zabdiel Boyl- 
ston, famous in the history of inocu- 
lation. Mr. Boylston presented the 
clock in its old-fashioned tower, which 
tells the time with rare accuracy to the 
passers-by of the present day, as it did 
to those of the time of its youth. The 
market occupies the ground-floor, and 
over it is Boylston Hall. In the latter 
the organization of several churches 
has been effected ; a variety of musical, 
theatrical, and miscellaneous entertain- 
ments have been given ; for several 
vears the Handel and Haydn Society 
[see Handel and Haydn Society] leased 
it ; for many more years it was used for 
drill purposes by the public schools, 
and military organizations connected 
with the militia; and at the present 
time it is occupied as the headquarters 
of the first brigade, and the armories 
of Companies K and C of the First 
Regiment. The building is owned by 
the Boylston-market Association, of 
which John Quincy Adams was the 
first president, making an extended 
address on the occasion of the dedica- 
tion of the market. It was originally 



built at a cost- of but $20,000, and the 
land cost but 75 cents a foot. In 1859 
it was extended 40 feet ; and in 1S70 
was moved back from the street 11 
feet, without the slightest disturbance 
to the occupants. Jonathan French is 
the president of the association. 

Boylston Medical Society (The) 
of Harvard University. An associa- 
tion formed for the purpose of pro- 
moting emulation and inquiry among 
the students at the Medical School 
[see Harvard Medical School]. It was 
founded in 181 1, by Ward Nicholas 
Boylston, who left it a fund from which 
prizes are given to those members of 
the society whose medical dissertations 
are most approved. In 1823 the society 
was duly incorporated. The president 
is always a member of the Massachu- 
setts M'edical Society. The president 
is Dr. M. H. Richardson of Boston, 
and the secretary C. S. Holden. 

Boylston Museum. — A variety- 
theatre on Washington Street, a few 
doors south of Boylston Street. It 
gives performances every afternoon and 
evening, at prices of admission ranging 
from 10 cents to 50 cents. Friday 
evening is "amateur night," when 
stage-struck youths and maidens are 
permitted to essay their powers upon 
the boards before the public. G. E. 
Lathrop is proprietor and manager. 
The house seats 930 people. It used 
to be a museum for the exhibition of 
curiosities ; hence its name. 

Brattle-square Church (The). — 
The stone edifice in the form of a 
Greek cross, with its imposing and 
massive tower, on the corner of Com- 
monwealth Avenue and Clarendon 
Street, is now the property of the 
First Baptist Church of Boston, the 
successor of the old historic First Bap- 
tist Society (formed in 1665), whose 
early years were so full of trials [see 
Baptists]. It was built to succeed the 
old " Brattle-square Meeting-house," 
which stood so long in Brattle Square, 



BRATTLE-SQUARE CHURCH 



37 



BREWER FOUNTAIN 



and bore on its front the cannon-ball 
which, fired from a battery in Cam- 
bridge on the night of the evacuation 
of Boston, struck the building, and was 
afterwards fixed in its place as a me- 
mento of that event and those stirring 
times. The old meeting-house was 
sold in 1871, and torn down, — much 
to the regret of many citizens, who cher- 
ished it as one of the worthiest of old 
landmarks, — and on its site a business 
block arose ; the parish moving to the 
new church, which was completed and 
dedicated in 1873. The old building 
was a fine specimen of the English 
style of church of the last century. 
It was built in 1772-73, succeeding the 
first church built by the society in 
1699, the year of its formation. It was 
known as the " Manifesto Church ; " 
the original members, when they organ- 
ized, while adopting the belief of the 
Congregational churches of the time, 
having issued a document recognizing 
the right of difference of belief among 
the members, and abolishing the dis- 
tinction between church and congrega- 
tion. The first minister was ordained 
in London. During the Revolution, 
services were suspended, and the Brit- 
ish soldiery used the meeting-house as 
a barrack. It has had a long line of 
eminent clergymen, among them the 
late John G. Palfrey and Edward Eve- 
rett. The new Brattle-square Church 
was built at a heavy expense. Its lofty 
tower, 176 feet in height, strongly re- 
sembles some of the beautiful towers 
of Florence in its outline : but it is 
quite unique from the frieze of bas- 
reliefs boldly sculptured upon its four 
sides near the summit. These are 
groups of full-length figures, represent- 
ing the sacraments of baptism, com- 
munion, marriage, and burial. At 
each angle are statues of the angels of 
the judgment blowing golden trumpets. 
Acoustically the building was not a suc- 
cess ; and after it had been occupied 
but a short time, the society also find- 
ing itself deeply in debt, it was closed. 
The members of the society having 
thereafter scattered, and become con- 



nected with other churches, it was in 
1876 dissolved ; and the property was 
finally disposed of, in 18S1, at public 
auction, Mr. J. Montgomery Sears be- 
ing the purchaser. Several attempts 
were made to secure funds for its pur- 
chase for various purposes and to pre- 
vent its demolition ; and at length in 
the winter of 1881-82, it was secured 
by the First Baptist Society, as stated 
above. By the terms of the sale, the 
tower and a plat 35 feet square, includ- 
ing the land upon which the tower 
stands, are to be held in perpetual trust 
by the Boston Memorial Society [see 
Boston Memorial Society], the Baptist 
society to keep it in repair; so that, in 
the event of the sale of the church by 
the latter society, the tower will be 
preserved. Extensive alterations were 
made in the interior of the church. 
New galleries were built in the tran- 
septs, another over a new vestibule in 
the auditorium, and a new choir-gallery. 
A lot of land in the rear of the church 
was purchased by the society in 1882 ; 
and a new vestry, with lecture-room, 
class-room, and ladies' parlor for social 
gatherings, was built within the year. 

Breweries. — See Beer and Brew- 
eries. 

Brewer Fountain (The), of bronze, 
situated on the Common, near the 
Park-street mall, was presented to the 
city in 1868, by the late Gardner Brew- 
er, one of the most prominent mer- 
chants of the city in his day. The 
recumbent figures at the base are Nep- 
tune, Amphitrite, Acis, and Galatea. 
It has two basins ; and between these 
are graceful standing figures, upon 
which the upper basin rests. The 
fountain was cast in Paris, and is a 
duplicate of a design by Lienard, 
which received the gold medal at the 
Paris Exposition in 1&55. Like the 
other public fountains, it too often 
lacks the crowning grace of a fountain, 
— water, which is but sparingly, and 
at rare intervals, permitted to flow. 
[See Fountains.] 



BRIDGES 



88 



BRIDGES 



Bridges. — Owing to the almost in- 
sular position of. Boston, in the early 
days the only communication with 
Cambridge and Charlestown except 
by ferry, and that of primitive style, 
was by the roundabout way of Rox- 
bury, over " the Neck," which was at 
that time but little wider than the 
present width of the older portion of 
Washington Street ; and the " Great 
Bridge," so called, across the Charles at 
Cambridge. A mile-stone in Harvard 
Square, Cambridge, to-day informs us 
that it is " 8 miles to Boston ; " and so 
it was until after the Revolution, when, 
in 1786, the Charles-river Bridge to 
Charlestown was completed, and seven 
years later the West-Boston Bridge to 
Cambridge, from the foot of Cam- 
bridge Street. The building of the 
Charles-river Bridge was considered 
at the time one of the grandest enter- 
prises ever undertaken in the country, 
and it was for those days a great un- 
dertaking. It was 1,503 feet long, 
and 42 wide, with a 30-foot draw. It 
rested on huge piers of oak ; and there 
were four solid wharves and buttresses 
laid witlr stone in different parts of it, 
to give additional strength. It was 
fairly lighted at night, for those times, 
with lanterns elevated on posts. Its 
cost was $50,000. This bridge was 
the enterprise of a private corpora- 
tion, of which John Hancock was a 
leading member, and whose charter 
was granted by the General Court in 
1785. The corporation was authorized 
to receive tolls, to be double on " the 
Lord's Day," for. the term of 40 years ; 
an annual payment, however, of .£200 
to be made to Harvard College in 
compensation for the annual income 
of the Boston and Charlestown Ferry, 
of which it would be deprived by the 
building of the bridge. In 1792, when 
the charter for the West-Boston Bridge 
Company was granted, the term for 
taking toll on the Charles-river Bridge 
was extended 30 years ; but the pro- 
vision was made that only single tolls, 
instead of double, should be charged 
on " the Lord's Dav," the same as on 



secular days. The first bridge was 
completed and opened on the great 
local holiday, the 17th of June, with 
much parade and rejoicing. Morning 
salutes were fired from Copp's Hill in 
Boston, and Bunker Hill in Charles- 
town ; the bells of the two towns 
were rung in a joyous fashion, Christ- 
church chimes [see Christ Church} 
joining in. There was a great pro- 
cession of State officials, town officers, 
and leading citizens, with the bridge 
proprietors, which marched from in 
front of the Old State House in State 
Street, across the new structure to 
Charlestown and Bunker Hill ; and 
on the hill dinner was served at two 
great tables, at which 800 people were 
accommodated; and the festivities 
continued until dusk. There was 
much cannon-firing during the day, 
our fathers delighting to display their 
exuberant spirits in that noisy style. 
There were, beside the morning salutes, 
salutes from "The Castle," now For* 
Independence, and from Copp's Hill, 
when the great procession started; 
another salute when it passed over 
the draw, and entered upon the pas- 
sage of the new bridge ; and another, 
of thirteen guns, when it reached the 
renowned hill. The second bridge, 
that between Boston and Cambridge, 
opened for travel on Nov. 23, 1793, 
with no great demonstration, was a 
more expensive piece of work. A 
causeway leading to it laid with stones 
was built, and on each side of this was 
a canal; and the wooden part of the 
bridge was 3,483 feet in length, and 
40 feet wide, supported on 180 piers. 
The cost of the structure, with the 
causeway and canals, was about $115,' 
000. The charter granted the corpo- 
ration authorized it to establish tolls, 
and required it to pay annually to 
Harvard College ^300 for 40 years 
for defraying the expenses of indigent 
students ; and subsequently, by addi- 
tional Acts, the term of continuance of 
the corporation was established at 70 
years ; it was empowered to make 
and maintain canals, and the amount 



BRIDGES 



BRITISH CHARITABLE SOCIETY 



to be annually paid to the college was 
reduced to £200, to be applied for 
the support of two tutors. The first 
bridge company found its investment 
a profitable one ; but the West-Bos- 
ton Bridge company had much to 
contend with from the start, and its 
financial exhibit was not of a gratify- 
ing sort. On Commencement Day, 
Aug. 13, 1809, Cragie's Bridge (first 
called Canal Bridge), extending from 
"Barton's Point" at the end of Lever- 
ett Street to " Lechmere's Point," East 
Cambridge (2,796 feet in length), was 
opened to public travel; and some 
time after a lateral bridge connecting 
East Cambridge with Charlestown, 
1,821 feet in length, was built. The 
first bridge between Boston and South 
Boston was from " the Neck " at Dover 
Street, which was opened in March, 
1804. It was 1,550 feet long, and cost 
$50,000. In 1828 a second South- 
Boston bridge was built, from the foot 
of Federal Street, 500 feet long. The 
same year a second bridge between 
Boston and Charlestown, the Warren 
Bridge leading from Haverhill Street 
to Charlestown Square, was built. It 
was 1,390 feet long. In 1834 the Chel- 
sea free bridge, 690 feet long, between 
East Boston and Chelsea, was built. 
In 1858 the toll-bridges became free. 
From time to time the several great 
bridges have been rebuilt and im- 
proved, and numerous smaller bridges 
built as the city has spread out and en- 
larged its boundaries. The old Dover- 
street Bridge to South Boston has been 
replaced by a spacious and substantial 
structure; and in 1872 a new iron 
bridge to South Boston, known as the 
Broadway Bridge, was completed. 
There are also the Mount Washing- 
ton-avenue and the Congress-street 
Bridges over Fort-Point Channel. 
Two bridges connect East Boston and 
Chelsea; and Chelsea is connected 
with the Charlestown district by a long 
bridge (made free in 1869), which has 
recently been rebuilt. From near 
Charlestown " Neck," that section of 
the city is connected with Everett, 



formerly South Maiden, by anothei 
long bridge (the first one built by a 
company incorporated so long ago as 
1787, and the tolls were taken off in 
1S59). A bridge known as Saratoga- 
street Bridge, extending to Breed's Isl- 
and, a part of East Boston, leads alsc 
to Winthrop. Six bridges connect the 
Brighton district with Watertown and 
Cambridge ; four connect the Dorches- 
ter district with Milton and Quincy; 
and in the Back-bay district are several 
fine bridges over the railroads, which 
have been built at great expense. A 
bird's-eye view from the State House 
or from Bunker-hill Monumen tshows 
the spectator a perfect network of 
bridges spanning the Charles at won- 
derfully close intervals for the whole 
district between the Navy Yard and 
the old Mill-dam and Beacon Street. 
These are in part for ordinary travel, 
and partly railroad-bridges, whose nu- 
merous draws present no trifling ob- 
struction to the speedy navigation of 
Charles River, in spite of the modern 
appliances for their quick opening and 
closing. Another intricate labyrinth 
of shorter bridges will be seen between 
the city proper, and South Boston. 
The building of an immense double- 
deck iron bridge between the city 
proper and the Charlestown district — 
the upper deck to cross Causeway 
Street in the city proper, on a span 
of about 100 feet, and about 15 feet 
above the roadway — has been seri- 
ously considered by the city authori- 
ties. 

British Charitable Society. — Es- 
tablished in 1816; incorporated in 
1818. An association to furnish relief 
for English, Scotch, and Welsh immi- 
grants, or their families, and to afford 
them much-needed information and 
practical advice. It gives money in 
extreme cases, and only in small sums. 
Five dollars is the largest sum given 
at any one time, or to any single in- 
dividual ; and this is not renewed 
within six months, except with the 
consent of a majority of the board of 



9 o 



BROOK FARM 1 



trustees under which the work of the 
society is done. About 300 persons 
are aided annually. The chairman of 
the board of trustees, Stuart Mac- 
Corry, is to be found at the City Hall. 

Brighton. — The Brighton district, 
annexed to the city in 1873 [see An- 
nexations\, was formerly a part of 
Cambridge known as Little Cambridge. 
It was set off as a separate town in 
1807. It has been noted for many 
yeai's as a great cattle-market, from 
which the daily supplies of the city 
proper are fo a considerable extent 
drawn, and trade is had with distant 
places. The great slaughtering and 
rendering establishment known as the 
Abattoir [see Abattoir] is situated 
here, along the banks of the Charles 
River. Brighton was also at one time 
quite noted for fine nurseries and gar- 
dens, and several notable ones are yet 
maintained there. It is reached by 
the Boston and Albany Railroad ; by a 
line of street-cars, by way of Bowdoin 
Square, Court Street, Scollay Square, 
Tremont Street, and around the Com- 
mon ; and by the famous driveway 
(a continuation of Beacon Street and 
the Mill-dam) known as the " Brighton 
Road " [see Streets of Boston], a famous 
trotting and driving course which, in 
the height of the sleighing-season, or 
in the early summer or late autumn 
afternoons, is brilliant with " spank- 
ing " teams and gay " turnouts," pre- 
senting an exhilarating spectacle worth 
taking a good deal of trouble to see. 
The streets of the Brighton district are 
pleasant and shady, those to the south 
and west passing over beautiful hills 
and commanding charming views. It 
has a soldiers' monument, and a branch 
of the Public Library. [See Public 
Library.] 

Brighton Soldiers' Monument. — 
This is in Evergreen Cemetery, Bright- 
on district, and is one of the earliest 
of the monuments erected in the State 
in memory of the soldiers who lost their 
lives in the civil war. It was arranged 
for at a town-meeting in April, 1865, 



soon after Lee's surrender ; and sub- 
scriptions were afterward asked of 
all the townspeople and the school- 
children. It was dedicated July 26, 
1866. It is of Quincy granite, 30 feet 
high. A pyramidal plinth stands on 
a square base, above it a square shaft 
with moulded base and cap, and on 
top of all an eagle resting on a cannon- 
ball. The die of the shaft is decorated 
with a shield, with stars and flags in 
relief. Inscriptions and names of the 
Brighton soldiers who were killed or 
died are on the four sides of the 
plinth. The monument cost $5,000. 
On the occasion of the dedication, 
Rev. Frederick Augustus Whitney de- 
livered the oration. 

Brokers' Board. — See Stock-Ex- 
change. 

"Brook Farm," where the famous 
attempt was made by an association 
of cultivated people to establish a so- 
cialistic community based somewhat, 
though not altogether, on the system 
of Fourier, is in the West-Roxbury 
district, and is now occupied by the 
" Martin Luther Orphan Home " [see 
Lutheran Churches]. When the enter- 
prise of the community was begun, in 
the spring of 1841, the farm comprised 
about 200 acres, part of which was 
meadow-land reaching to the Charles 
River ; and a brook coursing through 
it to the river gave the farm its attrac- 
tive name. The pioneer in this un- 
dertaking was the late George Ripley, 
at the time of his death in 188 1 the 
literary editor of the " New- York 
Tribune," which position he had held 
for more than 30 years. He was a 
clergyman in Boston, and was spoken 
of as one of the strongest of its pul- 
pit-speakers. He was " so pierced and 
wounded by the sense of social abuses," 
says Frothingham in his Life of Parker, 
referring to the Brook-Farm movement, 
"that, in full sympathy with a noble 
wife, he left his profession, impatient 
with 'the foolishness of preaching,' 
sold his fine library at auction, and, 
gathering together all that he had, in- 



BROOK FARM" 



9 1 



BUDGET 



augurated the enterprise of associated 
mind and labor " here. The name first 
given to it was " The Brook-Farm In- 
stitute of Education and Agriculture;" 
and afterwards it was incorporated as 
" The Brook-Farm Phalanx." The 
mansion-house on the farm, pleasantly 
situated on a knoll, with the brook 
running blithely near by, was made the 
principal home of the community, and 
was called "The Hive." Mr. Ripley's 
sister, who had had a school for young 
children in the city, went with her 
brother and his wife, and re-established 
her school near the farm, which was 
called " The Nest." The products of 
the farm were in common, the labor 
was divided among the members of 
the community, and the system of 
co-operation closely followed. "The 
problem," says Frothingham, "was 
the practical reconciliation of labor, 
capita], and culture, by mutual partici- 
pation in toil and its results." Among 
those who were at one time or another 
of the community, were Charles A. 
Dana (now editor of the "New-York 
Sun"), Warren Burton, Channing, John 
S. Dwight, Hawthorne for a brief while, 
Margaret Fuller, and others who have 
since achieved fame in the literary 
world, — altogether a remarkable com- 
pany of writers and philosophers. 
Theodore Parker lived within a mile 
of the farm during the life of the com- 
munity ; and, while he was not of it, 
Frothingham says, " he was a frequent 
visitor, and a keen inspector of the 
movement. The social freedom there 
was a delight to him ; the conversations 
were a lively joy ; and no one relished 
more than he the fine ironies of culti- 
vated ladies bending over the washtub, 
of poets guiding the plough, or of phi- 
losophers digging potatoes." Besides 
the members of the community, there 
were also a number of young people 
who boarded at the farm, — some as 
students; and life must have been 
made very cheery for them, as well as 
profitable, for a variety of wholesome 
amusements were devised for them. 
We read of charades, tableaux, dan- 



cing-parties, and in winter of skating 
and coasting. After a while a paper 
was started, called " The Harbinger," 
to advocate the principles of the asso- 
ciation; and this was afterwards con- 
tinued some time in New York. John 
S. Dwight contributed to the depart- 
ment devoted to music. Regular for- 
mal religious services were not main- 
tained; but sometimes essays were 
read, sometimes William H. Channing 
preached, and frequently many of the 
members walked across the fields to 
hear Parker preach, who was then set- 
tled in his West-Roxbury parish. But 
the movement did not prosper; and 
at length, when a new building which 
had been erected, called "The Pha- 
lanstery," was destroyed by fire in the 
autumn of 1847, tne scheme was aban- 
doned, and the community scattered. 
The farm was sold to Roxbury for a 
poor-farm, and ultimately passed into 
the possession of its present owners. 
For a while, in the spring or early 
summer of 1861, it was the camp of 
the Second Regiment Massachusetts 
Volunteers, Col. Gordon, and was 
called " Camp Andrew," after the war 
governor. 

Budget, The Sunday — This is 
the youngest of the Sunday journals of 
the city. It was established in 1878, 
by Maturin M. Ballou, the founder of 
the " Globe " [see Globe, The Boston 
Daily], and years before well known as 
the editor and publisher of "Ballou's 
Drawing-Room Companion," a weekly 
illustrated paper, and of " Ballou's 
Monthly" which is still in existence. 
In 1881 the property was purchased by 
William A. Hovey, for several years 
the editor of the " Transcript " [see 
Transcript, The Boston Evening], and 
several associates, who are united 
under the name of the " Hovey Pub- 
lishing Company;" until April, 1883, 
it was conducted with two other news- 
paper enterprises, the " Manufacturers' 
Gazette," and the "American Culti- 
vator," a long-established agricultural 
newspaper. Mr. Hovey was the editor 



BUG LIGHT 



9 2 



BUNKER-HILL MONUMENT 



of the several papers, and George B. 
James the publisher. The " Budget " 
is now conducted by John D. Dwyer, 
as publisher (who, with others, has 
purchased it), and John W. Ryan, 
formerly of the "Courier," as editor. 
It is a handsome quarto. A feature 
has for some time been a department 
of bright, pithy, and mellow para- 
graphs, grouped under the caption of 
" Causerie," a brilliant feature of Mr. 
Hovey's in the " Transcript " during his 
conduct of that paper, and continued 
in the Sunday publication. Mr. Hovey 
continues as editor of the " Manufac- 
turers' Gazette." The " Budget " office 
is at No. 259 Washington Street. 

Bug Light, so named because of 
the peculiar formation of the structure, 
is a fixed red light upon the end of a 
long sandy spit running out from the 
Little Brewster towards Fort Warren, 
in the harbor. The light-house is sup- 
ported above high water on a system 
of iron rods fixed in the rocky ledge, 
which is generally covered with water. 
The light stands about 30 feet above 
the level of the sea. It is visible for 
about seven miles, and is intended to 
warn mariners from Harding's Ledge, 
which is about two miles out at sea, 
east of Point Allerton, at the head of 
Nantasket Beach, and is one of the 
chief dangers of the harbor. [See 
Harbor, The Boston^ 

Bulfinch-place Chapel. — See Be- 
nevolent Fraternity of Churches. 

Bunker-hill Monument. — As one 

approaches Boston by sea, perhaps the 
most conspicuous object that catches 
the eye is the granite obelisk on Bun- 
ker (Breed's) Hill, that rises into the 
sky as Pompey's Pillar rises above 
Alexandria. As all the world knows, 
or ought to, it commemorates the 
memorable battle of the 17th of June, 
1775, tne easiest real battle of the 
Revolution. Then 4,000 British troops 
marched, from the ships which lay 
near the foot, bravely up the hill, to al- 
most certain death, and attacked the 



breastworks hastily thrown up during 
the night before by the American 
troops, about 3,000 in number, the 
most of whom had marched over from 
Cambridge to occupy the hill, under 
the command of Prescott, Putnam, and 
Warren. The British lost, in their re- 
peated attempts to storm the works, 
800 killed, and as many wounded and 
missing; and the Americans, 100 killed, 
and 340 wounded and missing. Near 
the summit a stone marks the place 
where the patriot Warren fell. The 
battle lasted three or four hours, and 
was witnessed by thousands from 
the house-tops of Boston. Not many 
years ago the slope of the hill was but 
little changed, and showed the disad- 
vantage at which it was attacked ; but 
now houses cover the ground, save the 
six-acre enclosure of the Monument 
grounds. The obelisk, built of courses 
of granite, is 220 feet in height, and 
was begun in 1825. The corner-stone 
was laid by Lafayette, under the direc- 
tion of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge 
of Masons. It remained for nearly 20 
years unfinished; but in 1840 a great 
effort was made to raise the required 
funds, especially by a fair in Faneuil 
Hall, and by private donations. One 
of the last was that of the celebrated 
dansense, Fanny Ellsler, which gave 
occasion to many bon-mots at the time. 
The monument was completed and 
dedicated on the 17th of June, 1843; 
and Daniel Webster, who had deliv- 
ered the oration in the presence of 
Lafayette at the laying of the corner- 
stone, was again the orator, before an 
immense multitude and a few of the 
survivors of the battle. The occasion 
was a most memorable one. The 
president of the United States, John 
Tyler, was present with his entire 
cabinet ; Mr. Webster being then sec- 
retary of state. " Mr. Webster was 
himself that day," says the historian ; 
" and his apostrophe to the gigantic 
shaft was as grand and noble as the 
subject was lofty and sublime. Wav- 
ing his hand toward the towering struc- 
ture, he said, ' The powerful speaker 



BUNKER-HILL MONUMENT 



93 



BURIAL OF POOR PERSONS 



stands motionless before us ! ' He 
was himself deeply moved. The sight 
of such an immense sea of upturned 
faces, — he had never before addressed 
such a multitude, — he afterwards 
spoke of as awful and oppressive. 
The applause from a hundred thou- 
sand throats surged in great waves 
around the orator, completing in his 
mind the parallel of Old Ocean." The 
monument marks the outlines of the 
old redoubt, its sides being parallel 
with those of the latter. The base of 
the obelisk is 30 feet square. Inside 
the shaft is a round hollow cone ; and 
around this winds a spiral flight of 
stone steps, 295 in number, by which 
the monument is ascended. At the 
top is an observatory, 17 feet high, and 
1 1 feet in diameter, with windows on 
each side. From these there is a mag- 
nificent view of the city, the harbor, 
the surrounding towns, and the outly- 
ing country stretching far away in the 
distance. On clear days one can see 
Wachusett and Monadnock, blue on 
the horizon. A building at the base 
of the monument contains a marble 
statue of Gen. Warren, and various 
memorials of the battle ; and in front 
of it, in the main path of the grounds, 
on the spot where he is supposed to 
have stood when encouraging his men 
at the opening of the battle, is a bronze 
statue of Col. Prescott, by Story, un- 
veiled with fitting ceremonies on the 
17th of June, 1881 [see Prescott 
Statue]. The celebration of the cen- 
tennial anniversary of the battle, on 
the 17th of June, 1875, was an event 
of national interest, because of the 
union on the occasion of conspicuous 
representatives of the South with 
those of the North, and the great 
parade of Northern and Southern sol- 
diers. The celebration began with a 
reception of distinguished guests on 
the'evening of the 16th, in Music Hall. 
Mayor Cobb spoke for the city, and 
Gov. Gaston for the State ; and then 
felicitous speeches were made by Col. 
Andrew for South Carolina, Fitzhugh 
Lee for Virginia, and Sherman, Kil- 



patrick, and Burnside for the Union 
generals ; and Vice-President Wilson 
also spoke. The feature of the follow- 
ing day was the great procession. The 
soldiery were more than two hours in 
passing ; and the great crowds filling 
the sidewalks, the windows of houses 
and stores, crowding even the house- 
tops, and packing the temporary stands 
erected at different points along the 
six miles of the line of march, cheered 
continuously, waved handkerchiefs, 
and swung hats, as the great pageant 
moved along. Heartiest of all was 
the reception of the Southern troops. 
After the three brigades of Massa- 
chusetts militia, came the Seventh 
New York, then two Pennsylvania 
regiments, next the smaller visiting 
organizations, and then the Fifth Mary- 
land. The dignitaries of the State 
and national government were scat- 
tered along the line ; and the Northern 
and Southern generals and men of dis- 
tinction, guests of the city, were also 
conspicuous. The civic organization 
and the trades filled out the procession. 
All along the line of march the deco- 
rations were extensive and brilliant, 
and the Charlestown district was en- 
tered beneath a grand triumphal arch. 
Later in the day there were exercises 
in a tent on the Monument grounds, 
at which more speeches were delivered, 
these being preceded by an oration 
by Gen. Charles Devens ; and in the 
evening the city was brilliantly illumi- 
nated, while elaborate displays of fire- 
works were made. The Bunker-hill 
Monument and the Monument grounds 
are under the charge of the Bunker- 
hill Monument Association, of which 
the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop is pres- 
ident, and which includes in its active 
and honorary membership a large 
number of men of distinction. 

Bureau of Keference for "Women. 
— See Young Men's Christian Union. 

Burial of Poor Persons.— Out- 
door poor, having settlements in Bos- 
ton, are buried under the direction 
of the Overseers of the Poor [see 



BURIAL-PLACES 



94 



BTTSSEY INSTITUTION 



Overseers of the Poor] at the expense 
of the city. When dead bodies are 
found, notice is given to the police or 
the medical examiner of the district 
[see Medical Examiners] ; and if they 
are of strangers, the latter is to cause 
them to be buried. If the deceased 
had no settlement in the State, the 
Commonwealth pays the examiner's 
fees, and the expense of burial : in 
other cases the city generally pays the 
expenses. 

Burial- Places. — See Old Burying- 
Grounds and Cemeteries. 

Burns Riot (The Anthony, fugi- 
tive slave). — See Court House. 

Bussey Institution (The). — A 
school of agriculture, horticulture, and 
veterinary science, attached to Harvard 
University. Its grounds and buildings 
are in the Jamaica-Plain district of 
the city, on the beautiful estate of the 
late Benjamin Bussey, who bequeathed 
it, with funds in trust for the support 
of the institution, to the college in 1842. 
Being subject to life-interests, however, 
the estate did not pass into the pos- 
session of the college until 1870. In 
that year the fine building provided for 
by the testator was erected, containing 
the necessary lecture and collection 
rooms, laboratory, library, and office ; 
and the school was opened. By the 
end of the next year greenhouses and 
needed sheds were built, the grounds 
and avenues laid out, and a water-sup- 
ply provided. In 1872, the University 
receiving $100,000 from the late James 
Arnold of New Bedford, who left that 
sum to establish here a professorship 
of tree-culture, and to create an arbor- 
etum to contain ultimately all trees, 
shrubs, and herbaceous plants that can 
grow there in the open air, the " Arnold 
Arboretum " was established, giving 
ample facilities for the scientific study 
of arboriculture. At the institution, lec- 
tures, recitations, and practical instruc- 



tion in the various departments, are 
given to the students by an excellent 
corps of seven professors and instruct- 
ors ; and it has won a high rank among 
educational institutions of its class. 
The " Bulletins," begun in 1874, have 
given valuable contributions to agricul- 
tural literature in their reports of ex- 
periments and investigations conducted 
in the laboratories and greenhouses 
here. During the years of business 
depression, the income of the funds 
left under the Bussey will, which were 
charged with the payment of heavy an- 
nuities, was greatly diminished through 
the depreciation in real estate, in which 
the funds are invested, and the great 
fall of rents, so that for the time the 
institution was seriously embarrassed. 
The self-sacrifice of some of its offi- 
cers, however, who for a while labored 
without compensation, made it possible 
to continue its operations, and weather 
the storm. The great fire in Boston 
[see Great Fire of 1872], which de- 
stroyed several down-town business 
blocks belonging to the estate, which 
had to be rebuilt, had much to do 
with the temporary diminution of its 
resources. The building erected in 
1870 is a tasteful structure of Roxbury 
pudding-stone, 112 by 73 feet, in the 
Victoria Gothic architecture. The 
entire estate comprises 360 acres, of 
which 137 have been assigned for the 
arboretum, and are laid out with walks 
and roadways. The City Council of 
1 88 1, towards the close of its service, 
passed the necessary orders to acquire 
120 acres of the arboretum portion of 
the estate, for a public park; the con- 
dition being that about 44 acres of ad- 
ditional land be purchased by the city 
at the cost of about $50,000, two-thirds 
of the estate to be free to the public, 
the other third as free as the Public 
Garden now is, — that is, it will be 
under cultivation by Harvard College 
between the drives and walks. [See 
Public- Parks System.] 



95 



CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY CROSS 



0. 



Cadets. — See First Corps of 
Cadets. 

Cafes. — See Restaurants and 
Cafes. 

Carney Hospital. — On Old-Har- 
bor Street, " Dorchester Heights," 
South Boston. Incorporated 1865. 
This most excellent institution was 
founded by the gift of $13,500 from 
the late Andrew Carney. It was estab- 
lished to afford relief to the sick poor; 
but it is used by many others, "pay- 
patients," who know and value it, and 
the care and treatment it furnishes. 
Chronic, acute, and other cases are 
received; contagious diseases alone 
being excepted. It is in charge of the 
Sisters of Charity; but it is not secta- 
rian, and patients of all religious views 
are freely received. It is related that 
once a Baptist clergyman, a pay-patient 
in the hospital, who had been suffering 
from a chronic disease, and who felt 
his end drawing near, expressed a de- 
sire for the consolation that he felt 
that one of his own faith alone could 
give him ; and thereupon the brave 
sister who had patiently watched and 
nursed him through his long illness 
went out into the night in search of a 
Baptist clergyman ; and at daybreak 
the strange scene was presented of a 
Baptist minister comforting a dying 
brother in one ward, while in another, 
close by, a priest was administering 
the sacraments of his Church to a dy- 
ing Catholic. Sister Simplicia, who 
is at the head of the institution, is 
a most active, energetic, and skilful 
manager; and her system is so eco- 
nomical, that the entire yearly expense 
of conducting the hospital averages 
but $36,000, a sum nearly equalled by 



the aggregate of the salaries alone of 
the officials of the City Hospital. The 
out-patients receive gratuitous treat- 
ment. Of 1,447 hospital patients, 656 
were gratuitously treated. The sur- 
geons, who give their services gratis, 
report that " there is every reason to 
hope that in the course of time the 
out-patient department of the Carney 
Hospital will become one of the greal 
centres of medical charity." In the 
judgment of experienced physicians, 
the situation of the hospital is one of 
the very best in New England. It 
stands near the intrenchments thrown 
up by Washington, and commands an 
extensive view over the city on one side, 
and Massachusetts Bay on the other. 
In summer the wards are cooled by 
sea-breezes ; and the convalescents en- 
joy a beautiful prospect from their 
beds, watching meanwhile the ships 
and other craft sailing in and out of the 
harbor. The pay-patients are treated 
in the wards or in private rooms. 

Caledonian Club. — An organiza- 
tion of Scotchmen, to preserve the 
literature and costumes of Scotland, en- 
courage the practice of athletic games, 
and foster the mental and physical 
development of its members. When 
a member dies, the society pays $30 
towards the funeral expenses. The 
assessments are light. The club was 
established in 1853, and incorporated 
in 1869. Its headquarters are on the 
corner of Chauncy and Essex Streets. 

Casino. — See Coffee-houses. 

Cathedral of the Holy Cross, 

Washington Street, cor. Maiden, is 
the largest and finest Catholic church 
in the city ; and behind it is the mansion- 



CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY CROSS 



96 



CATHOLICISM AND CATHOLIC CHURCHES 



house of the archbishop. It covers 
more than an acre of ground. Its style 
is the Early-English Gothic, cruciform, 
with nave, transept, aisle, and clere- 
story; the latter supported by two 
rows of clustered metal pillars. The 
total length of the building is 364 feet ; 
width at the transept, 170 feet; width 
of nave and aisles, 90 feet ; height to 
the ridgepole, 120 feet. The entire 
interior is clear space, broken only by 
two rows of columns extending along 
the nave, and supporting the central 
roof. The arch separating the spa- 
cious front vestibule from the church 
is of bricks taken from the ruins of 
the Ursuline Convent on Mount Bene- 
dict in Somerville, which was burned 
by a mob on the night of Aug. 11, 
1834. The ceiling abounds in carved 
wood and tracery. The panels and 
spandrels show three shades of oak, 
with an outer line of African wood. 
Every alternate panel is ornamented 
with emblematic devices. The roof in 
the transept displays an immense cross 
of inlaid wood. On the ceilings of 
the chancel are painted angels repre- 
senting Faith, Hope, Charity, and oth- 
er virtues, on a background of gold. 
The frescoing on the walls is very hand- 
some. The rose-window over the main 
entrance is in design a fine specimen 
of art. The stained transept windows, 
each 40 by 20 feet in size, have designs 
representing the Exaltation of the 
Cross by the Emperor Heraclius, and 
the " miracle by which the True Cross 
was verified." The stained windows 
in the chancel represent the Cruci- 
fixion, the Ascension, and the Nativity. 
These are memorial windows, gifts to 
the church. Twenty-four smaller win- 
dows of stained glass, in the clere- 
story of the transept and of the chan- 
cel, represent biblical subjects. The 
sanctuary terminates in an octagonal 
apse. The high-altar is formed of 
rich variegated marbles. On the Gos- 
pel side stands the episcopal throne, 
the cathedra of the archbishop. On 
the right of the sanctuary is the Chap- 
el of the Blessed Virgin, containing a 



marble statue representing the Virgin. 
There are three other chapels, — the 
Chapel of St. Joseph, the Chapel of 
St. -Patrick, and the Chapel of the 
Blessed Sacrament. The large vestry 
is between the Chapel of the Blessed 
Sacrament and the sanctuary. The 
chantry, with a small organ, is over 
the vestry. The gallery of the Cathe- 
dral contains a Hook & Hastings organ 
of remarkable purity of tone and power. 
It has more than 5,000 pipes, 78 stops, 
5 pneumatic knobs, and 12 combina- 
tion pedals. The pews accommodate 
3,500 persons. The outward appear- 
ance of the building is somewhat 
sombre ; but, when entirely finished, it 
will be greatly improved. There are 
two main towers in front, and a turret, 
all of unequal height, and all to be 
eventually surmounted by spires. The 
great tower on the south-west corner, 
with its spire, will be 300 feet high ; 
and the small tower on the north-west 
corner, 200 feet high. The rector of 
the Cathedral is the Rev. Lawrence 
J. O'Toole, who has been connected 
with it since his ordination in 1866. 
He is a graduate of Boston College. 
He succeeded Fr. O'Reagan as rector, 
who died in November, 1882. [See 
Catholicism and Catholic Churches?^ 

Catholic Apostolic Church. — A 
small congregation worshipping in a 
hall at No. 227 Tremont Street. It 
represents a movement for " the prep- 
aration of the Church as a body for 
the coming and kingdom of the Lord." 
Its worship is celebrated Monday, 
Wednesday, and Saturday, at 6 a.m. ; 
Tuesday and Thursday, at 5 p.m. ; and 
Friday/ at 10 a.m. On Sunday the 
celebration of the Holy Eucharist 
takes place at 10 A.M., and vespers at 
5 p.m. The minister in charge is J. F. 
Wightman. 

Catholic Burying-Grounds. — See 
Cemeteries. 

Catholicism and Catholic 
Churches. — The growth of the 
Catholic Church in Boston has been 



CATHOLICISM AND CATHOLIC CHURCHES 97 CATHOLICISM AND CATHOLIC CHURCHES 



remarkable. A hundred years ago 
there was no Catholic church organi- 
zation here, and no regular place of 
worship. The first church was not 
organized until 1790: it was not until 
1 80S that Boston was made an episco- 
pal see; in 1825 there were only two 
priests in the city ; and for many years 
the Cathedral of the Holy Cross, dedi- 
cated Sept. 29, 1813, and which stood 
on Franklin Street, was the only Cath- 
olic church in Boston. Now there are 
30 churches, attended by 90 priests, 
under the direction of the archbishop ; 
there are 10 parochial schools, chiefly 
conducted by Sisters of Notre Dame, 
3 colleges and academies, 5 orphan- 
asylums, 3 hospitals, and a home for 
their aged poor. Conferences of the 
charitable society of St. Vincent de 
Paul are also established in every par- 
ish, and they work continually and 
systematically among the poor. The 
Very Rev. William Byrne, vicar-gen- 
eral of the diocese, from whose valu- 
able chapter on the Catholic Church 
in Boston, in the " Memorial History 
of Boston," the above statistics are 
in part taken, estimates, that, where 
a hundred years ago there were only 
about 100 Catholics in Boston, the 
Catholic population of the city at 
present is at least 150,000; and John 
Boyle O'Reilly, the editor of the " Pi- 
lot," in reviewing Fr. Byrne's article, 
expresses the opinion that his estimate 
is too low. The Catholics' first place 
of worship was a small chapel on 
School Street, previously occupied by 
the Huguenot Congregation. Boston 
was first a mission ; and one of the 
earliest missionaries was Rev. John 
Thayer, a native of Boston, and a 
former Congregational minister, who 
had become a convert to Catholicism. 
When the Cathedral of the Holy Cross 
was built, a friendly feeling was dis- 
played by prominent Protestants, and 
$3,000 were contributed to the fund 
for its building. A bell brought here 
from Spain was presented to it by 
Hasket Derby. In i860 the estate 
was sold to Isaac Rich, who at his 



death willed a large amount to the 
Boston University [see Boston Univer- 
sityi\. John de Cheverus, an exiled 
French priest, was the first bishop of 
Boston. Boston was made an episco- 
pal see by Pope Pius VII., the new 
diocese embracing all New England; 
and in 1875 it was created an archbish- 
opric, comprising the counties of Es- 
sex, Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and 
Plymouth in this State, the towns of 
Mattapoisett, Marion, and Wareham 
excepted. The present archbishop, 
the Most Rev. John Joseph Williams, 
D.D., consecrated March 11, 1866, was 
created the first archbishop of Boston, 
Feb. 12, 1875. The vicar-general is 
the Very Rev. William Byrne ; chan- 
cellor and secretary, the Rev. Joshua 
Bodfish ; archbishop's council, the 
Very Rev. William Byrne, V.G!, the 
Rev. P. O'Beirne, the Rev. William A. 
Blenkinsop, the Rev Thomas H. Sha- 
han, the Rev. William H. Duncan, S.J., 
and the Rev. John Flatley. The bish- 
ops before the establishment of the 
archbishopric were John de Cheverus, 
consecrated Nov. 1, 18 10, translated to 
Montauban, thence to Bordeaux, and 
died cardinal archbishop of Bordeaux, 
July 19, 1836; Right Rev. Benedict J. 
Fenwick, consecrated Nov. 1, 1825, 
died Aug. 11, 1846; Right Rev. John 
B. Fitzpatrick, consecrated March 24, 
1844, died Feb. 13, 1866; and Bishop 
Williams. Following is a list of the 
churches and clergy. [See Cathedral, 
Church of the Immaadate Conception, 
and Catholic Religious Orders.] 

Cathedral of the Holy Cross, Washing- 
ton, cor. of Union-park Street. Most Rev. 
John Joseph Williams, D.D.; rector, the 
Rev. Lawrence J. O'Toole; chancellor, the 
Rev. Joshua P. Bodfish; the Revs. Leo P. 
Boland, Lawrence Corcoran, Thomas Moylan. 
Residence, cor. of Union-park Street and Har- 
rison Avenue. 

Church of the Immaculate Conception, 
761 Harrison Avenue. Rector, the Rev. Jere- 
miah O'Connor, S.J.; the Revs. Alph. Char- 
lier, S.J., Alexius Jamison, S.J., Edward H. 
Welch, S.J., Nicholas Russo, S.J., Peter Cas- 
sidy, S.J., Simon P. Dompieri, S.J., William J. 
Byrnes, S.J., H. Quin, S.J. Residence, 761 
Harrison Avenue. 

Gate-of-Heaven, Fourth, cor. of I Street, 



CATHOLICISM AND CATHOLIC CHURCHES 



CATHOLICISM AND CATHOLIC CHURCHES 



South Boston. The Rev. Michael F. Higgins, 
pastor; the Revs. John Mulcahy and James 
Lee. Residence, 606 East-Fourth Street. 

Holy Trinity (German), Shawmut Avenue. 
The Rev. F. X. Nopper, S.J., pastor; the 
Revs. Ignatius Bellwalder, S.J., John Jansen, 
S.J. Residence, 21 Lucas Street, in the rear 
of the church. 

Lancaster- street Chapel, attended from 
St. Mary's Church, Endicott Street. 

Most Holy Redeemer, Maverick Street, 
cor. of Havre, East Boston. The Rev. L. P. 
McCarthy, pastor; the Revs. Richard Walsh, 
James F. Hamilton, T. Hannegan. Residence, 
Maverick Stre'et, near Havre. 

Notre Dame des Victoires (French), 
Freeman Place and Beacon Street. The Rev. 
A. L. Bouland, pastor. Residence, 13 Dwight 
Street. 

Our Lady of the Assumption, Sumner 
Street, East Boston. The Rev. Joseph H. Cas- 
sin, pastor; assistant, the Rev. Thomas F. 
Cusack. 

Our Lady of Perpetual Help, 1545 Tre- 
mont Street. The Rev. Joseph Henning, 
C.SS.R., rector; the Revs. Adam Kreis, 
C.SS.R., Thomas Oates, C.SS.R., Adalbert 
Frank, C.SS.R., Leopold Petsch, C.SS.R., 
William O'Connor, C.SS.R., Charles Schmidt, 
C.SS.R., Peter Trimpel, C.SS.R., Benedict 
Kalb, C.SS.R., John O'Brien, C.SS.R. 

St. Augustine's, Dorchester Street, South 
Boston. The Rev. Denis O'Callaghan, pastor; 
the Revs. James J. Keegan and John Hal- 
loran. Residence, F Street, bet. Seventh and 
Eighth Streets. 

St. Columbkill, Brighton district. The 
Rev. Patrick J. Rogers, pastor; the Rev. James 
P. Rogers. 

St. Francis de Sales, Vernon Street. The 
Rev. John Delahunty, pastor; the Revs. John 
D. Tierney and Patrick J. Daley. Residence, 
105 Vernon Street. 

St. Francis de Sales, Bunker-hill Street, 
Charlestown district. The Rev. M. J. Supple, 
pastor; the Revs. James N. Supple, Joseph 
Keyes, D. Splain. Residence, adjoining the 
church. 

St. James's, Harrison Avenue, near Knee- 
land Street. The Rev. Thomas H. Shahan, 
pastor; assistants, the Revs. Michael Ronan, 
John Fleming, Ignatius P. Egan, Timothy J. 
Murphy. Residence, 74 Harvard Street. 

St. Gregory's, Dorchester Avenue, near 
Richmond Street. The Rev. William H. Fitz- 
patrick, pastor; assistant, the Rev. David 
Power. Post-office address, Milton. The new 
church at Neponset is attended from St. Greg- 
ory's. 

St. John the Baptist (Portuguese), North- 
Bennet Street. The Rev. H. B. M. Hughes, 
pastor. Residence, No. 1 North-Bennet Street. 

St. Joseph's, Chambers Street. The Rev. 
William J. Daly, pastor ; the Revs. Denis 
Wholey, Michael Gilligan, T. F. Flanagan. 
Residence, 6 Allen Street. 

St. Joseph's, Roxbury district, Circuit 



Street. The Rev. P. O'Beirne, pastor ; the 
Revs. James Troy and Arthur Connolly. Res- 
idence, 55 Circuit Street. 

St. Leonard of Port Maurice (Italian), 
Prince Street. The Rev. F. Boniface, O.S.F. 
Residence, 28 Prince Street. 

St. Mary's, Rutherford Avenue. The Rev. 
John M. McMahon, pastor ; the Revs. Richard 
Neagle and William Millerick. 

St. Mary's, Endicott Street. The Rev. 
William H. Duncan, S.J., pastor ; the Revs. 
William F. Hamilton, S.J., W. F. Scanlan, 
S.J., M. F. Byrne, S.J., T. J. Reid, S.J., J. J. 
Brie, S.J. Residence, 45 Cooper Street. The 
Fathers of the Missions reside here ; the Rev. 
B. A. Maguire, S.J., superior ; the Revs. 
George J. Strong, S.J., J. H. Finnegan, S.J., 
John A. Morgan, S.J. 

St. Patrick's (new), cor. of Dudley and 
Magazine Streets, Roxbury district. The Rev. 
Joseph H. Gallagher, pastor; the Revs. George 
J. Patterson and John Buckley. Residence, 
Dudley Street, rear of church. 

St. Patrick's (old), Northampton Street, at- 
tended from the new church. 

SS. Peter and Paul, Broadway, South 
Boston. The Rev. William A. Blenkinsop. 
pastor ; the Revs. Stephen Keegan, M. J. Lee, 
Hugh Roe O'Donnell. Residence, 55 Broad- 
way. 

St. Peter's, Bowdoin Street, cor. of Percival 
Avenue, Meeting-house Hill, Dorchester dis- 
trict. The Rev. Peter Ronan, pastor ; assist- 
ant, the Rev. James Chittick. Residence, 
Percival Avenue. 

St. Stephen's, Hanover Street. The Rev. 
Michael Moran, pastor ; the Revs. Jeremiah 
E. Millerick, Thomas E. Power, E. P. Byrnes. 
Residence, 2 North Square. 

Sacred Heart, East Boston. The Rev. 
M. Clarke, pastor ; assistant, the Rev. William 
E. Ryan. Residence, Brooks Street, cor. of 
Church Street. 

Star of the Sea, Saratoga Street, East 
Boston. The Rev. J. B. O'Donnell, pastor. 

St. Thomas's, West-Roxbury district. The 
Rev. Thomas Magennis, pastor ; assistant, the 
Rev. R. Donnelly. Residence, South Street, 
near White Avenue. 

St. Teresa's, West-Roxbury district. At- 
tended from Dedham. 

St. Vincent's, Third Street, cor. of E, South 
Boston. The Rev. William J. Corcoran, pastor; 
the Revs. William Walsh, James O'Neil, and 
M. O'Donnell. Residence, 267 Third Street. 

The Rev. Frederick J. Holland, S.J., at- 
tends Rainsford and Deer Islands. 

The Austin Farm, Roxbury district, for poor 
women, is attended from the West-Roxbury 
churches. 

The Massachusetts General Hospital and the 
City Jail are attended from St. Joseph's, 
Chambers Street. 

The City Hospital is attended from the Im- 
maculate Conception. 

The House of Correction is attended from 
the Gate-of-Heaven Church. 



CATHOLIC RELIGIOUS ORDERS 



99 



CATHOLIC RELIGIOUS ORDERS 



Catholic Religious Orders. — The 

number and magnitude of the Cath- 
olic religious orders in the city is 
hardly realized, and the nature and 
variety of their work are but little 
understood by the general public. 
There are four orders of men, dis- 
tinct from the regular clergy of the 
Church, and six of women. The male 
orders are principally for missionary 
work and religious self-culture ; and 
those of women are for charitable, 
benevolent, and educational work. 
Following is a complete list of the sev- 
eral orders of both sexes, with state- 
ents of their nature : — 

Orders of Men. 

Brothers of Charity. — Several of the 
brothers of this society have charge of the House 
of the Angel Guardian, 85 Vernon Street, Rox- 
bury district. The Rev. Brother W. J. Becker 
is superior, and Gustave Vandendriesche is 
secretary. The institution receives orphan, 
homeless, friendless, or wayward boys. 

Franciscans. — There are but very few of 
the members of this order resident in Boston. 
They have charge of the Church of St. Leonard 
of Port Maurice (Italian), on Prince Street. 
The order, also known as Friars Minor, was 
founded in 1209 by St. Francis of Assisi, " to 
inculcate the practice of the Christian virtues 
and the evangelical counsels by word and ex- 
ample." The Church has had from this order 
five popes. The order is divided into the fol- 
lowing branches: Recollects, Capuchins, Con- 
ventuals, and Brothers of the Third Order. 
Christopher Columbus was a member of the 
Third Order. Members of this order landed in 
Florida in 1528. The "mother-house" in this 
country is at Loretto, Penn. The order through- 
out the country has about 125 members. 

The Jesuits. — Three of the largest churches 
in the city (St. Mary's, Endicott Street ; Im- 
maculate Conception, and Holy Trinity) are 
under the charge of members of this order, as is 
also Boston College, on Harrison Avenue [see 
Boston College]. It is represented to be one 
of the largest and most vigorous orders in the 
Church. It was first heard of in this country, 
in Florida, in 1565. In the seventeenth century- 
it "penetrated the forests of Maine, the heart 
of New York, explored the Mississippi Valley, 
the shores of the Great Lakes, and the Pacific 
Coast." Woodstock College, in Maryland, is 
the House of Studies and chief theological 
seminary of the society in the United States. 
It conducts 14 colleges in this country. Holy- 
Cross College in Worcester was established by 
it in 1843 > an d Boston College, now in charge 
of the Rev. Jeremiah O'Connor, was opened 
Sept. 5, 1864. There are about 1,000 members 
in the United States. 



The Redemptorists, or " Friests of the 
Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer " 
(founded by St. Alphonsus M. de Signori, a 
native of Italy, in 1732), are located at the fine 
church of " Our Lady of Perpetual Help," on 
Tremont Street, Roxbury district. Members 
of the order first landed in this country in 1832, 
and began their work in Baltimore. They first 
labored among the German element. At the 
present time they have 16 houses in the United 
States, with 130 priests and 34 professed stu- 
dents. The order numbers about 175 in this 
country. 

Orders of Women. 

Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de 
Paul. — There are about 50 women of this 
order now working in Boston in the cause of 
the poor, the sick, the orphan and foundling, 
and unfortunate women. They have charge of 
St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum for girls, on 
Camden Street, Sister Vincent as " sister-ser- 
vant," with 13 other sisters, and 154 children in 
the asylum ; the Home for Destitute Roman- 
Catholic Children, Harrison Avenue, Sister 
Matilda sister-servant, 105 boys, 67 girls ; St. 
Mary's Infant Asylum, Bowdoin Street, Dor- 
chester district, Sister Mary sister-servant, 
with 6 assisting sisters, 47 infants, 18 women in 
the lying-in department ; and Carney Hospital 
at South Boston, Sister Simplicia sister-servant, 
with 15 sisters employed in the care of about 
550 patients annually [see Carney Hospital]. 
The original order was founded in France, in 
1633, by Mme. Le Gras, under the direction 
of St. Vincent de Paul. Before the French 
Revolution they counted no less than 426 estab- 
lishments in Europe, and their services were 
much sought for. Their famous founder in this 
country was " Mother Seton," who in 1805 
became a Catholic. Three years later she 
opened an academy in Baltimore, with Miss 
Cecilia O'Conway as her companion. Through 
the generosity of a young convert, Samuel 
Cooper, land was purchased at Emmettsburg, 
Md., and a convent of the sisterhood was estab- 
lished. Here, Jan. 1, 1809, Mother Seton and 
4 associates took the religious habit. In 1812 
the community numbered 20 members. In 1850 
the " mother-house " at Emmettsburg, with all 
its branch establishments, assumed the habit 
worn by the French sisters ; while the members 
renewed their vows according to the formula 
adopted in the Society of St. Vincent de Paul. 
They now form a distinct community from the 
Sisters of Charity, as established originally in 
France, none of whom are now in this city. 
Boston was first visited by them in May, 1832, 
3 of them coming at that time from Providence. 
They first established themselves in a small 
house in Hamilton Street. They remained here 
until 1837, when they removed to what was 
then Atkinson (now Congress) Street. _ They 
now reside in the above-mentioned institution. 
There are at the present time about 1,300 women 
of this order, who count Emmettsburg as their 
" mother-house." The somewhat picturesque 
and striking habit they wear is but the garb of 



CATHOLIC RELIGIOUS ORDERS 



IOO 



CATHOLIC THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



the peasant-girls in the time of St. Vincent de 
Paul. 

Sisters of Notre Dame. — The sisters of 
this order (founded in France, in 1804, by 
Mile. Marie Rose Julia Bilhart, better known as 
" Mother Julia," and introduced into the United 
States by Archbishop Purcell of Cincinnati in 
1840) devote themseh'es to the education of 
youth, especially orphans and the children of 
the poor. They have charge of numerous con- 
vents, schools, Sunday-schools, and sodalities 
in this city. The Notre-Dame Academy and 
Boarding-school, in the Roxbury district, is in 
charge of Sister Aloysius. There are 8 teachers 
and about 50 scholars here. The sisters here 
also have charge of the Sunday-schools of St. 
Patrick's Church in this city, and of the Church 
of the Assumption in Brookline. The Convent 
of Notre Dame on Berkeley Street is the novi- 
tiate of the sisterhood attached to the Academy 
of Notre Dame in the Roxbury district. They 
have charge of the Cathedral Sunday-schools. 
St Joseph's Convent, in South Boston, has 36 
sisters of Notre Dame, who have charge of the 
parochial schools and the Sunday-schools of 
SS. Peter and Paul's Church and the Gate-of- 
Heaven Church. The St. Aloysius Convent, 
in East Boston, has 22 sisters, in charge of the 
parochial schools. The schools attended by 
these sisters from the convents above mentioned 
are St. Mary's, Lancaster Street, 8 sisters, 530 
girls; Holy Trinity (German), Shawmut-ave- 
nue, 3 sisters, 195 girls; St. John's, in St. 
Stephen's parish, at the North End, 9 sisters, 
teaching 581 girls; St. Joseph's free school, 
Roxbury district, 5 sisters, 190 scholars; SS. 
Peter and Paul's, Broadway, South Boston, 31 
sisters, 900 girls; Gate-of-Heaven, South Bos- 
ton, 7 sisters and one lay-teacher, 400 girls; 
Church of the Assumption, East Boston, 5 sis- 
ters, 310 girls. The greater part of the sodali- 
ties, both for unmarried and married ladies, 
connected with every Catholic church in the 
city, are in charge of the members of this sis- 
terhood. 

Sisters of St. Joseph. — The novitiate of 
this order is at the Convent of St. Thomas, in 
the West-Roxbury district. Sister M. Regis 
is superioress. These sisters have charge of St. 
Thomas' parochial school, near the convent, 
and of the Sunday-schools. There are 12 sis- 
ters, teaching 200 girls and 30 boys. The con- 
gregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph was 
founded in France, in 1650, by Mgr. Henry de 
Maupas, bishop of Prey, who established it at 
the suggestion of Father Peter Medaille, a cele- 
brated missionary of the Society of Jesus. The 
motto of the order is " Charity, Mercy, and 
Education." They wear a plain loose black 
dress, with a wooden crucifix on a white ker- 
chief. They came to the United States in 1836. 
They number about 1,500 in America. 

The Little Sisters of the Poor. — This 
sisterhood has under its direction, on Dudley 
Street, Roxbury district, a home for the care of 
the helpless and infirm of both sexes, with no 
distinction shown on account of creed or color. 



Mother Cecilia is superioress. There are 12 
" Little Sisters," and about 60 inmates of each 
sex, in their home. This order is one of the 
youngest in the Church, having been founded 
in France, in 1840, by the Rev. Father Aug. 
Le Pailleur. The first American house was 
established in 1868, in New- York City. Their 
work is entirely supported by charity. They 
now conduct 20 houses, located in the principal 
cities throughout the country. 

The Franciscan Sisters. — St. Elizabeth's 
Hospital (78 Wareham Street) is under the care 
of the Franciscan sisters. Sister Clare is supe- 
rioress. There are 6 sisters, and an average of 
about 30 patients in the hospital. During the 
year 1881, 130 patients were received, of whom 
almost 100 were free. St. Joseph's Home tor 
the Sick, on East-Brookline Street, is also 
under the Franciscan sisters. Sister Mary is 
superioress. 

The Ladies of the Sacred Heart. — The 
members of this order conduct a school (at the 
present time a day-school only) at 5 Chester 
Square. This order was instituted within the 
present century, in France, by Mme. Sophie 
Louise Barat, who governed it for 50 years. 
The members may be considered as cloistered 
religious, though not confined to one particular 
house. They are devoted to the education of 
young women, including in their duties the 
gratuitous instruction of the poor. The novi- 
tiate lasts for two years, at the end of which 
the nuns take simple vows of poverty, chastity, 
and obedience. Some years later, solemn vows 
are taken at profession. The dress and veil 
are black, with a plain white cap; and when 
abroad they wear a cloak and plain black bon- 
net. The order was introduced into the United 
States, at New Orleans, in 1818. They have 
been established in this city about two years. 
The order is without doubt one of the finest 
teaching-orders among the many in the Roman- 
Catholic Church. 

Catholic Theological Seminary. 
— A new Catholic theological semi- 
nary is to be established in the build- 
ing now under way, on one of the fine 
old estates in the Brighton district, 
known as the Stanwood Estate, on 
Lake Street. The building is to be 
four stories in height besides the base- 
ment, of the Norman round style of 
architecture, built of Brighton stone, 
with freestone and granite trimmings. 
The main portion is to have a frontage 
127 feet; and it is to have wings ex- 
tending towards the rear 259 feet, to 
be connected at the rear; the whole 
enclosing a court 132 by 180 feet. The 
first floor will comprise parlors, wait- 
ing-rooms, a hall of exercises, prayer- 



CECILIA CLUB 



IOI 



CEMETERIES 



halls, and chapel. In the rear portion 
of the main wing will be the kitchen 
and the' servants' quarters. On the 
second floor will be the rooms of the 
archbishop and the superior, and rooms 
for students. The third and fourth 
floors will be occupied by the profess- 
ors and students, and for library pur- 
poses. The sanitary arrangements are 
to be elaborate : the closets will be 
almost disconnected from the main 
building, being placed in the towers, 
and connected only by passageways. 
The building is to ' cost $500,000. It 
is expected that a portion will be ready 
for occupancy in the autumn of 1883. 

Cecilia Club. — A musical club 
originally formed, in 1874, within the 
Harvard Musical Association [see 
Harvard Musical Association} for part- 
singing for mixed voices. Until 1876 
the Cecilia took part in Harvard sym- 
phony concerts only ; but in that year 
it was re-organized, and established on 
a new and independent basis, with 
125 active members. Later, associate 
members were added, the limit being 
fixed at 250, who bear the expenses of 
the association, receiving tickets to 
the concerts. During the third season 
of the club as an independent organi- 
zation, it began the performance of 
works written for a chorus and orches- 
tra, employing picked players to assist. 
Since its organization the society has 
successfully sung compositions of Men- 
delssohn, Schumann, Durante, Weber, 
Gade, Schubert, Bach, Max Bruch, 
Hoffman, Liszt, Handel, Rheinberger, 
and others. Its concerts have gener- 
al ly'-'been given in Tremont Temple. 
B. J. Lang has been the director since 
the organization of the society [see 
Music in Boston]. The president of 
the Cecilia is S. Lothrop Thorndike. 

Cedar -Grove Cemetery. — See 

Cemeteries. 

Cemeteries. — The cemeteries now 
in use are all situated in the outskirts 
of the city, in its outlying districts; 
the old burial-grounds within the lim- 



its of the city proper being no longer 
used, the city having, several years ago, 
forbidden by ordinance all burials in 
graves within the old city boundaries. 
The ancient burying-grounds, however, 
are cared for, maintained, and respected 
as historic landmarks which it would be 
sacrilege to disturb ; while much atten- 
tion is bestowed upon the newer burial- 
places, most of which are remarkable 
for the natural beauty of their location, 
and the display of the educated taste 
and artistic work of the modern land- 
scape-gardener. [See Old Bitrying- 
Grounds.] 

The following is a list of the ceme- 
teries now in use within the boundaries 
of the city, or which have offices in 
the city : — 

Catholic Cemetery, Roxbury district, Cir- 
cuit Street. 

Cedar-Grove, Dorchester district, bet. Mil- 
ton, Adams, and Granite Streets. Under the 
charge of a board of commissioners elected by 
the City Council. Office, 65 Sears Building, 
cor. Washington and Court Streets. 

East-Boston Cemetery, East Boston, Swift, 
cor. of Bennington Streets. 

Evergreen Cemetery, Brighton district, 
near Chestnut-hill Reservoir. 

Forest-Hills Cemetery, Jamaica-Plain dis- 
trict, Morton Street. Office, No. 31 Pemberton 
Square. 

GethseivIane Cemetery, West-Roxbury dis- 
trict, Brook Farm, Baker Street. 

Hand-in-Hand Cemetery, West-Roxbury 
district, Grove Street. A Jewish burying- 
ground. 

Israelitish Burying-ground, East Boston, 
Byron, cor. of Homer Street. 

Mount- Auburn Cemetery, in Cambridge and 
Watertown. Boston office, No. 16 Pemberton 
Square. 

Mount-Benedict Cemetery, West-Roxbury 
district, near Brookline and Newton Streets. 
Office, No. 2382 Washington Street, Roxbury 
district. 

Mount-Calvary Cemetery, West-Roxbury 
district, Mt.-Hope Street, near Canterbury. 

Mount-Hope Cemetery, West-Roxbury dis- 
trict, Walk-hill Street. Under the charge of 
a board of trustees, elected by the City Coun- 
cil. The clerk of the board is the city registrar 
ex officio. Office, City Hall. 

St. Augustine Cemetery, South Boston. 

Warren Cemetery, Roxbury district, 
Kearsarge Avenue. 

Woodlawn Cemetery, Everett. . Boston 
office, Pemberton Square. 

Cedar-Grove is the newest of these 
cemeteries. It is in a picturesque 



CEMETERIES 



I02 



CEMETERIES 



spot, and is most tastefully laid out 
with lawns, flower-beds, and rockeries. 
Near the entrance is a pond, which is 
to be transformed into a miniature 
lake, surrounded by groups of trees of 
different varieties, shrubs, and flowers. 
There is a large cross of echeverias 
near the centre of the grounds, and 
other devices. A "fund of perpetual 
care " is maintained by the owners of 
lots, the income of which is expended 
by the trustees for the perpetual care 
of lots. The " Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks," the organization 
of members of the dramatic profes- 
sion, has a beautiful lot here, which is 
called " The Elks' Rest." Cedar-Grove 
contains 38 acres. 

Evergreen Cemetery is a well- 
wooded tract of about 14 acres. It 
has an Egyptian gateway, modelled 
after the first at Mount Auburn. The 
monument of Holton, the founder of 
the public library of the Brighton dis- 
trict, now a part of the Boston Public- 
Library system [see Public Library], 
and the Brighton soldiers' monument 
[see this], are conspicuous features of 
this lovely spot. 

Forest-hills Cemetery embraces 225 
acres of upland and lowland, with 
beautiful groves, picturesque lakes, 
and avenues and footpaths winding 
over hills and through valleys and 
glades. Its great natural beauties are 
enhanced by many artistic effects pro- 
duced by the landscape-gardener's skill. 
From the main entrance on Scarbor- 
ough Street, three carriage-drives di- 
verge towards different parts of the 
grounds. In the northern portion of 
the cemetery are Consecration Hill, 
on which is a rustic observatory 25 
feet high, and Chapel Hill. Four 
eminences farther south are named 
Eliot Hills, after John Eliot the In- 
dian apostle, to whom a monument is 
to be erected here. On Warren Hill 
is the tomb of Gen. Joseph Warren, 
the lamented hero of Bunker Hill. 
On Dearborn Hill is a monument to 
Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, who origi- 
nally laid out the grounds. On Foun- 



tain Hill is a spring, and the office of 
the commissioners. Other heights are 
known as Cypress, Clover, Juniper, 
and Strawberry Hills. From these, 
glimpses can be had of beautiful and 
varied distant scenery. Lake Dell is 
a picturesque sheet of water, over- 
shadowed by Snowflake Cliff, named 
after the flowers which grow at its foot. 
The largest pond, or lake, is called 
Lake Hibiscus. Near Lake Dell is 
a receiving-tomb of granite. Among 
the most interesting monuments is a 
block of rough granite from Kearsarge 
Mountain, marking the resting-place of 
Admiral Winslow. In the soldiers' 
lot is a bronze statue erected by the 
city of Roxbury in memory of her 
citizen-soldiers who fell in the war. 
It is of heroic size, and stands on a 
granite pedestal six feet high. The 
statue was designed by Martin Mil- 
more, and cast at Chicopee, Mass. It 
was erected in 1867, after the "annexa- 
tion of Roxbury to Boston. The lot 
in which it stands contains 2,000 square 
feet, and is enclosed by an emblematic 
granite railing. On the base of the 
railing is the name of each person 
buried here, with his regiment, and 
date of death, chiselled and gilded. 
Nearly half of those buried here are 
members of the Thirty-fifth Regiment 
Massachusetts Volunteers, who fell at 
Antietam in less than a month after 
their departure from the State. This 
cemetery was established by the city 
of Roxbury, and consecrated in 1848. 
The receiving-tomb, the granite portico 
of which is spacious and impressive, is 
one of the finest in the country. The 
entrance-gateway to the cemetery is an 
imposing structure of Roxbury stone 
and Caledonia freestone. On the front 
is this inscription : " I am the resur- 
rection and the life ; " and on the inner 
face the following : " He that keepeth 
thee will not slumber." 

Mount-Hope Cemetery is near For- 
est Hills. The grounds include io6-£ 
acres. These are tastefully laid out, 
pleasantly shaded by fine trees, and 
adorned bv flowers and shrubs. The 



CEMETERIES 



IO3 



CENTRAL CHURCH 



main entrance is through a massive 
gateway of granite and iron. Conspic- 
uous here is also a soldiers' monument 
erected by the city; also a military 
memorial, composed of heavy cannon 
given by the national government. 
On a triangular stone base stand three 
cannon, forming the outline of a pyra- 
mid, their mouths meeting at a com- 
mon point, and supporting a fourth; 
beneath is a pyramid of cannon-balls. 
This was erected by Charles Russell 
Lowell Post 7, of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, who own the lot. 

Of Catholic burying-grounds, the St. 
Augustine Cemetery, South Boston, is 
the oldest. This was established in 
1818. Here is buried the Rev. Fran- 
cis Antony Matignon, a French priest, 
one of the earliest Catholic clergymen 
in Boston. His funeral, on the 21st 
of September, 18 18, was a notable 
event. The body was escorted through 
the streets by a number of acolytes, 
bearing lighted candles. It was tem- 
porarily placed in the Granary Bury- 
ing-ground, and was removed to South 
Boston the following spring. Here is 
also buried Dr. Thomas J. O'Flaherty, 
who died in 1839, and was somewhat 
famous for his theological controversy 
with Dr. Lyman Beecher, when the 
latter was in Boston. The Catholic 
Cemetery on Circuit Street, Roxbury 
district, is near Forest Hills, and ad- 
joins St. Joseph's Church. Mount- 
Calvary Cemetery, adjoining Mount- 
Hope Cemetery, belongs to the Boston 
Catholic Cemetery Association, which 
was first incorporated, in 1857, as the 
Catholic Cemetery Association in 
Dorchester, and its name changed to 
the present in 1877. The Dorchester 
Cemetery, first established, is now full, 
containing 25,000 persons buried within 
its limits. Mount-Benedict Cemetery 
belongs to the same association. It 
was dedicated in the spring of 1879, 
and was laid out by a professional 
landscape-gardener. In the Charles- 
town district there is a burying-ground 
close to the Church of St. Francis de 
Sales, on the summit of Bunker Hill. 



The Israelitish Cemetery, in East 
Boston, was established by the Soci- 
ety of Ohabei Shalom, and is but 100 
feet square. A peculiar appearance is 
given to the place by the tombstones 
bearing Hebrew inscriptions. 

Woodlawn Cemetery is the princi- 
pal place of burial for the northerly 
sections of the city, including East 
Boston and the Charlestown district. 

Central Church, cor. of Berkeley 
and Newbury Streets (Congregation- 
al Trinitarian). This elegant church- 
building, one of the most noteworthy 
of the several fine public structures of 
the Back-bay district, was completed 
and dedicated in the autumn of 1867. 
The society formerly worshipped in a 
plain church-building on Winter Street, 
which in the course of time was forced 
to make way for trade. The present 
church is built of Roxbury stone, with 
sandstone trimmings, in the most 
thorough manner throughout. Its spire 
is 236 feet high, the tallest in the city. 
The exterior of the edifice is not so 
ornamental as some of the other mod- 
ern churches of the city, but it is im- 
pressive and striking in the simplicity 
and elegance of its finish. The interior 
is bright, and somewhat highly colored. 
The society was organized in May, 1835, 
to occupy the Odeon, formerly the 
Federal-street Theatre [see Drama in 
Boston~\ ; and it was first known as the 
Franklin-street Church. On May 21, 
1841, the corner-stone of the Winter- 
street Church was laid ; and in Decem- 
ber following, the " Central Congrega- 
tional Society " was legally organized, 
the " Franklin-street Church " assuming 
the name of the "Central Congrega- 
tional ; " then the new church-building 
was dedicated. The first pastor of the 
church was Rev. William M. Rogers, 
who was settled in 1835, and served 
until his death in 1851. Rev. George 
Richards, appointed his colleague in 
1845, succeeded him, and served until 
1859. Rev. John E. Todd, D.D., was the 
next pastor, installed in i860. He was 
succeeded by Rev. John DeWitt, D.D., 



CENTRAL CLUB 



IO4 



CHARITABLE ASSOCIATION 



in 1869. Mr. DeWitt's pastorate closed 
in 1875, and until 1879 tne church was 
without a settled pastor. In that year 
Rev. Joseph T. Duryea, D.D., then of 
Brooklyn, N.Y., was called; and he 
still continues the pastor. The Central 
Church is a large and flourishing 
organization, in most satisfactory 
financial condition, and attracting 
large congregations regularly. Some 
years ago a burdensome debt was re- 
moved through the generous subscrip- 
tions of members, and the finances 
placed on a sound basis, where they 
have since been maintained. [See Con- 
gregationalism and Congregational 
Churches.'] 

Central Club (The).— Originally 
organized as a South-end social club, 
the Central has since become more cen- 
tral in location; having in June, 1881, 
moved into a new club-house at No. 64 
Boylston Street, the former house of the 
Art-Club, now established in its new 
building in the Back-bay district [see 
Art-Club\ The Central was formed in 
the autumn of 1868, and chartered in 
1874. Its first rooms were in Concord 
Hall. From there it removed, in Decem- 
ber, 187 1, to the Allen House, at the 
junction of Washington Street and 
Worcester Square, where it remained 
until its removal to Boylston Street. In 
February, 1873, the club-house was seri- 
ously injured by fire. The present club- 
house is attractively located, being 
directly opposite the Common, and but 
a short walk from the group of thea- 
tres in the neighborhood. It has been 
thoroughly renovated and redecorated 
since the removal of the Art-Club. The 
front rooms are occupied as reception 
room and parlors ; the old exhibition- 
room in the rear has been transformed 
into a billiard-room, and four billiard- 
tables now occupy the space where the 
long rows of settees used to be for 
the accommodation of the admirers or 
critics of the pictures which hung in 
the gallery. On the floor above are 
card, reading, smoking, and committee 
rooms, bath-rooms, and offices. The 



furnishings throughout are attractive, 
and there is an air of comfort about 
the house whick is most inviting. A 
restaurant is also to be attached to the 
club-house. The club was formed by 
prominent residents of the South End, 
several of whom have since removed 
to the Back-bay district ; and there is 
already talk of a new club-house in that 
section, built especially for the Central. 
It has thus far had but five presidents : 
Alexander H. Rice, who served four 
years ; Samuel D. Crane, three years ; 
Calvin D. Richards, two years ; A. A. 
Ranney, two years; and Gen. A. P. 
Martin, the present occupant, who is 
in his third term. The other officers 
are Henry S. Rowe secretary, and Ed- 
ward A. White treasurer. The mem- 
bership is increasing largely. The num- 
ber of members is now 145. 

Channing Home. — See Asylums 
and Homes. 

Chapel of the Evangelists, No. 
286 Charles Street, maintains St. An- 
drew's Guild, with a free reading and 
amusement room, open day and even- 
ing. A relief-committee, established 
in 1877, distributes fuel and groceries 
among the poor in the neighborhood, 
under the charge of the chapel, and 
aids poor families in various ways. A 
children's sewing-school meets at the 
chapel during the autumn, winter, and 
spring seasons, on Saturday forenoons. 
Sewing is taught in classes ; and each 
piece of work, when it is finished prop- 
erly and satisfactorily, is given to the 
child making it. The chapel has an 
office in the Charity Building, Room 37, 
where Miss C. Harmon, who visits each 
case, is to be found for a few hours 
every forenoon except Saturdays. 

Charitable Association of the 
Boston Fire-Department. — Estab- 
lished 1829; incorporated 1830. Mem- 
bers receiving injuiy while in the dis- 
charge of firemen's duties are paid not 
less than $5 each per week ; and the 
apothecary's or physician's bills are 
paid as long as the trustees or the 



CHAEITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



™5 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



committee of the association on relief 
determine to be necessary or reasona- 
ble. A special fund is maintained for 
the relief of any past member, or his 
family, who has been honorably dis- 
charged. No member is allowed to 
apply to the city government for relief 
under injury sustained at fires. There 
is no admission-fee, and assessments 
do not exceed $5 annually. A life- 
membership is secured on the payment 
of $10. The president of the associa- 
tion is John S. Damrell ; and W. E. De- 
lano, No. 36 Summer Street, Charles- 
town district, is the secretary of the 
committee on relief, to whom appli- 
cation for relief is to be made. [See 
Fire-Service •.] 

Charitable and Benevolent So- 
cieties. — The growth of private or- 
ganized charities in Boston, from the 
establishment of the first charitable 
society in 1635 to the present time, 
has been very great. It has been esti- 
mated that there is now one charitable 
or benevolent society for every 2,000 
people within the boundaries of the 
city; that the charitable capital is 
$16,000,000; and that the annual pri- 
vate contributions of the people of 
Boston for charitable or benevolent 
purposes at the present time amount 
to more than $500,000. The most rap- 
id increase in the numberof these so- 
cieties has been during the last twelve 
years. The first society established 
was the Scots Charitable Society, or- 
ganized five years after the foundation 
of the city. In the first seventy years 
of the city's history, but 2 societies 
were organized. Between that time 
and 1810, 9 more were organized. 
During the next forty years the number 
was considerably increased; from 1850 
to i860, 21 were organized; from i860 
to 1870, 35; and from 1870 to 1880, 67. 
At the present time there are 177 of 
these voluntary organizations, exclu- 
sive of mutual-benefit societies. Add- 
ing to the number the latter societies, 
and the churches and colleges, the 
figures are increased to 487, and the 



capital to $50,000,000. In New York, 
with a population of 1,200,000, there 
are but 191 societies ; and in Philadel- 
phia, with a population of 846,000, 
there are about 215. Within the past 
two years many of the societies in 
Boston have been brought into closer 
communion and greater usefulness, 
though their independent working and 
organization have not been disturbed, 
through the establishment of the As- 
sociated Charities, an incorporated or- 
ganization of great merit and real im- 
portance in the community, embracing 
many influential citizens in its manage- 
ment. This organization seeks, by 
systematizing and to some extent 
directing the private charitable work 
of the city, the accomplishment of 
greater good, and to help the poor and 
unfortunate to help themselves [see 
Associated Charities']. Many of the 
charitable and benevolent societies in 
the city aim more particularly to uplift 
and improve the poor and the under 
classes generally, leaving to others 
the work of aiding the destitute, and 
affording temporary relief to the dis- 
tressed and suffering. There are 
among them a large number of or- 
ganizations which provide industrial 
training, and in various ways strive to 
improve the condition of the lower or 
less favored classes ; and much atten- 
tion is given to the training of poor or 
neglected children for the purpose 
of improving their present condition, 
and directing them in the way of be- 
coming self-supporting and useful citi- 
zens as they grow up. The variety of 
work done by these societies is not 
easy to state, and the good they ac- 
complish is incalculable. Following 
is a list of the private charitable and 
benevolent organizations of the city 
alphabetically arranged, with the ob- 
ject and aim concisely stated. Many 
are also described more in detail in 
separate paragraphs in this book. 

American Seamen's Friend Society. Congre- 
gational House. Sustains chaplains, missiona- 
ries, and tract-distributors, etc. ; befriends sail- 
ors, and places libraries on sea-going vessels. 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



106 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



American Society of Hibernians. Aids Irish- 
men, members, when sick, $3 per week, and' a 
death-benefit of $25. Apply to chairman of 
visiting committee, Owen Rogan, 96 Leverett 
Street. 

Ancient Order of United Workingmen. Sick 
and death benefits to members. Six lodges in 
the city. Apply to Grand Master Workman, 
Thomas Temple, Registry of Deeds. 

Association of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church for Works of Mercy. Sustains the 
Martin Luther Orphan Home, Brook-Farm, 
West Roxbury. Inmates taught trades and 
farming, and situations 1111111131613' obtained for 
them. Apply to secretary, Rev. Adolph 
Biewend, 24 Alleghany Street. 

Association for the Protection of Destitute 
Roman-Catholic Children. Sustains temporary 
home for both sexes. Sisters of Charity in- 
struct and care for the children until they are 
returned to their friends, or situations are found 
for them, or they are placed in good Catholic 
homes. 

Baldwin-place Home for Little Wanderers. 
Baldwin Place, leading from Salem Street. Re- 
ceives children legally given up, and places 
them in homes where they will be treated as 
sons or daughters. Superintendent, Rev. R. G. 
Toles. 

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 
Secret benevolent organization among people 
of the dramatic profession. Benefits sick mem- 
bers, helps those out of employment, and con- 
fers death-benefits. 

Benevolent Fraternity of Churches Unitarian. 
Supports four chapels, and sewing-schools. 
Charitable aid given to very needy. Rev, Ed- 
ward A. Horton, of the Second Church, presi- 
dent. 

Boffin's Bower. 1031 Washington Street. 
Assists poor working-girls in many ways, — 
helps them to find employment, gives them tem- 
porary shelter, a pleasant place to rest in, enter- 
tainments, etc., and in cases of distress helps 
them with money. Miss Jennie Collins estab- 
lished the Bower, and is its untiring main- 
spring. 

Boston Benefit Society. Benefits members 
and their heirs. 

Boston Children's-Aid Society. Pine-Farm, 
West Newton. Apply for boys to Rufus R. 
Cook, 36 Woodbine Street, Roxbury; for girls, 
to Miss Lawrence, care of A. A. Lawrence, 
Boston. Provides a home for boj-s liable to be 
sentenced. Girls boarded out. 

Boston Children's-Friend Society. 48 Rut- 
land Street. Apply to the matron. Provides a 
home for destitute children upon surrender. 
Common-school branches taught, and girls 
learn to sew. 

Boston Fatherless and Widows' Society. 
Treasurer, Charles G. Nazro, 54 Kilby Street. 
Assists poor widows, especially those who have 
seen better days. 

Boston Female Asylum. 1008 Washington 
Street. Applications received at any time. 
Receives destitute girls from 3 to 10 years, 



and gives them a good home, food, clothing, 
and instruction. Orphans preferred. 

Boston Flower and Fruit Mission. Hollis- 
street Chapel. Open from 8 to 12, Mondays 
and Thursdays, from May to October. Dis- 
tributes flowers, fruits, and vegetables among 
the poor. 

Boston Industrial Temporary* Home. 17 Da- 
vis Street, cor. of Harrison Avenue. Apply to 
Superintendent S. T. Andrews, between 7 and 
10 a.m. Gives temporary food and lodging to 
destitute persons of both sexes, who are willing 
to work. 

Boston Marine Society. 13 Merchants' Ex- 
change. _ Relieves unfortunate and aged mem- 
bers, their widows and minor children, and, in 
extreme cases, older children. 

Boston Masonic Mutual-Benefit Association. 
Masonic Temple, room 30. Secret. Aids de- 
ceased Masons' families. 

Boston Musicians Relief-Fund Society. Pres- 
ident, T. M. Carter, 282 Washington Street. 
Treasurer, J. T. Baldwin. Aids musicians 
who are members. 

Boston North-End Diet-Kitchen. Rear of 
34 Lynde Street. Open daily from n to 1. 
Gives nourishing food daily to applicants bring- 
ing orders from district physicians. 

Boston North-End Mission. 201 North 
Street. Gives relief of all kinds to worthy 
poor. 

Boston Pilots' Relief Society. Secretary's 
office, 41 Lewis Wharf. Helps destitute mem- 
bers and their families. 

Boston Police Relief Association. Sick and 
death benefits to members who are of the Bos- 
ton pohce-force, and helps their families. 

Boston Port and Seamen's-Aid Society, n 
North Square (Mariners' House). Seamen 
and families supplied with clothing and board. 
Emploj'ment procured. 

Boston Post-office Mutual-Relief Associa- 
tion. Helps members who are employes of the 
Boston Post-office in cases of sickness or acci- 
dent, and pays death-benefits. 

Boston Provident Association. 32 Charitj* 
Building, Chardon Street. Gives temporary 
aid in the city proper and East and South 
Boston. 

Boston Sewing-Circle. 30 Charity Building, 
Chardon Street. Cut-out garments furnished 
to private individuals and societies. 

Boston Widow and Orphan Association. 3 
Tremont Row. A Catholic benefit organiza- 
tion. Sick members aided, and death-benefits 
paid. 

British Charitable Society. Apply to chair- 
man board trustees, J. Stuart McCorry, City 
Hall. Relieves English, Scotch, and Welsh 
immigrants or their families, and gives tempo- 
rary aid. 

Channing Home. 30 McLean Street. Af- 
fords an asylum for poor invalids and children, 
chiefly those who are incurable, and need con- 
stant and tender care. 

Charitable Association of the Boston Fire- 
Department. Aids members who are connect- 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



IO7 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



ed with the fire-department, in cases of injury 
or sickness, and helps their families. 

Charitable Irish Society. Relieves poor 
Irishmen, especially immigrants. Apply to 
secretary, John A. Daly, 46 North-Market 
Street. 

Charlestown Free Dispensary and Hospital. 
27 Harvard Square, Charlestown district. Pro- 
vides free medicines and treatment for both 
sexes, residents of the district. 

Charlestown Infant-School and Children's- 
Home Association. 36 Austin Street. Tem- 
porary home for both sexes. Children returned 
to friends, or adopted. 

Children's Mission to the Children of the 
Destitute in the City of Boston. H. P. Kid- 
der president, 277 Tremont Street. Children 
taught housekeeping and sewing, and either 
returned to friends, or placed in families. 

Church Home for Orphans and Destitute 
Children. Cor. of Broadway, N, and Fourth 
Streets, South Boston. Cares for orphan and 
destitute children, who are taught housework, 
and returned to friends, or places found for 
them in families. 

Columbian Charitable Society of Shipwrights 
and Calkers of Boston and Charlestown. Bene- 
fits members during sickness, and provides 
burial-benefits. 

Co-operative Society of Visitors among the 
Poor. 48 Charity Building, Chardon Street. 
Aims to improve the moral and physical condi- 
tion of the poor by personal visiting, giving 
sewing to poor women, and by finding employ- 
ment. 

Dispensary for Diseases of Children. 18 
Staniford Street. Affords free medical care to 
poor and sick children. 

Dispensary for Diseases of Women. 18 
Staniford Street. Gives advice free, and 
treatment but not medicines, to needy women. 

Episcopal City Mission. Mission House, 6 
Tyler Street. Gives relief, food, fuel, and cloth- 
ing to the sick and aged oi any creed. 

Excursions for Poor Children. Given in the 
summer-time by the North-End Mission to 
poor children. Tickets distributed by the 
police. 

Female Benevolent Firm. An organization 
for colored women, giving sick and death bene- 
fits to members. 

Fragment Society. Apply by letter to Mrs. 
Charles Van Brunt, 66 Commonwealth Avenue. 
Gives material for clothing, also shoes and 
infants' garments, to destitute persons who are 
well known to the society. 

Fraternal Association. An organization for 
colored men. Cares for its sick, buries its 
dead, and aids the widows and orphans of 
members. 

Friendly Hand. 2 Main Street, Charles- 
town district. J. L. Gray, superintendent. 
Furnishes food at reasonable prices to the poor, 
and sometimes gives food and lodging to indi- 
gent persons. 

German Aid Society. Room 39, Charity 
Building, Chardon Street. Helps German im- 



migrants to food, fuel, clothing, transportation- 
and employment. 

Girls' Friendly Society. Apply to the presi- 
dent, Mrs. G. A. Meyer, 194 Beacon Street. 
Aims to provide a friend for every working-girl 
(single), not Roman-Catholic, especially stran- 
gers. 

Grand Army of the Republic, Department of 
Massachusetts, 12 Pemberton Square, room 6. 
Each post holds a relief-fund for the assistance 
of soldiers, sailors, and marines of the late Re- 
bellion, and their widows and orphans. 

Hebrew Ladies' Sewing Society. Apply to 
the president, Mrs. J. H. Hecht, 113 Common- 
wealth Avenue. Dispenses clothing to needy 
Hebrews, after investigation of cases. 

Highland Aid Society. Apply to the presi- 
dent, Mrs. B. S. Farrington, 107 Warren 
Street, Roxbury. Gives clothing to the poor 
of the Highland district, recommended by a 
member. 

Hildise Bund Sections of the Prudential 
League. Room 39, Charity Building, Chardon 
Street. Insurance for life or number of years 
of members, and sick-benefits paid. 

Hospital Newspaper Society. 113 Revere 
Street. Reading-matter collected from boxes 
placed in railway-stations, and received at the 
headquarters from the public contributing, and 
distributed regularly in hospitals and asylums. 
■ House of the Angel Guardian. 85 Vernon 
Street, Roxbury. Receives, educates, and 
reforms orphan and deserted children, especially 
boys. Has graded schools. Eventually finds 
for the inmates places of employment in the 
city or the country with farmers. Conducted 
by the Catholic Brothers of Charity. 

House of the Good Samaritan. 6 McLean 
Street. A free hospital for women and children, 
especially incurable and chronic sufferers. 

House of the Good Shepherd. Tremont 
Street, opposite Parker-hill Avenue. Provides 
a refuge for fallen women and wayward girls. 

Howard Benevolent Society in the city of 
Boston. Apply to M. B. Leonard, M.D., 7 
Meridian Street, East Boston ; Andrew Cush- 
ing, 19 Congregational House, Boston ; and 
Francis James, 439% West Broadway, South 
Boston. Relieves the sick and destitute of the 
city proper, East and South Boston. 

Industrial Aid Society for the Prevention of 
Pauperism. Rooms 25 to 28 Charity Building, 
Chardon Street. Helps men and women to find 
transient or permanent work, and secures em- 
ployment for children in the country on farms 
in summer-time, and elsewhere at other seasons. 

Industrial School for Girls. Centre Street, 
Dorchester. Apply to Miss E. C. Putnam, 63 
Marlborough Street. Girls taught housework, 
trained to good conduct and habits of self-sup- 
port ; returned to their friends, or places found 
for them in families. 

Italian Benevolent Society. Apply in writ- 
ing to A. Garbati, 58 Lowell Street. Aids 
needy Italians of good character. 

Jamaica-Plain Employment and Temporary- 
Relief Society. Curtis Hall, Jamaica Plain, 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



1 08 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



West-Roxbury district. The temperate poor 
aided with orders for food, clothing, light, and 
relieved in various other ways. Fourteen dis- 
tricts are visited regularly by a voluntary visitor 
and associate. 

Ladies' Relief Agency. 37 Charity Building, 
Chardon Street. Aids, partly in sewing, the 
more respectable cases of want. 

Little Sisters of the Poor. Home main- 
tained for the aged poor, destitute persons and 
over sixty. The " Little Sisters " (Catholic) 
share the domestic work without compensation, 
and collect funds. 

Massachusetts Baptist Charitable Society. 
Secretary, A. P. Mason, 28 School Street. 
Aids widows and children of Baptist ministers 
who have died while pastors in the State. 

Massachusetts Charitable Fire Society. Chief 
object to give pecuniary aid to sufferers by fire. 
Also aids other benevolent purposes. Treasurer, 
Chas. B. Cumings, 28 State Street. 

Massachusetts Congregational Charitable So- 
ciety. Aids widows and orphans of Congrega- 
tional clergymen of the State. Trinitarian and 
Unitarian. Rev. Dr. S. K. Lothrop, 12 Chest- 
nut Street, chairman of committee on appro- 
priations. 

Massachusetts Employment Bureau for Dis- 
abled Soldiers, 34 Pemberton Square. Employ- 
ment obtained. 

Massachusetts Infant Asylum. Apply by 
letter for admission to Miss A. P. Cary, 64 
Beacon Street. Infants returned to friends, or 
placed in families. 

Massachusetts Medical Benevolent Society. 
Affords pecuniary relief to needy members and 
their families, and to other respectable phy- 
sicians, their widows and minor children. The 
members are fellows of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. 

Massachusetts Society for Aiding Discharged 
Convicts. 35 Avon Street. Daniel Russell, 
agent. Aids male convicts at the expiration of 
their sentence to find employment. 

Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals. 96 Tremont Street. 
Apply to any agent in cases of cruelty. En- 
forces laws against cruelty. 

Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children. 1 Pemberton Square, 
Room 7. Receives cases of cruelty and abuse 
against any one under 21 years, investigates, 
and brings the perpetrators to justice. 

Mechanics' Mutual Aid Society. Gives sick 
and death benefits to members who are me- 
chanics. 

Miss Burnap's Home for Aged and Friendless. 
3 Anthony Place. Provides a home for aged 
Protestant women. 

Mount-Hope Summer Home for Children and 
Home for Fallen Women. Bourne Street, 
Forest Hills, Roxbury district. Connected 
with the Boston North-End Mission, 201 North 
Street. 

Needlewoman's Friend Society. Room 9, 
149 A Tremont Street. Gives employment with 
adequate compensation to indigent women. 



New-England Home for Intemperate Women, 
112 Kendall Street. Apply to matron, Mrs. 
M. R. Charpiot. Aims to cure intemperate 
women. 

New-England Moral- Reform Society. Wom- 
an's Temporary Home and Office, 6 Oak 
Place. Matron, L. A. Bascom. Receives girls 
and young women, and makes every effort to 
restore them to friends, 01 to find them good 
homes. 

New-England Scandinavian Benevolent So- 
ciety. Apply to H. P. Lindergreen, 99 State 
Street. Gives transportation to needy Scan- 
dinavians. 

Nickerson Home for Children. 14 Tyler 
Street. Children cared for until they can be 
supported by their friends or themselves. 

North-End Industrial School. 39 North-Ben- 
net Street. Classes for women and girls in 
cutting, making, and mending garments, etc., 
and for boys in carpentering. 

North-End Nursery. 39 North-Bennet Street. 
Children over 18 months and under 6 years 
admitted when there is sickness at home, or 
when parents are obliged to be absent at work. 

North-Street Union Mission to the Poor. 
144 Hanover Street. Instructs the ignorant, 
and helps the poor to help themselves. 

Pawn Fund. Room 41, Charity Building, 
Chardon Street. Assists in redeeming property 
which has been left in great emergency for 
trifling sums. 

Penitent-Females Refuge and Bethesda So- 
ciety. 32 Rutland Street. Receives fallen 
women into a comfortable home, expecting them 
to remain 2 years. 

Police Charitable Fund. Apply in writing to 
Alfred T. Turner, City Hall. Relieves police- 
men and their families with money. 

Poor Widows' Fund. A donation by Mrs. 
Johanna Rooker to the city of Boston, the in- 
come of which is paid in equal proportions to 
the aldermen of the city, to be distributed by 
them, at their discretion, for the relief of poor 
widows and sick people. Fund $3,200. 

Portland-street Mission. 90 Portland Street. 
Relief of any kind given, at homes or at mission, 
especially to fallen women. 

Provident Wood-yard. Foundry Street, South 
Boston. Office, Broadway Bridge. Gives men 
temporary work in sawing wood. 

Reading-room for Newsboys and Boot-blacks. 
16 Howard Street. Open from 10 a.m. to 10 
p.m A resort where books, papers, games, 
and regular entertainments are furnished. 

Roxbury Charitable Society. 118 Roxbury 
Street, Roxbury district. Finds employment, 
and gives money, food, fuel, and clothing to the 
poor of good character living in Roxbury. A 
dispensary department aids about 500 persons. 
Physician, Edward T. Williams, M.D., 2298 
Washington Street. 

Roxbury Home for Children and Aged 
Women. Burton Avenue, opp. Copeland Street. 
Small fee paid for board by the inmates. 

Saint Vincent's Orphan Asylum. Children 
received without regard to creed or color, and 



CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCS. 



IO9 



CHARITABLE IRISH SOCIETY 



given for adoption or placed out for service. 
Secretary, Hugh O'Brien, 5 Chatham Row. 

Scots' Charitable Society. Apply at the Scots' 
Temporary Home, 77 Camden Street. Relieves 
needy Scotch people, after proper investigation. 

Sea-shore House. Cor. of Main and Herman 
Streets, Winthrop. A healthful resort for sick 
and weakly children during the summer months. 
Rev. E. E. Hale president of the organi- 
zation; Benjamin Kimball, n Tremont-bank 
Building, treasurer. 

Shaw Asylum for Mariners' Children. Brook- 
line. Apply to Quincy A. Shaw, 19 Pemberton 
Square. Helps destitute children of Massachu- 
setts mariners. 

Societe Franco-Beige de Secours mutuels 
et de Bienfaisance de Boston, Mass. Charles L. 
Thiery, treasurer, 309 Washington Street. Aims 
to procure employment, and gives food, fuel, 
or clothing, rarely money, to deserving French 
and Belgian persons or their children. 

Society for the Relief of the Sick Poor. Apply 
to the Dispensary physicians at the North End. 
Gives personal care and competent nursing to 
the sick poor. Limited to the North End at 
present. 

Soldiers' Messenger Corps. 34 Pemberton 
Square. Twenty-four disabled soldiers, each 
having a permanent station in the business por- 
tion of the city. 

South-Boston Samaritan Society. Tempo- 
rary relief and clothing given to those who are 
above seeking help from other charities. 

Spiritualists' Ladies'-Aid Society. Amory 
Hall, 503 Washington Street. Gives money 
and clothing after investigation. 

Summer-street Fire Fund. Relieves suffer- 
ers by the great fire of 1872. 

Swiss Aid Society. Apply to F. von Euw, 
20 Conant Street, Roxbury district. Assists 
needy Swiss immigrants, also Swiss residents 
when in distress. 

Temporary Asylum for Discharged Female 
Prisoners. Dedham, Mass. A Boston institu- 
tion, under the direction of a committee of ladies. 

Temporary Home for the Destitute. 1 Pine 
Place. Children received, and subsequently 
placed in families. 

Temporary Home. Chardon Street. Gives 
temporary shelter and food to needy women 
and children while endeavoring to find work or 
friends. 

United Hebrew Benevolent Society. Room 
3, 105 Summer Street. Affords relief to poor 
Israelites after investigation. 

Washingtonian Home. 41 Waltham Street. 
Apply to Superintendent Albert Day, M.D. 
Aims to cure intemperate men by medical, 
moral, and hygienic treatment. 

Wayfarers' Lodge. Hawkins Street. Ap- 
ply at police-stations. Meals and lodgings 
furnished. 

West-End Day Nursery. 36 Blossom Street. 
Takes care of poor children during the day, 
while mothers are at work. Charges 5 cents a 
day, or 25 cents a week. 

Widows' Society. Apply by letter to Mrs. 



Augustus Lowell, 60 State Street. Aids poor 
and infirm widows, and single women of good 
character, over 60, natives of Boston. Must 
have resided within the old city limits for 10 
years. 

Young Men's Benevolent Society. Apply to 
Edward McDonald, 54 Prince Street; Rev. 
H. F. Jenks, 149 A Tremont Street; Joseph T. 
Brown, jun., 504 Washington Street; Dr. H. W. 
Broughton, City 'Hospital. Gives food, fuel, 
and, in extreme cases, money, chiefly to Prot- 
estant Americans who have resided in the city 
proper long enough to become identified with 
its interests. 

Charity Bureau (The Central). 

— Chardon Street. Established by the 
city, with the aid of $20,000 subscribed 
by citizens, as a charity headquarters. 
It is occupied by the overseers of the 
poor, State-aid paymaster, and Indus- 
trial-Aid Society, on the first floor ; the 
Boston Provident Association, Boston 
Ladies' Sewing-Circle, Ladies' City 
Relief Agency, and German Emigrant- 
Aid Society, in the second story; and, 
in the third story, by the Associated 
Charities, Wards 6, 7, and 8, Confer- 
ence of the Associated Charities, and 
the Co-operative Visiting Society. In 
the basement is a homoeopathic dis- 
pensary, and the city physician's office. 
In addition to the above-mentioned 
societies, the Young Men's Benevolent 
Association and the Boston Police 
Relief Association hold their monthly 
meetings here. The bureau is com- 
posed of three substantial brick build- 
ings. The official out-door charities 
are administered here, and many of 
the private charities. The Temporary 
Home here is designed to provide for 
foundlings and the destitute. Only 
women and children are allowed to 
lodge in it ; but meals are given out 
to both sexes, under the order of the 
overseers of the poor or the superin- 
tendent. The able-bodied applying 
for food are obliged to work for it; 
the men sawing wood, and the women 
doing housework. [See Associated 
Charities, Charitable and Benevolent 
Societies, Overseers of the Poor, and 
Temporary Home.] 

Charitable Irish Society. — Estab- 
lished, 1837 ; incorporated, 1809. Like 



CHARITABLE MECHANIC ASSOCIATION 



CHARITABLE MECHANIC ASSOCIATION 



the British Charitable Society, this was 
organized originally to render tempo- 
rary assistance to newly arrived immi- 
grants. It has also, for many years, 
relieved its poor and indigent country- 
men reduced by sickness, old age, or 
other infirmities or accident. Of late 
years it has contributed annually to 
some deserving charity. During the 
years just following the Revolutionary 
war, it extended timely relief to those 
of its members who were disabled by 
the war. Now it has no established 
headquarters, but holds its meetings at 
the Parker House annually, dining on 
St. Patrick's Day, the 17th of March. 

Charitable Mechanic Association 

(The Massachusetts). — This is one 
of the venerable and honored institu- 
tions of the city. It was founded in 
1795, an d incorporated in 1806. It 
was established to relieve the dis- 
tresses of unfortunate mechanics and 
their families ; to promote inventions 
and improvements in the mechanic 
arts, by granting premiums for inven- 
tions and improvements; to assist 
young mechanics with loans of money ; 
and to establish schools and libraries 
for the use of apprentices and the im- 
provement of the a,rts. Its work has 
been of great value to the community, 
and its influence has been employed 
in many directions. For years it was 
its custom to award certificates to ap- 
prentices, who, on arriving at the age 
of 21, brought testimonials to it from 
the persons with whom they served, 
showing that they had conducted 
themselves with fidelity and attention, 
and had not violated any agreement 
made by them. Every third year the 
association holds a special meeting, 
called " The Triennial Festival ; " and 
at irregular intervals, averaging every 
three years, it holds a great public in- 
dustrial exhibition, popularly known 
as " The Mechanics' Fair." For many 
years these fairs were held in the halls 
over Quincy Market and Faneuil Hall, 
the two being connected by a bridge 
extending over the street. In 1878 a 



temporary building for its exhibition 
was erected on Park Square, Columbus 
Avenue, and Pleasant Street. The 
fair that season lasted two months, 
during September and October, and 
was the most successful of the many 
held. The number of exhibitors was 
1,250; and the awards included 60 
gold medals, 230 silver medals, 250 
bronze medals, and 440 diplomas. 
The receipts of the exhibition were 
$35,000 over the expenditures. In 
188 1 the association erected the pres- 
ent permanent exhibition building, on 
the corner of Huntington Avenue and 
West-Newton Street, Back-bay dis- 
trict. It covers a space of more than 
96,000 square feet. Its front on the 
avenue is 600 feet, and on West-New- 
ton Street 300 feet; and at its widest 
part it is 345 feet. Architecturally it 
is attractive. The avenue front is 
Renaissance, with free treatment in 
style. Arches of graceful curves rise 
nearly to the coping. These and the 
adjacent walls are massively laid in 
red brick, with sills and caps of free- 
stone, and terra-cotta ornaments. On 
one side of the main arch is a head of 
Franklin, representing electricity ; and 
on the other, one of Oakes Ames, 
representing railroading. Surrounding 
these are spandrels of palm, oak, and 
olive branches, in which appear the 
arm and hammer of the seal of the 
association. An octagonal tower, 90 
feet "high, and 40 feet in diameter, 
forms the easterly termination of the 
building. Here are two wide en- 
trances, — one from Huntington-ave- 
nue sidewalk, and the other from the 
carriage-porch, itself a most attractive 
piece of ornamentation, built of brick 
and stone, with open-timbered and 
tiled roof. At the easterly end of the 
building, adjoining the tower, is the 
" administration building," which con- 
tains on the first story the various of- 
fices ; on the second floor, large and 
small dining-rooms employed during 
the exhibition seasons ; and on the 
third, a large and attractively finished 
hall. Beyond the administration build- 



CHARITABLE MECHANIC ASSOCIATION 



CHARLES-RIVER EMBANKMENT 



ing is the great exhibition-hall, with 
spacious galleries and an ample base- 
ment ; beyond that is the main hall, 
extending across the west end: and 
between the balconies of these two 
halls, the art-exhibition rooms and 
studios. The last exhibition of the 
association, held in this fine building 
during the autumn of 1881, surpassed 
all previous ones in its completeness 
and excellence and pecuniary success. 
During the winter and spring of 1882, 
the main hall was frequently occupied 
by opera-companies and by great pub- 
lic meetings. .The organ in the grand 
hall was built by Mr. Hilborne L. 
Roosevelt of New-York City, in 1876, 
and was exhibited during the Centen- 
nial Exhibition of that year. It was 
erected in the north gallery of the 
main building; and at the close of 
these exhibitions it was purchased by 
the Permanent Exhibition Company, 
and retained in its position until the 
building was sold, at which time it was 
bought by the Mechanic Association, 
and removed to its present position by 
Mr. Roosevelt, who, at the same time, 
thoroughly rebuilt it. The organ is a 
handsome instrument, and is equipped 
with all the modern improvements. It 
is 41 feet high, 42 feet wide, and 20 
feet deep. It has 3 manuals, 37 speak- 
ing-stops, 7 couplers, and 3 mechanical 
registers, and has the following pedal- 
movements : Six adjustable combina- 
tion pedals, each capable of control- 
ling any or all of the stops in the organ 
at the will of the organist, and three 
of which can be operated by knobs 
beneath the great organ-keys ; pedal 
to throw off all combinations ; reversi- 
ble great to pedal coupler; balanced 
swell pedal. Above the draw-stop 
knobs on either side are 222 small 
knobs, representing all the stops in 
the organ for each of the six combina- 
tion pedals, and by the use of which 
the organist can set at will such com- 
binations as he may desire for the se- 
lection he is about to perform. The 
bellows are supplied with wind by two 
" Jacques " hydraulic engines, or can 



be blown by hand. The association 
owns another building, which it built 
in i860. This is on the corner of 
Bedford and Chauncy Streets. It is 
built of fine dark freestone, in the Ital- 
ian Renaissance style. On the upper 
floors was the large Mechanics Hall, 
long used for the meetings of the associ- 
ation, and rented for musical, literary, 
and other entertainments. The re- 
mainder of the building is profitably 
leased. The cost of this building, in- 
cluding land, was $320,000. Paul Re- 
vere was one of the early presidents of 
this association. The officers are : Na- 
thaniel J. Bradlee, president ; Joseph 
L. Bates, secretary ; and Frederick W. 
Lincoln, treasurer. 

Charles- River Embankment 
(The). — A proposed park, prome- 
nade, and driveway between Cragie's 
Bridge and the West-Boston Bridge 
along the Charles River, to be con- 
tinued on the Beacon-street side and 
roadway by a plank walk 1 5 feet wide, 
first to a point near Hereford Street, 
extended, and ultimately to the Cottage- 
farms Bridge. These improvements 
were authorized by the Legislature of 
1881. When completed, according to 
present plans, a parkway will be fur- 
nished, averaging 200 feet in width, 
with a continuous water-front from Lev- 
erett Street to Cottage-farms Bridge, 
nearly 2| miles in length, and cross- 
ing Cambridge Street at West-Boston 
Bridge, and the extension of West- 
Chester Park to the proposed new 
bridge across Charles River. It will 
be laid out with walks, drives, saddle- 
pads, and boat-Jandings, and orna- 
mented with shrubbery and turf. It 
will be accessible along its entire route 
at short intervals by streets, and its 
drive will be used for pleasure-vehicles 
only. The city council in December, 
188 1, authorized a loan of $300,000 to 
meet the expense of building the sea- 
wall and completing the work. [See 
Public-parks System^ A private cor- 
poration has also been given authority 
by the Legislature to take a large area 



CHAELESTOWN DISTRICT 



112 



CHARLESTOWN POOR'S FUND 



of the Charles-river fiats on the Cam- 
bridge side, between West-Boston 
Bridge and the bridge of the Grand- 
Junction Wharf, and fill it to the satis- 
faction of the harbor commissioners ; a 
drive for the public, 200 feet wide, next 
the river, to be reserved, and the re- 
mainder of the filled land to be used 
for building purposes. 

Charlestown District (The). — 

Formerly the city of Charlestown, an- 
nexed to Boston in 1873 [ see Annexa- 
tions}. The date of its foundation as 
a town, as stated by the late Richard 
Frothingham, its historian, was July 4, 
1629, though an earlier date has been 
claimed. Its Indian name was Mish- 
awun. Originally the territory of the 
town was very large. Out of it the 
towns of Burlington, Woburn, Maiden, 
and Somerville (the last two now 
cities) have been formed, and parts of 
Reading, Medford, Cambridge, and 
West Cambridge (now Arlington). It 
was a flourishing place in the colonial 
period ; and on account of the battle 
of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775 [see 
Bunker-hill Monument, etc.], and its 
burning by the British at that time, it 
became conspicuous at the very begin- 
ning of the Revolution. The town 
was fired by shells thrown from the 
British works on Copp's Hill, in Bos- 
ton [see Copp's Hill], and by men 
landed for the purpose. Only a few 
houses in the town escaped the fire, 
and the destruction was complete. 
The property loss was estimated at 
over $500,000. Its population at that 
time was about 2,700. The town re- 
covered slowly from.the effect of that 
blow, but in time was completely re- 
built, increased in population, and 
enjoyed much prosperity. When it 
was annexed to Boston, its population 
was 32,040; and its valuation $35,289,- 
682, of which $26,016,100 was real, 
and $9,273,582 personal. For years 
before its annexation to Boston, it 
had been a city. Its chief popular fea- 
tures are the Bunker-hill Monument 
and grounds, and the Navy Yard es- 



tablished in 1798 [see Navy Yard]. 
It also has a conspicuous soldiers' 
monument [see Charlestown Soldiers' 1 
Monument] ; and an ancient burying- 
ground, in which there is a monument 
to Harvard, the founder of Harvard 
College [see Old Burying-Grounds]. 
For many years the Massachusetts 
State Prison, founded in 1800, was 
located here ; and the prison-building 
is still standing. The project of re- 
establishing the prison here, by remov- 
ing certain classes of convicts from 
the present prison at Concord, has 
been seriously considered of late. The 
passenger and freight stations of the 
Fitchburg Railroad were for some 
time in Charlestown ; but in 1848 the 
former was removed to Boston, when 
the present station was built [see 
Boston and Fitchburg Station and Line]. 
The Charlestown district has many 
points of interest : it is an old-fash- 
ioned, quaint place, and is well worth 
visiting. 

Charlestown Free Dispensary 
and Hospital. — No. 27 Harvard 
Square, Charlestown district. Estab- 
lished in 1872, and incorporated 1873. 
Medical and surgical advice given to 
the sick poor, free of cost except to 
those who are able to pay for it. Other 
assistance is also given, and a list of 
those searching for employment is 
kept. The aid rendered is limited to 
residents of the Charlestown district; 
application to be made at noon on Mon- 
days, Wednesdays, and Fridays. About 
1,600 persons are aided annually. 

Charlestown Neck. — See Neck, 
Charlestown. 

Charlestown Poor's Fund. — The 

income of various bequests, amount- 
ing to $24,400, is expended annually 
on the poor of the Charlestown dis- 
trict, under the direction of officers 
composed of the two senior deacons 
of each regularly organized church in 
the district, and the Charlestown mem- 
bers of the city council. The office 
is in Harvard Square, Charlestown 



CHARLESTOWN SOLDIERS' MONUMENT 



"3 



CHINESE 



district. This fund was first estab- 
lished as long ago as 1674. 

Charlestown Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors' Monument. — Winthrop Square. 
Martin Milmore, sculptor. Dedicated 
on the 97th anniversary of the battle 
of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1872; the 
address on the occasion being by the 
late Richard Frothingham, the histo- 
rian of Charlestown. The spot where 
the monument stands was, in the colo- 
nial days, the militia training-ground. 
The monument presents, on a high 
pedestal, a group of three figures, — 
the " Genius of America," holding out 
laurel-wreaths above the soldier and 
sailor standing on each side. An inci- 
dent of the memorable centennial cele- 
bration of the battle of Bunker Hill, 
on June 17, 1875, was a ceremony 
here by the Fifth Maryland Regiment, 
one of the visiting military organiza- 
tions from the South. The regiment 
marched to this monument, and placed 
upon it a beautiful floral shield, as a 
token of good-will towards their North- 
ern hosts and as a Southern tribute to 
the Northern heroes of the civil con- 
flict. The act was performed without 
ostentation, and without previous an- 
nouncement. Marching to the square 
without escort, the regiment halted 
before the monument, forming three 
sides of a square around it : the band 
played a dirge, the regiment stood at 
parade-rest, while the shield inscribed 
" Maryland's tribute to Massachusetts " 
was reverently laid upon the pedestal ; 
then the orders were given, " Atten- 
tion ! " " Carry arms ! " " Present arms ! " 
and the regiment departed as quietly 
as it had come. [See Statues and 
Monuments^ 

Chestnut-street Club. — See 

"Isms." 

Chester Park and Square. — The 
broad street at the South End, extend- 
ing from Albany Street across that 
portion of the city to Beacon Street, 
is called in parts Chester Park, Ches- 
ter Square, and West-Chester Park. 



From No. 772 Albany Street to No. 
1756 Washington is called Chester 
Park; from No. 1755 Washington 
Street to No. 772 Tremont is called 
Chester Square; and from No. 781 
Tremont, across Columbus Avenue 
and the Back-bay district to Beacon 
Street, is called West-Chester Park. 
In that portion of the street where 
it broadens into Chester Square, are 
some of the finest older residences of 
the South End. The " square " is an 
attractive small park of about 1^ 
acres, with a fine growth of trees, 
pleasant paths along flower-beds, and 
a large fountain and fish-pond in the 
centre. The roadway passes on either 
side of the square. Chester Park is 
more of a parkway than Chester 
Square, and the roadways on either 
side are also lined with substantial 
dwellings of "well-to-do" citizens. 
The square and the park in the South- 
End portion of the street were origi- 
nally laid out in 1850. The " West- 
Chester Park extension," as the new 
portion of the street from Tremont 
Street through the Back-bay district 
to Beacon is commonly called, was 
laid out in 1873. I* ^ s an avenue 90 
feet wide. It is among the plans to be 
carried out in the immediate future, 
to connect it with Cambridge by a 
bridge in the vicinity of the Old Fort 
Washington on Putnam Avenue. [See 
Fountains ; also Parks and Squares.] 

Chestnut-hill Reservoir. — See 

Water- Works. 

Chinese. — There are about 300 
Chinamen in Boston and its immedi- 
ate vicinity, the first one coming here 
about eight years ago. As a class 
they are industrious, frugal, and peace- 
able, seldom appearing in the criminal 
courts except as complainants. Al- 
though the most of them are engaged 
in business, they have no fixed habi- 
tations, and are constantly coming 
and going, seldom remaining in the 
city for a number of years. Some 
have made visits to China, and on 
returning have again settled down at 



CHINESE 



114 



CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 



their old occupations. The majority 
of them have laundries ; others are 
engaged in selling tea, fruits, and 
cigars ; and but three are known to be 
employed as servants in private fami- 
lies, in whose service they came from 
the Pacific coast. They take no part 
in politics, and are interested in local 
affairs to the extent only of paying 
taxes and procuring licenses. They 
have no theatre ; and their sole musical 
organization is an orchestra, the mem- 
bers of which play together only on 
some festive occasion. Gambling and 
opium-smoking are vices to which 
many of them are addicted; but the 
only places devoted to these objects 
are carried on in connection with some 
other business, and opium-dens, so 
called, are not believed to exist here. 
Their absence is probably due to the 
fact, that a strong prejudice exists 
against them on the part of the better 
class of Chinamen. About 60 of the 
Chinese colony are known to be mem- 
bers of a secret society, the chief 
objects of which are said to be mutual 
protection. This organization does 
not, however, have the support or 
recognition of the more intelligent and 
worthy, the latter claiming that its in- 
fluences are immoral. There is a very 
flourishing Chinese Sunday - school, 
which was organized about 6 years ago 
by Miss Harriet Carter, with only one 
pupil. At present it has an average 
attendance of nearly 100. They meet ■ 
in the chapel of the Mount-Vernon 
Church, and the regular sessions are 
less than two hours in length ; but so 
desirous are the pupils to learn, that 
they often spend three hours in school, 
the teachers coming early to give all 
who may so desire an opportunity to 
extend the time. Besides a large corps 
of teachers, there are four Chinamen 
who act as interpreters. While the in- 
struction given is of a religious nature, 
the necessity for a knowledge of the 
English language is not overlooked; 
and primers, slates, and pencils are 
used simultaneously with the Interna- 
tional Lessons. These Chinese learn 



very rapidly, and take a pride in teach- 
ing others. One who applied for ad- 
mission to the school had mastered 
the alphabet, and could pronounce 
correctly the first few words in the 
primer, although he had been in the 
country but eleven days. He had 
been taught by his uncle, who was 
himself a pupil at the school. They 
are also instructed by Miss Carter 
during the week, in the rooms of the 
City Missionary Society, in grammar, 
geography, and practical arithmetic. 
The beginning of the English year is 
celebrated by the school in an appro- 
priate manner, in the chapel. Invita- 
tions are sent to all the Chinese 
residents of Boston and vicinity, and 
they also have as guests friends from 
distant cities. The principal enter- 
tainment is furnished by the orchestra, 
and much conviviality (but no speech- 
making) is indulged in. On the begin- 
ning of the Chinese year, which is on 
the first new moon after the 20th of 
January, an entertainment is given by 
the scholars to their teachers, at which 
the compliments of the season are ex- 
changed, and substantially the same 
programme as mentioned above is car- 
ried out. Both occasions are regarded 
as of so sacred a character, that the 
musical instruments employed are said 
to be used for no other purpose. 

Children's-Aid Society. — See 

Boston Children's-Aid Society. 

Children' s-Friend Society. — See 
Boston Children's-Friend Society. 

Children's Hospital (The). — 

Huntington Avenue and Camden 
Street. Incorporated 1869. In this 
admirably conducted institution, medi- 
cal and surgical treatment is given to 
children from 2 to 12 years, if poor, 
gratuitously ; and, if parents or guard- 
ians are able to pay, at a moderate 
charge. The nursing is directed by 
the Protestant-Episcopal Sisters of St. 
Margaret. No infectious or conta- 
gious diseases, and no chronic or in- 
curable cases, are admitted. Visitors 



CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 



115 



CHRIST CHURCH 



to patients are admitted daily from n 
to 12, and visitors to the hospital are 
admitted at any time except Sundays. 
There is a department for out-patients, 
open daily at 10 a.m. There is a Con- 
valescent Home at Wellesley, with 18 
beds, which receives patients from the 
hospital during the summer months : 
the average number cared for there in 
a season is 100. The Ladies'-Aid As- 
sociation, organized in 1869, supplies 
articles of furniture and clothing to the 
hospital, visits the patients, and takes a 
personal interest in them. The pres- 
ent building is the third occupied by 
the hospital, and was built especially 
for it. It was formally dedicated the 
day following Christmas, 1882. It is 
an impressive structure of brick, with 
terra-cotta trimmings. It occupies a lot 
containing 31,000 square feet. When 
completed, it will consist of a central 
administration section, with two wings, 
and a rear section. At present the 
northerly wing is not built. On the 
sides of the main entrance from Hun- 
tington Avenue are a general reception- 
room, and a room for the use of the 
medical staff, with a room for the house- 
physician and the officers' dining-room 
at the rear. On the street-floor is also 
a dispensary, thoroughly furnished in 
every particular, and the operating- 
room, with convenient side-rooms. The 
main staircase is built in a brick tower. 
The entire second floor of the main or 
administrative section is occupied by 
the Sisters of St. Margaret. The wards 
for patients are in the wing, the second 
floor for girl patients, and the lower 
ward for boys. The private wards 
are on the third floor of the main sec- 
tion, with private rooms in the wing. 
On the fourth floor are small wards, 
and a special laundry, kitchen, closets, 
etc., so arranged that they may be 
isolated from the rest of the building 
whenever deemed necessary. On the 
lower floor of the main section are the 
principal kitchen, laundry, pantry, boil- 
er-room, servants' dining-room, and 
other apartments ; and on either side 
of the entrance to the half-basement 



are rooms for the reception and treat- 
ment of out-patients. The building is 
thoroughly built throughout, and ad- 
mirably equipped ; while the system 
of ventilation and the sanitary arrange- 
ments are very complete. The vac- 
uum method of ventilation by aspira- 
tion has been adopted ; powerful cur- 
rents are created by flues connecting 
with a large chimney at both top and 
bottom of the walls. There is also di- 
rect communication with the open air. 
Nearly every room is provided with 
open fireplaces, and transoms over the 
doors ; and the building is heated by 
steam. Some of the rooms are com- 
pletely underlaid by steam -pipes: 
these rooms are for very delicate chil- 
dren. As it now stands, 60 patients can 
be accommodated ; and when completed 
the capacity of the hospital will be in- 
creased to 100 beds. Each of the sev- 
eral wards is provided with a separate 
dining-room, diet-kitchen, bath-room, 
and water-closets. In the bath-rooms 
and water-closets the floors are marble. 
All the plumbing in the building is 
open. The walls throughout the build- 
ing are painted, and the finish is mostly 
ash. The hospital is under the direc- 
tion of a board of managers, of which 
Nathaniel Thayer is president, Robert 
C. Winthrop vice-president, Dr. Fran- 
cis H. Brown secretary, and John G. 
Wetherell treasurer. A full medical 
staff is connected with the institution. 
The hospital was first established on 
Rutland Street, beginning in a very 
modest way. Subsequently it moved 
to larger quarters, at 1 583 Washington 
Street; but these soon proved inade- 
quate. Since its establishment over 
1,700 children have been treated in its 
wards, while twice that number of out- 
patients have received treatment. 

Chop - Houses. — See Restaurants 
and Cafes. 

Christ Church, Salem Street 
(North End), is the oldest church- 
building now standing in the city, and 
is one of the few landmarks generally 
retaining its original appearance. Its 



CHEIST CHURCH 



116 



CHRIST CHURCH 



old-fashioned pulpit and pews have 
suffered no material change ; its inte- 
rior has not been modernized; its 
present organ is the same (imported 
from London in 1756) that used to 
accompany the quaint old-time hymns 
and responses ; the figures of the cher- 
ubim in front- of the organ, and the 
chandeliers, greatly prized possessions, 
were taken from a French vessel by 
the privateer " Queen of Hungary " in 
1746, and presented to the church by 
Capt, Grushea ; its Bible, prayer-books, 
and communion-service, still in use, 
were given to it by King George the 
Second, in 1733, an< ^ the silver bears 
the royal arms ; and the chime of bells, 
the sweetest and most musical the town 
has known, which still sound their me- 
lodious tones, was brought from Eng- 
land in 1744. It is said to be the first 
chime in America. This is the church 
from whose steeple it is claimed that 
the lanterns of Paul Revere were hung 
out to warn Adams and Hancock of 
the movement of the British troops 
on Lexington ; and though the matter 
has been long in dispute, — whether it 
was from the Christ-church steeple, or 
that of the Old North Church in North 
Square (which was pulled clown for 
fuel during the siege of Boston), that 
the lights were shown ; or whether or 
not they gave the warning, — a tablet 
on the front of the church, placed there 
Oct. 17, 1878, bears this inscription: 
" The signal-lanterns of Paul Revere 
displayed in the steeple of this church, 
April 18, 1775, warned the country of 
the march of the British troops to 
Lexington and Concord." It is also 
claimed that the Paul-Revere lights 
were hung out by the sexton gf this 
church, Robert Newman, a young, 
active, and courageous fellow, during 
those times ; but by some antiquarians 
this claim is also questioned, and the 
assertion is as positively made, that 
they were hung out by Capt. John 
Puling, a merchant of Boston and a 
warden of the church, and in the con- 
fidence of Revere, Hancock, Adams, 
Warren, and the other leaders. The 



original spire was blown down in a gale 
in 1804; and the present one, built im- 
mediately after the demolition of the 
old, is an accurate reproduction of that. 
The walls of the interior of the church 
are now enriched with paintings and 
mural ornaments, among which is the 
first monument to Washington ever 
erected in this country. The only 
change of any account from the earlier 
appearance of the interior of the church 
has been the closing of the former cen- 
tre aisle, and also the large altar win- 
dow. The eight bells of the chime in 
the tower bear these inscriptions : — 

First bell: " This peal of 8 Bells is the gift of 
a number of generous persons to Christ Church 
in Boston, N. E., anno 1744, A. R." 

Second: "This church was founded in the 
year 1723; Timothy Cutler, D.D., the first 
rector, A. R., 1774." 

Third: " We are the first ring of Bells cast 
for the British Empire in North America, A. R., 
1744." 

Fourth: " God preserve the Church of Eng- 
land, 1744." 

Fifth: " William Shirley, Esq., Governor of 
Massachusetts Bay in New England, anno 
1744." 

Sixth: " The subscription for these bells was 
begun by John Hammock and Robert Temple, 
church wardens, anno 1743." 

Seventh: " Since Generosity has opened our 
mouths, our tongues shall ring aloud its praise. 
1744." 

Eighth: "Abel Rudhall of Gloucester cast 
us all, anno 1744." 

The church was built by the second 
Episcopal society in Boston, the first 
being King's Chapel [see King's Chap- 
ell. Its first rector was Rev. Timothy 
Cutler, D.D., who was settled Dec. 29, 
1723. He served until his death, Aug. 
7, 1765. Rev. James Greaton, who 
had been his assistant since 1760, suc- 
ceeded him. Mr. Greaton left at the 
close of August, 1767 ; and the follow- 
ing year, September, 1768, Rev. Dr. 
Mather Byles, jun., became the rector. 
He resigned in April, 1775, intending 
to go to Portsmouth, N.H. ; but he 
was prevented by the Revolutionary 
excitement, and, being a fierce loyal- 
ist, he remained in Boston as chap- 
lain to some of the British regiments 
until after the evacuation. Subse- 



ii 7 



quently he was proscribed and ban- 
ished. The church remained without 
a settled rector until August, 1778, 
when Rev. Stephen Lewis was called 
to the place. He served for 6 years, 
and was then succeeded by Rev. Wil- 
liam Montague. The latter was settled 
in June, 1787, and left in May, 1792. 
Rev. William Walter, D.D., was the 
next rector, settled May 29, 1792; and 
he served until his death, Dec. 5, 1800. 
Rev. Asa Eaton, D.D., was the next 
rector. He served from Aug. 23, 1803, 
to May, 1829. To him belongs the 
credit of establishing the first Sunday 
school known in Boston: this began 
in 181 5. Rev. William Croswell suc- 
ceeded him, continuing as rector from 
1829 to 1840. Rev. John Woart was 
the next rector, serving 10 years; and 
Rev. William T. Smithett, settled in 
June, 1852, followed him. Later rec- 
tors have been Rev. Henry Burroughs, 
who was settled in 1868 ; and Rev. 
William H. Munroe, the present rector, 
settled in 188 1. The corner-stone of 
the church was laid on April 15, 1723; 
and the services of dedication occurred 
on Dec. 29 of the same year. Under 
the church is the Christ-Church Ceme- 
tery, which is described in the chapter 
on Old Burymg-Grozmds in this Dic- 
tionary. [See Episcopal {Protestant) 
Church in Boston, and its Churches.'] 

Churches. — The number of church 
organizations in the city is 219. These 
are classed as follows : — 

Baptist 27 

Catholic Apostolic 1 

Christian i 

Congregational Trinitarian 29 

Congregational Unitarian 27 

Congregational 3 

Episcopal 22 

Friends 1 

Jewish 8 

Lutheran 5 

Methodist Episcopal 28 

Methodist 4 

New Church (Swedenborgian) .... 2 

Presbyterian 7 

Reformed (German) 1 

Roman-Catholic 30 

Second Advent 3 

Union g 

Universalist 11 



It will be seen by the foregoing state- 
ment, that the largest number of 
churches are classed as Roman-Catho- 
lic, and the second as Congregational 
Trinitarian. In April, 1882, on the 
Sunday following Easter, the " Adver- 
tiser " newspaper took a census of the 
attendance at all the churches in the 
city ; and this showed the following : — 

Total Attendance 

Baptist 16,975 

Catholic Apostolic 

Christian 158 

Congregational Trinitarian .... 15,033 

Congregational Unitarian 9,3 2 6 

Congregational 805 

Episcopal 12,040 

Friends 89 

Jewish 958 

Lutheran 591 

Methodist Episcopal 9,336 

Methodist 2,058 

New Church (Swedenborgian) . . . 530 

Presbyterian 3,300 

Reformed (German) 

Roman-Catholic 49,337 

Second Advent 366 

Union 775 

Universalist 2,337 

Non-sectarian 382 

Miscellaneous i,743 

Grand Total 126,240 

Adding to this the estimated at- 
tendance at special Sunday religious 
meetings, the total is carried up to about 
130,000, less than a third of the entire 
estimated population of the city. This 
census was the result of careful count- 
ing at each service, and was to show 
the average church attendance on an 
average Sunday. It hardly represented 
the average attendance at the Episcopal 
churches perhaps, as the Sunday after 
Easter is that on which the attendance 
is generally the lightest; some of the 
Unitarian churches are more largely 
attended during the midst of the win- 
ter-season than late in April. And on 
the particular Sunday on which this 
census was taken, many Methodist pas- 
tors were away from their pulpits at- 
tending the conferences, their places 
being filled by " exchanges," so that in 
all the churches of this denomination 
it was insisted that the attendance was 
not quite up to the average. But, as 



CHURCH OF THE ADVENT 



118 



CHURCH OF THE ADVENT 



a whole, the census was accepted as 
fair and as accurate as could be. The 
figures of the attendance at the Catho- 
lic churches were most surprising. It 
was admitted that they were in several 
instances below the average, for the 
attendance at early mass in all cases 
was not obtained. The " Advertiser " 
remarked, in its editorial comments on 
the census, that " in reality we presume 
the number of persons who entered 
Roman-Catholic churches for purposes 
of worship on Sunday fell but a few 
thousand below that of the gross at- 
tendance at all the other churches 
combined." " This does not, of course, 
mean," the " Advertiser " editor adds, 
" that one-half the population, or one- 
half of the people who are more or less 
attached to some church, are Catholics ; 
but the fact, although accounted for 
by the greater regularity of attendance, 
will attract notice, and furnish food for 
reflection." This church census, taken 
with other features and peculiarities 
of modern Boston, shows that it has 
strayed far away from its old-time, or 
early-day position as a Puritan city. Its 
religious liberality and toleration are 
among its present most conspicuous 
characteristics. Sketches of the history 
of each denomination, with the dates 
of the establishment of each of their 
churches, are given in their proper 
places in this Dictionary; with separate 
sketches, more in detail, of the leading 
churches of the city. [See the denomi- 
nations by their several names, and also 
the principal churches by their names.] 

Church of the Advent (Episco- 
pal). — This church was organized in 
1844, in the height of the " Catholic 
revival " in the English church. The 
main object of its establishment, as 
stated, was to secure to the poor and 
needy in a portion of the city the 
ministrations of the Church, "free 
from unnecessary expense and all 
ungracious circumstances." It was 
therefore, from the first, made free 
to all. This feature, " combined with 
its more frequent services, its daily 



public recitation of morning and even- 
ing prayer, an increased attention to 
the details of worship, the lights on its 
stone altar, and its altar-cloths," says 
Rev. Phillips Brooks, of the formation 
of this church, in his chapter on " The 
Episcopal Church," in "The Memorial 
History of Boston," " were the visible 
signs which distinguished it from the 
other parishes in town." The owner- 
ship and management of the parish 
property is vested in a corporation ; 
but this is limited to 20 members, in- 
cluding the rector, and is simple in its 
organization and operations. These 20 
corporators fill all vacancies, and at 
Easter choose the wardens and vestry 
for the ensuing year, and make the ne- 
cessary appropriations for carrying on 
the work of the parish, the resources of 
which are the voluntary oblations of the 
worshippers. One of several special 
features in this parish has been the 
daily morning and evening services, 
especially provided for in the Book of 
Common Prayer. Begun in 1845, ^ * s 
believed that this was the first attempt 
since 1686 to revive this primitive cus- 
tom in Boston. All holy-days are here 
strictly observed, and there is also daily 
early celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion. The first services of the parish 
were held on Advent Sunday, 1844, in 
an unfinished apartment in a building 
at No. 13 Merrimack Street. In the 
following June a hall especially adapted 
for the purpose was secured at the 
corner of Lowell and Causeway Streets. 
This was occupied until 1847, when the 
meeting-house in Green Street, for- 
merly under the care of Dr. Jenks, 
was purchased and moved into. In 
1864 this building was sold, and 
the Bowdoin-street Congregational 
Church building, popularly known as 
Lyman Beecher's, was bought, and 
became the parish church. In 1875 a 
lot of land on the corner of Mount- 
Vernon and Brimmer Streets was pur- 
chased; and the building of a new 
church, specially adapted for the ser- 
vices and work of the parish, was begun 
on the 2 1 st of March, 1878, with formal 



CHURCH OF THE ADVENT 



II 9 



CHURCH OF THE DISCIPLES 



ceremonies. This was in 1881 so far 
completed, that the holding of a por- 
tion of the regular services was begun 
in the autumn of that year. The new 
church is constructed of brick and 
stone, with an interior finish entirely 
of brick and freestone. According to 
the plans, the main body, 72 by 73 
feet, consists of nave 76 feet high, two 
aisles and transepts ; the chancel, 30 
by 48 feet, with polygonal end ; a 
chapel, on the south side of the chan- 
cel, 24 by 30 feet ; schoolrooms, hex- 
agonal in shape, 43 feet in diameter, 
and various other rooms ; with a 
tower, 22 feet square and 190 feet 
high ; the baptistery in the church 
under the tower ; and, attached to the 
church on the north side, the clergy- 
house, four stories high, containing 
vestry, clergy, and choir rooms, refec- 
tory, and dormitories. The architects 
are John H. Sturgis and Charles 
Brigham. In 187 1 the members of the 
" Society of the Evangelist Fathers," 
attachejd to an English missionary order 
known as the " Brotherhood of St. John 
the Evangelist," were called by a vote 
of the corporation of the Church to 
the charge of the parish first for six 
months; and up to 1882 they minis- 
tered in it with great devotion to their 
work. Father Grafton, the rector of 
the church, was himself a member 
of the Order, and worked in harmony 
with thel brothers. After the partial 
completion of the new church on 
Mount- Vernon Street, so that regular 
services could be held in it, the old 
church-bin 1 ding on Bowdoin Street was 
mainly used as the mission chapel, the 
new one retaining the parochial char- 
acter of tfye church. When the new 
church on \ Brimmer Street is entirely 
completed,! the Bowdoin-street church 
is to be elntirely separated from the 
parish, and\ Father Hall, with his as- 
sistants, is to occupy it, with no rela- 
tions to the jparish ; the Bowdoin-street 
church will then be known as the Mis- 
sion Church lof St. John the Evangelist. 
Father Graftton withdrew from the 
order in the teummer of 1882, and two 



of the fathers of the English order re- 
tired from active work in the parish. 
The members of the order have their 
headquarters in Staniford Street ; and 
they wear a peculiar garb, — black cas- 
socks fastened about the waist with a 
heavy cord and tassel, and low-crowned, 
broad-brimmed hats with plain woollen 
bands. They lead an austere life, and 
their work is largely among the poor 
and lowly. The rectors of the Church 
of the Advent, in chronological order, 
have been : Rev. William Croswell, 
D.D., who died in church while con- 
cluding a service ; Right Rev. Horatio 
Southgate, D.D. ; and Rev. James A. 
Bolles, D.D. The present rector, Rev. 
C. C. Grafton, was appointed in 1872. 
Connected with the church are several 
parochial and charitable organiza- 
tions, including a boys' choir school ; 
and the Sisterhood of St. Margaret, on 
Bowdoin Street, near the old church- 
building. The latter maintains an or- 
phanage in Lowell, and a young-ladies' 
school on Chestnut Street, near Walnut. 
The parish now comprises about 500 
communicants. The daily services in 
the church are : Holy Communion every 
morning at 7 o'clock, and on Thursdays 
also at 9.30 ; morning prayers said at 9, 
and even-song sung at 5. The Sunday 
services comprise : Holy Communion 
at 7.30 and 11.45 A - M - 5 matins 10.30; 
children's choral service 3.30 p.m., and 
even-song 7.30 p.m. There are nu- 
merous special services in Lent. It is 
one of the most interesting churches 
in the city, and as the leading " High 
Church," with its ceremonies and many 
services, attracts much attention. — 
[See Episcopal [Protestant) Church, etc.] 

Church of the Disciples (Unitari- 
an), Warren Avenue. This church was 
organized Feb. 28, 1841, "to embody 
the three principles of a free church, 
a social church, and a church in which 
the members, as well as the pastor, 
should take part." It was called the 
Church of the Disciples because its 
members came together as "learners 
in the school of Jesus Christ, with 



CHURCH OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION I 20 



CHURCH OF THE MESSIAH 



Christ for their teacher." Its creed 
has been " faith in Jesus as the Christ, 
the Son of God, and the purpose of 
co-operating together as his disciples 
in the study and practice of Christian- 
ity." The society was organized by 43 
persons; and among the first names 
signed on the church-book were those 
of Nathaniel Peabody and his three 
daughters : one of whom afterwards 
became Mrs. Horace Mann ; another, 
Mrs. Nathaniel Hawthorne ; and the 
third, Miss Elizabeth Peabody, is well 
known in Boston for her philanthropic 
and charitable work, and her interest 
in educational matters. Gov. Andrew 
was also a member of the society. The 
total number of names now on the 
church-book is 726. It was determined 
at the outset that the seats in the meet- 
ing-house should be free, — neither 
rented nor sold, — and that the entire 
expenses should be met by voluntary 
subscriptions. This policy has been 
ever since maintained. The society 
first worshipped in halls ; then it erect- 
ed the chapel in Freeman Place, named 
after Rev. Dr. Freeman, one of the 
early pastors of King's Chapel [see 
King's Chapel]. This it occupied 
until 1850, when it was sold to the 
Second Church [see Second Church], 
and public worship suspended for a 
while, mainly on account of the sick- 
ness of its pastor. Next it built and 
occupied the Indiana-place Chapel, and 
in 1869 erected the present unpreten- 
tious meeting-house on Warren Ave- 
nue. The pastor is Rev. James Free- 
man Clarke, who has been pastor from 
the beginning. The church is classed 
as Unitarian. [See Unitarianism and 
Unitarian Churches^] 

Church of the Immaculate Con- 
ception (Roman-Catholic), corner of 
Harrison Avenue and Concord Street. 
This church was built under the aus- 
pices of the Jesuit Fathers in 1861, at 
a cost of $100,000. The lot on which 
it stands, containing about 90,000 feet, 
cost but $45,000. The building is of 
granite. It is 208 feet long, and 88 feet 



wide. The height of the interior is 70 
feet. Two rows of Ionic columns, with 
richly ornamented capitals, mark the 
line of the side-aisles. On the keystone 
of the chancel-arch is a bust represent- 
ing Christ ; and on the opposite arch, 
over the choir-gallery, is one represent- 
ing the Virgin. On the capitals of the 
columns are busts of the saints of the So- 
ciety of Jesus. Over each column is an 
angel supporting the entablature. The 
altar is of marble. On its panels an 
abridgment of the life of the Virgin is 
sculptured, — the Annunciation, the Vis- 
itation of St. Elisabeth, the Nativity, the 
Adoration of the Magi, the Mater Do- 
lorosa, and the Assumption. On either 
side of the altar are three Corinthian 
columns, with appropriate entablatures 
and broken arches, surmounted by 
statues of the Immaculate Conception 
of the Virgin; the whole terminated 
by a silver cross with an adoring angel 
on each side. On the right side of the 
broken arch is a figure of St. Ignatius, 
with chasuble, stole, etc. ; and on the 
opposite side is that of St. Francis 
Xavier. Over the chancel is an ellip- 
tic dome, lighted by colored glass, with 
a dove in the centre with spread wings. 
Within the chancel-rails are two side- 
chapels, that on the Gospel side dedi- 
cated to St. Joseph, and that on the 
Epistle side to St. Aloysius. The 
ceiling over the chancel is elliptic, . 
and laid off in bands ornamented with 
mouldings. The painting behind the 
high altar is the Crucifixion, by Gari- 
aldi of Rome. The organ is one of 
the best in America, built by Hook & 
Hastings in 1863. [See Catholicism 
and Catholic Churches.] Adjoining 
the church-grounds is Boston College, 
a leading Catholic educational institu- 
tion. [See Boston College.] 

Church of the Messiah (Protestant 
Episcopal), Florence Street. This 
church was organized in September, 
1843. For about five years its place 
of meeting was a large hall on the 
corner of Washington and Common 
Streets. On the 29th of August, 



CHURCH OF THE UNITY 



121 



CITY-GOVERNMENT 



1848, the present church-building was 
consecrated. It is of brick, with free- 
stone front, in the Gothic style of 
architecture, the interior finished with 
open-work roof and stained-glass win- 
dows. Its first rector was Rev. George 
M. Randall, D.D., afterwards bishop 
of Colorado, who continued as rector 
until his elevation to the episcopate in 
1866. Rev. Pelham Williams, D.D., 
succeeded him, serving until 1876; 
when he resigned, and was in turn suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Henry Freeman Allen, 
the present rector. In 1869 the seats 
in the church were made free to all, and 
have so remained since. At the same 
time various changes were introduced 
in the service, which have since been 
observed. There are now, regularly, 
daily morning and evening prayer 
throughout the year, the celebration of 
the Holy Communion on all Sundays 
and festival days, and the musical part 
of the service is rendered by a sur- 
pliced male choir. [See Episcopal 
{Protestant) Church, etc.] 

Church of the Unity (Unitarian), 
West-Newton Street. This church 
was organized June 27, 1857, with a 
broad basis of religious doctrine, and 
the purpose of " promoting good mor- 
als and the cause of Liberal Chris- 
tianity." It has had but three pastors. 
Rev. George H. Hepworth, now of New 
York (and who has, during his resi- 
dence in that city, accepted the Con- 
gregational Trinitarian faith), was the 
first pastor. He was succeeded, after 
1 1 years' service, by Rev. M. K. Scher- 
merhorn, now of Newport, R.I., who 
served 3 years ; and he, in turn, was 
succeeded by Rev. M. J. Savage, who 
was installed September, 1874, and still 
remains. The society first worshipped 
in a hall on the corner of Shawmut Ave- 
nue and Canton Street, but soon built 
the present church-building, and with- 
out incurring a debt. It is simple and 
tasteful in architecture. It has a seat- 
ing-capacity of over 1,000, and the 
interior is inviting. The society has 
always been prosperous financially, 



and marked for its independence and 
progressive spirit. The pastor at the 
present time, Mr. Savage, is the most 
radical of the more Liberal branch of 
Unitarians, and always outspoken in 
his views. He is a man of culture, and 
is known as author of several books 
as well as a preacher. The church is 
classed as Unitarian. [See Unitaria7i- 
ism and Unitarian Churches.] 

City-Clerk. — For more than sixty 
years the city-clerk of Boston was 
Samuel F. McCleary. The first city- 
clerk, Samuel F. McCleary, sen., was 
annually re-elected until his resigna- 
tion in 1852, after a service of 30 years, 
when he was succeeded by his son, 
Samuel F. McCleary, jun., who, in 
turn, was annually re-elected until 1883. 
In the election of the latter year Mr. 
McCleary was defeated by Frederick 
E. Goodrich, the candidate of the 
Democratic party, which had a major- 
ity representation in the city govern- 
ment. The office of assistant city- 
clerk was established by ordinance in 
1869. The assistant-clerk is now John 
T. Priest. The salary of the city-clerk 
is $4,000, and he has $11,600 annually 
for assistant-clerks. Mr. Goodrich 
was formerly clerk of Mayor Prince, 
and before that a journalist, at one 
time editor of the Boston " Post " [see 
Post, The Boston Daily]. 

City-Debt. — See Debt of the City. 

City- Government. — The Act of 
the Legislature establishing the City 
of Boston was passed Feb. 23, 1822, 
adopted by the citizens March 4, fol- 
lowing, and the first city government 
was organized in May of the same 
year. The present city charter is a 
revision of the former one. It was 
passed April 29, 1854, and adopted by 
the citizens Nov. 13, the same year. 
Subsequent general and special Acts 
have materially changed it. A " codi- 
fication of the charter, and statutes 
affecting the same," prepared by order 
of the city council, can be found in 
the Municipal Register. The legisla- 



CITY-GOVERNMENT 



122 



CITY -GOVERNMENT 



tive power of the city is vested in the 
mayor, 12 aldermen chosen from the 
city at large, and 72 common council- 
men chosen by the 25 wards. The 
executive power is vested in the mayor 
and aldermen. The term of office of 
the mayor, aldermen, and counciimen 
is one year. The election occurs on 
the Tuesday after the second Monday 
in December. The aldermen meet 
weekly on Monday afternoons, and 
the common counciimen on Thursday 
evenings. The mayor receives a sala- 
ry of $5,000 a year, and has a clerk 
whose salary is $1,800. The aldermen 
and common counciimen serve with- 
out pay. There is a city-clerk [see 
City-Clerk], chosen by the city coun- 
cil in convention, annually in January; 
an assistant city-clerk, appointed by the 
city clerk, and confirmed by the alder- 
men (salary $1,800) ; a clerk of the 
common council, chosen annually by 
the common council (salary $1,800); an 
assistant-clerk of the common council, 
appointed by the clerk (salary $1,200) ; 
a clerk of committees (salary $2,750), 
chosen annually by the city council ; 
an assistant-clerk of committees (sala- 
ry $1,500) ; a city-messenger, chosen 
annually by the city council (salary 
$2,000) ; and three assistant city-mes- 
sengers (salaries $900 for the first and 
$500 for each of the others). The fol- 
lowing is a list of the several depart- 
ments, with their officers, and other ne- 
cessary information concerning them : 

Assessors' Department. — The principal 
assessors, 3 in number, are chosen by concurrent 
vote of the city council, in February or March, 
for terms of three years, from the first day of 
April in the year of their election. The chair- 
man receives $3,200 a year, and the other two 
$2,700 each. There are 33 first assistant-as- 
sessors, chosen annually by concurrent vote in 
February or March. Their salary is $7 each 
per day for street-duty, and $350 each for office- 
duty. There are also 33 second assistants, one 
for each assessment district, who are also chosen 
by the city council in February or March an- 
nually. Their salary is $5 each per day. 

Buildings, Survey and Inspection of. — 
This department has the complete control and 
supervision, among other matters, of the erecting 
of brick, stone, and iron buildings in the city, 
under statute provisions. The organization of 



the department consists of 1 inspector, appoint- 
ed by the mayor, and confirmed by the cily 
council, salary $2,800, and term of office three 
years; 7 assistant-inspectors, appointed for a 
term of two years by the inspector, subject to 
the approval of the mayor, salary $1,350 each; 
and 1 clerk, appointed for a term of two years 
by the inspector, also subject to the approval of 
the mayor, salary $1,800. 

Common and Public Grounds. — Under the 
direction of a superintendent, elected by con- 
current vote in February or March annually; 
salary, $3,000. Office, in the Deer Park, on 
the Common. 

Ferries. — Under the direction of a superin- 
tendent of ferries, chosen by the directors, them- 
selves elected by concurrent vote, 3 from the 
city council, and 4 at large. Salary of superin- 
tendent, $2,500. A clerk assists him; salary, 
$2,000. Office, East-Boston side of the North 
Ferry. 

Financial Department. — The city and 
county treasurer is chosen annually by concur- 
rent vote of the city council in Alay or June. 
His salary is $6,ooo. The collector of taxes, 
betterments, and all other sums due the city, is 
also elected by concurrent vote in May or June. 
His salary is $4,000, with $10,600 for perma- 
nent clerks, and $3,700 for extra clerk-hire. 
There are 16 deputy-collectors, who are ap- 
pointed by the collector, salary $1,600 each. 
They are also appointed constables by the mayor 
and aldermen. The auditor of city accounts is 
chosen in the same manner and time as the treas- 
urer and collector. His salary is $5,000, with 
$10,700 for clerk-hire. He is also auditor for 
the County of Suffolk, with a salary of $800. 
The mayor, the auditor, the chairman of the 
joint committee on accounts, and the chairman 
of the committee on finance on the part of the 
common council, with two persons chosen at 
large, constitute a board of commissioners on 
the sinking-funds for the payment or redemption 
of the city debt [see City Debt] . 

Fire-Department. — This consists of a 
board of 3 fire-commissioners, who have entire 
control of the department, 1 chief-engineer, 13 
assistant-engineers, a superintendent of fire- 
alarms, and officers, engine-men, telegraph- 
operators, etc., to the number of about 625 men 
in all. Of the fire-commissioners, one member 
is appointed annually in April, for a term of 
three years from the first Monday in May 
following. The nomination is made by the 
mayor, subject to confirmation by the city 
council. The salary of each is $3,000. The 
clerk of the commissioners, appointed by the 
board, receives a salary of .$1,800. The salary 
of the chief-engineer is $3,000, and the use 
of a horse and vehicle. The assistant-engineers 
receive $1,600 a year each. One of them is 
inspector and aid to the chief, and two are 
call-engineers assigned to the Brighton and 
West-Roxbury districts. The superintendent 
of the fire-alarm telegraph receives $2,300 
per year, with the use of a horse and vehicle. 
His office is in the City Hall, and he has charge 



OITY-GOVERNMENT 



123 



CITY-GOVERNMENT 



of all the public bells and clocks. There is 
1 assistant-superintendent, 3 operators, 1 assist- 
ant-operator and battery-man, 2 repairers, and 
4 assistant-repairers, all appointed by the fire- 
commissioners. The whole number of men con- 
nected with the fire-department is 600. [See 
Fire-Service.'] 

Harbor-Department. — Under the direc- 
tion of a harbor-master appointed by the mayor 
and aldermen; salary, $1,500. Office, Eastern- 
avenue Wharf. 

Health-Department. — This is under the 
direction of the board of health, appointed in the 
same manner as the boards of fire and police 
commissioners. The three members receive a 
salary of $3,000 each. There is also a city- 
physician, who is appointed by the board of 
health, with the approval of the mayor; a port- 
physician, resident at Deer Island, also appoint- 
ed by the board of health, with the mayor's 
approval ; an assistant port-physician appointed 
by the port-physician, and confirmed by the 
board of health; and a superintendent of health, 
appointed as the city and port physicians are 
appointed. The salary of the city-physician is 
$2,700, and his assistant $1,200; that of the 
port-physician, $900; the assistant port-physi- 
cian, $850; and the superintendent of health, 
$3,000. [See Health of the City.] 

Lamps. — Under the direction of a superin- 
tendent of lamps, appointed by the mayor and 
aldermen; salary, $2,800, and use of a horse 
and vehicle. 

Law-Department. — This consists of a cor- 
poration counsel chosen by concurrent vote, 
whose official term begins on the first Monday of 
July annually, and whose salary is $5,000; a 
city-solicitor, also chosen by concurrent vote, 
salary $4,000; two assistant city-solicitors, salary 
$2,500 each; two city-conveyancers, salary 
$2,500 each; and a clerk, $1,500. The assist- 
ant-solicitors, conveyancers, and clerk are ap- 
pointed by the solicitor, subject to the approval 
of the committee on ordinances. 

Market-Department. — A superintendent 
of Faneuil-hall Market, salary $2,200, appointed 
by the mayor and aldermen ; a deputy-superin- 
tendent, salary $1,300, nominated by the super- 
intendent, and approved by the mayor; weigher, 
salary $800; two inspectors of provisions at 
Faneuil-hall Market; one for other market- 
houses and at large, and one for the Bright- 
on Abattoir, salary of each $1,500. The first 
three appointed by mayor and aldermen, and 
the third by the board of health. 

Milk, Inspectorof. —Appointed, and salary 
fixed, by mayor and aldermen; salary in 1883, 
$1,350. Office, 30 Pemberton Square. 

Paving-Department. — This, under the di- 
rection of the board of aldermen as surveyors 
of highways, has charge of the paving, grading, 
watering, the repairs of the public streets, and 
the numbering of the buildings abutting thereon. 
There is a superintendent of streets, receiving 
$3,400 salary, and $4,900 for clerk-hire. Cho- 
sen by concurrence. 

Police-Department. — This consists of 3 



commissioners, appointed in the same manner 
as the fire-commissioners, with a salary of 
$3,250 per year for the chairman of the board, 
and $3,000 for each of the others; 1 clerk of the 
commissioners, at a salary of $1,500; 1 super- 
intendent of police; t deputy-superintendent, 1 
clerk to the superintendent; 1 chief inspector, 6 
inspectors; 1 inspector of carriage-licenses, 1 
inspector of wagon-licenses, 1 of intelligence- 
offices, and 1 of pawn-brokers; 1 property-clerk; 

1 captain, 2 lieutenants, and 3 sergeants, for each 
of the 15 police-divisions; 1 captain and harbor- 
master, 1 engineer, and 3 sergeants of harbor- 
police, constituting the 16th division; 2 lieuten- 
ants and 3 sergeants at City Hall ; 1 sergeant of 
the street-railway police ; 1 keeper of the lockup, 

2 assistants, 1 matron, and messenger of the city- 
prison, in the basement of the Court-House; 1 
probate-officer; constables for special duty; and 
patrolmen. The whole number connected with 
the police-department is 748. The superintend- 
ent receives a salary of $3,000; deputy, $2,300; 
captains, $4 per day; chief-inspector, $4 per 
day; inspectors and lieutenants, $3.50 a day; 
sergeants, $3.25 per day; patrolmen, first year's 
service $2.50 a day, second year's service 
$2.75, and third and successive year's service 
$3 a day. The salary of the clerk of commis- 
sioners is $1,500, and clerk of superintendent 
$1,500. The probation-officer, whose office is 
at City Hall, also receives a salary of $1,500. 
[See Police-Service.] 

Printing, City. — Under the direction of a 
superintendent of printing. Appointed by the 
mayor, with approval, by ballot, of the city 
council; salary, 2,000. 

Public-Buildings Department. — In charge 
of a superintendent of public buildings, chosen 
by concurrent vote; salary $3,200, and $4,650 
for three assistants; a clerk, salary $1,800; 
city-architect, salary $2,800, and $3,200 for 
draughtsmen; and a superintendent of Faneuil 
Hall, appointed by the mayor and aldermen, 
salary $500. 

Registrar, City. — Chosen by concurrent 
vote; salary $2,500, with $4,100 allowed for 
clerk-hire. The city-registrar keeps the records 
of births, deaths, and marriages, and grants cer- 
tificates of all intentions of marriage. 

Sewers. — Under the direction of a superin- 
tendent of common sewers, chosen by concur- 
rent vote; salary, $3,000. [See Sewerage- 
System.] 

Streets. — This department has charge of the 
laying-out and widening of streets and high- 
ways, and, under the direction of the board of 
aldermen, of the assessment and payment of 
damages therefor. There are three street-com- 
missioners, whose terms are three years each, 
one chosen by the people at each annual munici- 
pal election; salary, $2,000 each. There is a 
clerk, salary $1,800, appointed by the com- 
missioners; and a city-surveyor, salary $3,000, 
chosen by concurrent vote. 

Voters, Registrars of. — A board of 3 
members, serving for three years each, one ap- 
pointed each year by the mayor and aldermen 



CITY HALL 



124 



CITY HALL 



in February or March; salary, $2,500 each. 
Office, 30 Pemberton Square. 

Water-Department. — This is under the 
direction of the water-board, consisting of three 
members, one member being appointed annually 
by the mayor in April, who must be confirmed 
by the city council by ballot, to serve for three 
years from the first Monday of the May follow- 
ing. The salary is $3,000 a year each. The 
clerk of the board receives $800. There is a 
city-engineer who receives a salary of $4,500, 
and a chief-assistant, salary $3,000. The city- 
engineer is chosen by concurrent vote, and the 
chief-assistant is chosen by the city-engineer. 
There is a superintendent of the Eastern divis- 
ion of the Cochituate water-works, with a salary 
of $3,000; and a superintendent of the Western 
division, salary of $2,700. The office of the 
former is at No. 221 Federal Street, in the city 
proper, and of the other at Chestnut-hill Reser- 
voir. Both are appointed by the board. There 
is a water-registrar, salary $2,800, who is chosen 
by concurrent vote. His office is at City Hall. 
Of the Mystic water-works there is a superin- 
tendent with salary of $1,800; a water-registrar 
and clerk, salary $2,250; and an engineer, 
salary $1,200. [See Water -Works. ~\ 

Weights and Measures. — Under the direc- 
tion of 1 sealer, with 4 deputies, each appointed 
by the mayor and aldermen. Salary of sealer, 
$1,800; of the deputies, $1,000 each. Office, 
basement of Court House, Court Square. 

City Officers paid by Fees. — Inspector 
of lime, fence-viewers, cutter of hoops and 
staves, field-drivers, and pound-keepers, weigh- 
ers and inspectors of lighters and other vessels, 
each annually appointed by the city council ; 
and surveyors of marble, freestone, and soap- 
stone, inspectors of petroleum and coal-oils, 
superintendents of hay-scales, measurers of up- 
per leather, measurers of wood and bark, meas- 
urers of grain, inspector of vinegar, inspectors 
and weighers of bundle hay, and public weighers, 
each appointed annually by the mayor and alder- 
men. 

Other city officers are the directors 
for public institutions [see Public In- 
stitutions], trustees of the Public Libra- 
ry [see Public Library], trustees of 
the City Hospital [see City Hospital], 
boards of commissioners and trustees 
of the several cemeteries [see Ceme- 
teries], overseers of the poor [see 
Overseers of the Poor], and superintend- 
ents of bridges [see Bridges]. [See 
also City Hall.] 

City Hall, School Street. This is a 
modern structure, built in 1862-65, and 
on what was thought to be a large scale, 
sufficient for the needs of the city for 
many years ; but it was some time ago 



overcrowded, and at the present time 
quite a number of the departments are 
located in other buildings in the im- 
mediate neighborhood. The first city- 
government was organized in Faneuil 
Hall (May 1, 1822) ; and the first City 
Hall was the present Old State House, 
at the head of State Street. In 1840- 
41 the Old Court House, standing 
where the City Hall now stands, was 
fitted up and established as the City 
Hall ; and this was occupied until the 
building of the present structure was 
determined upon, and the old building- 
was removed to make way for the new. 
During the building of the new struc- 
ture, the Mechanics Building, at the cor- 
ner of Bedford and Chauncy Streets, 
was utilized for city purposes ; and 
here the city council held its meet- 
ings. At one time, when the plan for 
laying out the Public Garden was made, 
the proposition to establish the city 
buildings within its borders found con- 
siderable favor. According to this 
plan, the City Hall was to front on 
Arlington Street. The corner-stone 
of the present City Hall was laid on 
Dec. 22, 1862; and the building Was 
completed and dedicated on Sept. 18, 
1865, the day following the anniversary 
of the settlement of Boston, the 17th 
that year falling on Sunday. It has a 
highly ornamented front of white Con- 
cord granite. The face of the west side 
is of the same material ; and those of 
the Court-square and City-hall-avenue 
facades are of stone from the old City 
Hall, or, at least, the remodelled Old 
Court House. The style of architec- 
ture is the Italian Renaissance, as 
modified and elaborated by modern 
French architects. The edifice is most 
thoroughly built throughout. The 
basement, and the first, second, and 
third stories, are fireproof; the floors 
of the fourth, fifth, and attic stories 
are of burnetized timber ; and the roof, 
of wood, is covered with copper- and 
slate. The interior finish is principally 
butternut and pine. The main entrance 
is broad and spacious. It opens into a 
large hall, which is paved with squares 



CITY HALL 



125 



CITY HOSPITAL 



of black and white marble. On either 
side are the offices of the city-treasu- 
rer, city-collector, auditor of accounts, 
water-registrar, superintendent of po- 
lice, and the assessors. From this hall 
the fine broad staircases, or the ele- 
vator, ascend to the floors above. On 
the second story are the .private and 
public offices of the mayor, the hall of 
meeting of the board of aldermen, and 
the offices of the city-clerk, city-mes- 
senger, the clerk of committees, the 
superintendent of public buildings, the 
superintendent of public lands, the city- 
registrar, and a large committee-room. 
On the third story are the offices of the 
superintendent of streets, the superin- 
tendent of sewers, the board of fire- 
commissioners, the chief-engineer of 
the fire-department, the superintendent 
of printing, the board of street-com- 
missioners, and the city-surveyor. On 
the fourth story is the common-council 
chamber, a room 44 by 44 feet, and 27 
feet high, with galleries on three sides, 
and seats for 250 persons. On the 
same floor are the offices of the clerk 
of the council, the city-engineer, and 
the water-board. On the fifth story 
is the city-architect's department, and 
several store-rooms and watchmen's 
rooms. The attic, under the dome, 
contains the operating-room of the 
magnetic fire-alarm telegraph, whence 
alarms are sent out over the wires com- 
municating with all the public bells 
and engine-houses. [See Fire-Service?^ 
Near by are sleeping-rooms and a li- 
brary for the operators. Above, in the 
dome itself, is the battery-room, 13 by 
41 feet in dimensions. The dome is 
surmounted by a balcony, from which 
rises a flagstaff 200 feet. Four lions' 
heads look out from the corners of the 
balcony, and a gilded eagle surmounts 
the centre of its front. The lawn in 
front of the City Hall is well kept, and 
is adorned on the one side with the 
Franklin statue, and on the other with 
the Quincy statue. [See Franklin Statue 
and Quincy Statue.] When the build- 
ing of the new City Hall was agreed 
upon, the sum appropriated, according 



to the estimates of the cost, was $160,- 
000. Its actual cost, including the fur- 
niture, was over $500,000. Set in the 
wall of the first landing of the stair- 
way inside the building, just above 
the entrance-hall, is a tablet of Siena 
and white marble, giving the date of 
the laying of the corner-stone, and 
what would have been that of the dedi- 
cation, the 17th of September (1865), 
had not that day fallen on Sunday, as 
stated above. Gridley J. F. Bryant 
and Arthur Oilman were the architects. 
[See City-Government '.] 

City Hospital (The Boston). — 
On Harrison Avenue, Concord, Al- 
bany, and Springfield Streets. Estab- 
lished in 1864. This is one of the 
most complete and perfect institutions 
of the kind in the country. Its estab- 
lishment was preceded by many years 
of agitation, beginning in 1849, before 
the cholera, then epidemic in the city, 
had entirely disappeared. In 1858 the 
necessary authority was granted by the 
Legislature ; but the work of building 
was not begun until 1861, and not en- 
tirely completed when the institution 
was dedicated, May 24, 1864. When 
first occupied, the hospital consisted 
of a central or administration building, 
two three-story medical and surgical 
pavilions, and the necessary auxiliary 
buildings, including boiler-house and 
laundry. To these were added, in 
1865, a two-story building for isolating 
wards ; a small building at the main 
entrance to the grounds, containing 
rooms for out-patients ; and an addition 
for dead-house, morgue, and autopsy- 
room. In 1874 a medical building, a 
surgical building (each three stories 
high with basements), two one-story 
surgical and medical pavilions, and a 
low building for kitchen, bakery, and 
other purposes, were erected. The 
buildings and grounds occupy a square 
containing nearly seven acres, and 
present an attractive and unique ap- 
pearance. The total cost of the build- 
ings alone was $610,000. The hospital 
has now 375 beds, but its full capacity 



CITY HOSPITAL 



126 



CITY MISSIONARY SOCIETY 



is intended to be at least 525. The 
institution is chiefly intended for the 
use and comfort of poor patients, who 
are treated gratuitously. It is also for 
the accommodation of those who wish 
medical, and especially surgical treat- 
ment, who do not wish to be regarded 
as dependents on public charity. Per- 
sons accidentally injured are received 
at all hours ; and the ambulances are 
ready for service, day and night, on 
call. Out-patients are treated by phy- 
sicians and surgeons connected with 
the hospital. Once a week operations 
are performed in the amphitheatre of 
the hospital, before physicians and sur- 
geons. A training-school for nurses is 
also connected with the hospital [see 
Training-Schools for Nurses]. On 
every day in the week, except Wednes- 
days and Sundays, friends are permit- 
ted to visit patients between the 
hours of 1 and 3 p.m. The hospital 
is under the direction of the board of 
trustees. This board is incorporated 
(Acts of 1880), and is authorized to 
receive and hold personal estate be- 
queathed or devised to the corporation 
to an amount not exceeding $ 1,000,000. 
The trustees are seven in number, and 
consist of one member of the board 
of aldermen and one of the common 
council, elected annually in January 
by the city council ; and five persons 
at large, one of whom is annually ap- 
pointed in April by the mayor, and 
confirmed by the city council, for the 
term of five years. The hospital is in 
charge of a superintendent, chosen by 
the trustees. His salary is $2,200, and 
board at the hospital. The superin- 
tendent (1883) is George H. M. Rowe, 
M.D. There are a large force of 
consulting physicians and surgeons, 
several visiting physicians and sur- 
geons, and a number for treatment of 
special diseases. During 1882 about 
5,000 persons were treated in the hos- 
pital, and over 10,000 out-patients. 
The chief individual benefactor of the 
hospital was the late Elisha Goodnow, 
a benevolent citizen, who in 1849 be- 
queathed to the city property valued 



at about $21,000, to be applied for the 
benefit of the hospital then contem- 
plated. One condition of the bequest 
was, that one-half of the fund should 
be applied for the establishment and 
perpetual maintenance of free beds in 
the institution. 

City Missionary Society (The). 
— The oldest organization in the city 
for the moral and religious instruction 
of the poor. It began its work in 18 16, 
according to the method still pursued. 
It supports Sunday-schools, distrib- 
utes tracts, and employs missionaries. 
Temporary relief is also given the 
poor by its missionaries, but from pri- 
vate donations ; the society making no 
appropriation for this purpose. It 
conducts missionary work at the Old- 
Colony Chapel, on Tyler Street ; the 
Shawmut Chapel, No. 642 Harrison 
Avenue ; the Mount- Vernon Church 
vestry, on Ashburton Place ; the Mar- 
cella-street Home for boys ; the Austin 
Farm, in the West-Roxbury district 
[see Public Institutions] ; and in other 
chapels in South Boston, the Charles- 
town district, and elsewhere. At the 
Mount- Vernon Chapel a mission for 
the Chinese in the city [see Chinese in 
Boston] has been maintained for some 
years with very encouraging results. 
The Chinese have in various ways ex- 
pressed their gratitude for the kind- 
nesses shown them. Several have 
been converted from paganism to 
Christianity, and have contributed to 
the funds of the society. In seeking 
the physical welfare of the poor, the 
missionaries of the society procure em- 
ployment for them, and provide homes 
for orphan and destitute children, as 
well as extend temporary aid. There 
are about 23 male and female mission- 
aries employed, who visit an average 
of 12,000 families annually. Through 
these missionaries, contributions of 
over $11,000 were received in 1882. 
The total receipts for ten years have 
been $246,212. The annual expendi- 
tures of the society amount to about 
$28,000. It is supported by Congrega- 



CITY SEAL 



127 



CLEARING-HOUSE 



tionalists, but is unsectarian in its oper- 
ations. Its headquarters are in the 
Congregational House, corner of Bea- 
con and Somerset Streets [see Congre- 
gational House]. James A. White is 
president of the society, and Rev. A. 
H. Plumb secretary. 

City Seal. — This was adopted 
during the winter following the organ- 
ization of Boston as a city. The 
ordinance was adopted Jan. 2, 1823, 
and provides as follows : " That the 
design hereto annexed as sketched by 
John R. Penniman, giving a view of 
the city, be the device t>f the City Seal ; 
that the motto as follows, to wit : 
' Sicut patribus sit Deus nobis ; ' and 
that the inscription be as follows, to 
wit : ' Bostonia condita A. D. 1630. 
Civitatis regimine donata A.D. 1822.' " 
The motto is taken from the following 
verse of the Scriptures : " Sit Deus 
nobiscum, sicut fuit cum patribus nos- 
tris " (III Regum, viii. 57). The view 
of the city given in the seal is as it ap- 
peared, at the time, from South-Boston 
Point. 

Civil - Service - Reform Associa- 
tion (The). — Organized in 1880 to 
advance the cause of reform in the 
national civil service. Its platform is 
best expressed in the following article 
of its constitution : " The members, 
while recognizing that certain officers 
of the government should be in sym- 
pathy with the policy of the admin- 
istration, believe that the routine 
business should be conducted on busi- 
ness principles; that officers should 
be appointed on account of fitness for 
the work to be done, and should be 
continued in office as long as they do 
that work well; that their offices 
should not be used for partisan pur- 
poses ; that representatives are chosen 
to legislate, and their time should not 
be given to the distribution of patron- 
age ; that the adoption of a well- 
devised system carrying out these 
principles will insure better adminis- 
tration and better legislation." The 
association is non-partisan. It has a 



large membership, which is steadily 
increasing. The rooms of the asso- 
ciation are at No. 8 Pemberton Square. 
The leading officers are : Moorfield 
Storey, president ; Arthur Hobart, 
secretary ; Bancroft C. Davis, assistant 
secretary ; and William Simes, treas- 
urer. There are also eight vice-presi- 
dents, and an executive committee of 
ten. The association, together with 
the Cambridge Civil-Service-Reform 
Association, publishes a monthly news- 
paper devoted to its aims, — the " Civil- 
Service Record." 

Clearing-House. — The Clearing- 
house is situated on the third floor of 
the New-England National Bank Build- 
ing, No. 65 State Street ; and here the 
" messengers " and " settling-clerks " of 
the several banks in the association 
meet at 10 o'clock every morning on 
business days, and without danger or 
loss, and at the least expense of time, 
transact the business of the settlement 
of drafts and checks between the sev- 
eral institutions ; which, before the 
establishment of this institution, was 
done through messengers sent from 
one bank to another, occupying much 
time, and incurring many risks. The 
"losing banks," as those are called 
which bring in a smaller amount of 
checks on other banks than other 
banks bring in on them, are required 
to pay the balances due by them before 
1 2. 1 5 o'clock ; and the " gaining banks " 
come in after that time for the bal- 
ances due them. There are also 23 
banks located in cities and towns in 
the vicinity of Boston, which make 
clearances through members of the 
association. The great work which is 
accomplished by the Clearing-house in 
a short time can be comprehended 
when it is understood that about $12,- 
000,000 change hands here every day. 
The association which conducts the 
Clearing-house was organized in 1856, 
and is the second oldest organization 
of its kind in the country. The presi- 
dent is James H. Beal, and the man- 
ager N. G. Snelling. [See Banks^ 



CLUB-LIFE IN BOSTON 



CLUB-LIFE IN BOSTON 



Club-Life in Boston. — Although 
there is a general resemblance in the 
club-life of large cities, yet there are 
always differences enough to give in- 
dividuality to their types. The clubs 
of Boston differ, for instance, from 
those of New York, in much the same 
way as those of London differ from 
those of Paris ; for the " Hub " is 
the most English of American cities, 
as " Gotham " strives to be the most 
Frenchy. There is a reserve in the 
social life of the New-England metrop- 
olis, which is reflected in its clubs. 
This is noticeable even in the gayest 
and most buckish of these establish- 
ments. The habitue of the " Somer- 
set," that reservoir of Boston blue 
blood, can be readily distinguished 
from the swell whose headquarters are 
the fashionable "Union" in New York. 
The former has a more composed, 
self-conscious air than the latter, as if 
the solemn traditions of Puritan deco- 
rum weighed upon even the jauntiest 
devotee of fashion. A cynic might 
ascribe this manner to the painful 
sense of inconsistency between inher- 
ited obligations and acquired tastes ; 
while the genial philosopher would 
set it down to the conflict between 
culture and climate. The New-York 
club-man, who is jaunty by nature, and 
not burdened by intellectual aspira- 
tions, can have no conception of the 
sense of responsibility which afflicts 
his Boston brother. A suggestive 
indication of this is shown in the 
general customs in clubs here, — with 
the single exception of the " Somer- 
set," — of members keeping their hats 
off. The brains of club-men in the 
Puritan city are too active to permit of 
a thought-stopper in the shape of a 
tile, whereas in " Gotham " this is a 
necessity to prevent such ideas as club- 
men there have from escaping up- 
wards. Whether from constitutional 
or aesthetic causes, the Boston club- 
man is dignified even in his indeco- 
rums. If he indulges too freely in 
poker for the benefit of his pocket, he 
does not give vent to slangy abuse of 



his luck, but comforts himself with 
some Horatian reflection about the 
certainty of a change in fortune. If 
he happens to partake too generously 
of wine, he does not careen over or run 
desperately aground on some fragile 
piece of furniture. He avoids the sus- 
ceptible cuspidor and the yielding 
chandelier, and plants himself finally 
in a receptive arm-chair, or upon a 
genial sofa, and waits till meditation 
and the economy of his digestive organs 
restore his mental equilibrium. Of 
course excess either at cards or wine is 
the exception in. Boston clubs, and may 
be regarded as a proof of the general 
moderation of their members. 'It is 
the social and convivial safety-valve, 
which lets off the superfluous steam 
in season to prevent an explosion. 
Perhaps any undue indulgence in stim- 
ulants ma}', in the club-life of the 
" Hub," be only an effort of nature to 
keep up a healthy average of thought 
and feeling. The books, magazines, 
and newspapers which fortify the minds 
of the members of the club in the Ath- 
ens of America, and the weighty con- 
versation in which they indulge, impera- 
tively demand some soothing agencies ; 
and the occasional brandy and soda is 
therefore held to be a positive sanitary 
infmence. 

In a general way it may be said that 
the " Somerset " is the " swell " Boston 
club, drawing in the young bloods and 
the more mature votaries of fashion. 
The club-house is a model of stately 
yet simple elegance ; and its situation 
on Beacon Street, opposite the Com- 
mon, is pronounced to be simply en- 
chanting. The " Union " represents 
rather more solid qualities : it com- 
prises the leading lawyers, judges, doc- 
tors, and merchants ; and its excellent 
table d'hote makes its membership 
sought by bachelors of gregarious 
tastes and modest incomes. The " St. 
Botolph " is the literary and artistic 
club of Boston ; but though frequented 
principally on Saturday evenings, and* 
especially at its monthly receptions, it 
is growing to be more and more the 



CLUB-LIFE IN BOSTON 



129 



CLUB-LIFE IN BOSTON 



intellectual and social centre of the 
bright minds of the city. Its presi- 
dent is the historian Parkman. There 
was a time when the " Temple " filled 
a unique place in the " Hub," when the 
cream of old-school dignity was to be 
seen within its walls ; but, though still 
a popular resort for rising profes- 
sional and business men, it has lost 
something of its social exclusiveness. 
A club of more recent date is the 
" Central," which began its career in a 
fine house at the South End, but has 
since felt the need of having its quar- 
ters nearer to the club-life of the city 
in general. This club represents the 
middle class, business and profes- 
sional interests, and -has a substantial 
membership. There is probably less 
of conventionalism in the " Suffolk " 
than in any other of the Boston clubs : 
to be a jolly good fellow constitutes 
the sole qualification for admission, 
and the mingling of old and young 
school convives in the rooms sets at 
nought a good many theories of nat- 
ural selection. Of clubs with special 
characteristics, the Art-Club is the most 
notable for size ; and its new house in 
the Back-bay district is a model of 
taste and elegance. The somewhat 
heterogeneous character of the mem- 
bership of this club, arising from its 
low terms of admission and assess- 
ment, accounts not merely for its nu- 
merical rank, but for the difficulties 
which artists have had in controlling 
its management; but there would seem 
to be no good reason for permanent 
disagreement between its artistic and 
other elements. Another rapidly de- 
veloping art -club, which is already 
occupying a place in the front rank, is 
the Paint-and-Clay Club of artists and 
professional men. Among clubs which 
have worked their way up from modest 
apartments to a house of their own, 
the Boston Whist-Club deserves honor- 
able mention. Its success is based 
not merely upon the social attractions 
of its distinctive game, but upon the 
congeniality and good-fellowship of its 
members. Though women in Boston 



have clubs, they are rather reforma- 
tory or educational than social ; and 
the Woman's Club for the. mature 
sirens, and the Saturday -morning 
Club for their younger sisters, are 
not of that convivial character which 
stamps their masculine rivals. The 
city has a number of clubs which meet 
at stated times at members' houses for 
social and intellectual intercourse. Of 
these the Wednesday-evening Century 
Club, of which the Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop is president, is the oldest. 
The Thursday Club, formerly pre- 
sided over by Edward Everett, is of 
similar character ; while the Satur- 
day, or Literary Club, which has a 
dinner once a month at Parker's, was 
at one time a royal assemblage of 
poets, wits, and scholars. But the 
deaths of Hawthorne, Agassiz, Pierce, 
and Longfellow have somewhat 
dimmed its intellectual brilliancy ; 
though it still boasts Lowell, Holmes, 
Howells, Aldrich, and Parkman among 
its members. The most widely known 
of the literary dining clubs is the 
Papyrus, which, while representing 
principally the younger elements in 
journalism and authorship, draws to 
itself what is most stimulating and 
genial in the social circles of the me- 
tropolis. It has done excellent work 
in bringing together intellectual labor- 
ers from all parts of the country ; and 
its monthly dinners are enlivened by 
brilliant diversions in song, poetry, 
and informal speeches. Other politi- 
cal, professional, and business din- 
ing-clubs — the Massachusetts, Mid- 
dlesex, Bird, Boston (formerly the 
Banks), Essex, Wilson- Andrew, Com- 
mercial, Merchants', Beacon, and the 
Farmers' Clubs — do their part in 
keeping up a healthy social life in the 
various interests which they severally 
represent. The several musical clubs 
are also conspicuous features of the 
social and artistic life of the city. On 
the whole, club-life in Boston is so far 
typical of the best characteristics of 
the city, that it may be regarded as of 
positive and permanent value in as- 



COFFEE-HOUSES 



I3O 



COLLEGE-BRED WOMEN 



similating and strengthening the vari- 
ous elements which tend to broaden 
and freshen its influence for good. 
[See sketches in detail of each of the 
clubs of Boston, in their proper places 
in this Dictionary; also, Music in 
Boston^ 

Coff ee-Houses. — The " Casino," in 
the Weils Memorial Building, No. 987 
Washington Street [see Wells Memo- 
rial Building], and the " Alhambra," 
Green Street, near Bowdoin Square, 
West End, are coffee-houses fashioned 
after the English coffee-houses, de- 
signed to furnish food, comfort, and 
entertainment to the hungry, the 
thirsty, and the lonesome, and in an 
indirect way to promote temperance. 
The " Casino " was first established ; 
and it proved such a success, that the 
" Alhambra " soon followed ; and it is 
proposed to establish other similar 
houses in other sections of the city, 
the " Casino " to be known as the 
central one. These houses are pro- 
vided with bars similar to those found 
in all saloons, but at which coffee is 
dispensed instead of wines and liq- 
uors ; apartments for coffee-drinkers 
and lunchers who desire to sit at 
tables and are accompanied by wo- 
men, or for women without escort; pool 
and billiard rooms ; rooms for card, 
chess, and checker players ; reading- 
rooms liberally supplied with daily, 
weekly, and illustrated papers ; smok- 
ing-rooms ; and pleasant apartments 
exclusively for women and their 
friends, provided with pianos instead 
of billiard-tables as in the men's quar- 
ters. The rooms are light, airy, and 
cheerful in their decorations and fur- 
nishings. Entertainments of a popu- 
lar order are frequently given, and 
every thing is done to make these 
houses inviting. They are open daily, 
Sundays excepted, from 5 a.m. to mid- 
night. Crowds patronize these houses, 
especially after dark. Many visit them 
out of curiosity; many others, doubt- 
less, for the comforts they find in 
them. By 7 o'clock in the evening, 



the tide of custom fairly sets in ; and 
the crowds steadily increase until 10 
o'clock, thinning out as the hour for 
closing approaches. The company is 
a mixed one of drinkers, eaters, 
smokers, and billiard-players ; but the 
extremes of bar-room society are sel- 
dom represented. Not hilarity, but 
decorum, seems to be the all-prevail- 
ing mood. The sales of coffee are 
something prodigious ; two-cent, four- 
cent, and six -cent libations being 
constantly poured out in the name of 
reform. This sometimes strikes the 
worldly observer as all the more re- 
markable, considering the character 
of the accompanying " solids " offered 
for lunch. Crackers of different sorts 
and varieties, cakes, "flute-sticks," and 
the humble sandwich, take the place 
of the soused pigs' feet or crisp lady- 
finger sausages, or generous Bologna, 
or fried smelt, or rotund cut ham dis- 
playing its roseate centre and margin 
of white, or red herring, or salted fish, 
which are tempting features of the 
" gilded liquor-palaces " to allure and 
provoke the thirst of their patrons. 
The coffee-palace movement is a busi- 
ness enterprise, as well as a philan- 
thopic and reformatory one. The 
business is -conducted on ordinary 
business principles, and the enterprise 
is in the hands of a corporation. 
Leading citizens, and clergymen of 
different denominations, are among 
the shareholders, at $100 a share. 
Alpheus Hardy is president, and Erv- 
ing Winslow secretary, of the corpora- 
tion. At the formal opening of the 
pioneer house in the winter of 1882, 
which was first established at Nos. 
851, 853, and 855 Washington Street, 
Gov. Long, who was present with a 
large company of prominent people, 
took the first drink of coffee, chris- 
tening the house "The Casino," the 
name it has since borne. 

Castle (The). — See Fort Indepen- 
dence. 

College-bred Women. — Quite a 
prominent feature of the modern Bos- 



COLLEGIATE ALUMNAE 



I3 1 



COLUMBUS-AVENUE UNIVERSALIST 



ton society is the largely increasing 
number of college-bred women. So 
many do they count, that they have 
already formed a society [see Soci- 
ety of College Alu?nnce\ which is effi- 
ciently officered and has a large mem- 
bership. Nor are these women a 
distinctive class by themselves. They 
look neither alarmingly profound nor 
aggressively learned. The taking of 
degrees does not seem to have lessened 
their womanliness, nor do they appear 
to be lacking in the essentially femi- 
nine traits. They dress well and with 
due respect for the prevailing fashion 
or freak ; and we are assured that they 
can distinguish real lace from imita- 
tion, and have a knowledge and ap- 
preciation of gems. In individual 
cases they have been known to knead 
bread, cook a dinner, sew up a rent in 
a garment, darn stockings, play lawn- 
tennis, and even dance the racquet. 
These college-bred girls do not in- 
clude alone those who have graduated 
from the monastic institutions, such as 
Vassar, Wellesley, and Smith, but 
those who have received their training 
in co-educational colleges, where the 
young men and the young women 
have the same tasks, are expected to 
do the same work under the same con- 
ditions, and receive rewards according 
to their deserts, without favor to either 
side on account of sex. Some of 
them, not satisfied with the degree of 
A.B., have gone farther, and taken.the 
A.M., making themselves "masters" 
of arts (as though all women were not 
mistresses of art by nature, without 
the intervention of college faculties) ; 
and two, more venturesome than the 
rest, have tried for the Ph.D., and 
won it triumphantly. Among these 
college graduates who hold profes- 
sional positions in Boston or its neigh- 
borhood, are Mrs. Lucy Stone ; Ellen 
A. Sherman, physician at the New- 
England Hospital for Women and 
Children; Alice E. Freeman, presi- 
dent of Wellesley College, — and, of 
the professors and teachers in the same 
institution, A. E. F. Morgan, professor 



of mental and moral philosophy; Ellen 
A. Hayes, professor of mathematics ; 
Katherine E. Coman, teacher of his- 
tory; Eva Chandler, teacher of mathe- 
matics ; Angie C. Chapin, teacher of 
Greek; Lucy C. Andrews, teacher of 
ethics; Anna B. Gelston, teacher of 
mathematics ; and Sara A. Emerson, 
teacher of Latin, — and Mary H. Ladd, 
teacher of the classics in Chauncy-hall 
School. 

Collegiate Alumnae. — See Asso- 
ciation of Collegiate Alumnae. 

Columbus-avenue Universalist 
Church, Columbus Avenue, corner 
of Clarendon Street. This is the house 
of worship of the " Second Society of 
Universalists in the town of Boston ; " 
long known as the " School-street 
Church," from the fact that its first 
church stood there for many years, on 
the site of the School-street Block. 
The new church building was erected 
in 1872. It is of Roxbury stone, with 
an imposing stone tower and stee- 
ple at the side, at the base of which 
is the carriage-porch. The interior is 
light and cheerful in appearance. It 
has painted windows representing the 
Man of Sorrows, the Risen Lord, 
and the Twelve Apostles ; symbols of 
Faith, Hope, Charity, and Purity ; and 
memorials of the first pastor of the 
church, Rev. Hosea Ballou, its Sunday- 
school superintendent for thirty years, 
Thomas A. Goddard, and eight de- 
ceased deacons. Its cost was Si 60,000. 
This church was formed the third Sun- 
day in December, 1817. Its first meet- 
ing-house was a plain brick building, 
without a steeple. With the corner- 
stone a silver plate was deposited 
bearing this inscription: "The Sec- 
ond Universal Church, devoted to the 
service of the true God, Jesus Christ 
being the chief corner-stone, May 19, 
1817." Rev. Hosea Ballou, one of the 
fathers of the Universalist Church, and 
lovingly and reverently called, during 
his later years, "Father Ballou," re- 
mained pastor of the church until his 
death in 1852, at the age of 82 years. 



COMMERCE OF BOSTON 



132 



COMMERCE OF BOSTON 



He was a man of great insight, marked 
originality, and singular simplicity in 
his reasonings and teachings. In May, 
1846, the late Rev. Dr. Edwin H. Cha- 
pin became his colleague. Two years 
after, Dr. Chapin removing to New 
York, Rev. Dr. Alonzo A. Miner 
became Mr. Ballou's colleague ; and 
on the death of the senior pastor he 
succeeded him, and has since served, 
the greater portion of the time as sole 
pastor, having had but two colleagues, 
— each serving but short terms, — 
Rev. Rowland Connor, and Rev. H. 
I. Cushman, the latter at present pas- 
tor of the leading Universalist church 
in Providence, R.I. Dr. Miner is now 
one of the senior pastors of the city. 
He has been prominent throughout 
the thirty and more years of his min- 
istry as an earnest pleader for tem- 
perance-reform and the prohibition of 
the sale of liquor, serving at one time 
as a candidate for governor of the 
State, of the Prohibitory party; he 
was president of Tufts College from 
1862 to 1875, preaching regularly dur- 
ing that period to his parish at each 
Sunday-morning service during the 
season, and to the college audiences 
in the afternoon ; and he has been for 
thirteen years a member of the State 
board of education. His parish has 
enjoyed great prosperity, and has held 
throughout its history a conspicuous 
place in the body of Universalist 
churches. [See Universalism and 
Universalist Churches.] 

Commerce of Boston. — The com- 
merce of Boston began with the settle- 
ment of the town, and has continued 
to be one of its leading and most im- 
portant interests. Its situation at the 
head of a splendid bay, with a capacious 
and secure harbor unobstructed at all 
seasons of the year, and a channel 
deep enough to float the largest ves- 
sels, gave it an advantage which the 
earliest settlers were quick to appre- 
ciate ; and it speedily assumed a com- 
mercial lead. Shipbuilding began be- 
fore the town was a year old, and trade 



was soon after begun with Virginia. 
The first ship built was launched on 
the Mystic, — a bark of 30 tons, which 
Gov. Winthrop named the " Blessing 
of the Bay." The second ship built 
was the " Rebecca," of 60 tons ; and 
her first voyage was to Narragansett 
Bay, to buy corn from the Indians. 
Subsequently she went to the Bermu- 
das, bringing back potatoes, oranges, 
and limes. In 1641 trade was begun 
by Boston merchants with the Isle of 
Sable, the return cargoes consisting of 
walrus teeth and oil. During the next 
year considerable commerce with Eng- 
land sprang up, ten ships sailing from 
Boston laden with pipe-staves and oth- 
er produce : a vessel arrived from 
Madeira, bringing wine and sugar. In 
1643 a tra de with Fayal began, the 
pioneer ship being the " Trial " of 
Boston. Her cargo consisted of pipe- 
staves and codfish, for which a good 
market was found. The ship returned 
with wine, sugar, and cotton. During 
the following year the people began to 
manufacture their own goods. Cotton 
brought from Barbadoes, and hemp 
and flax, were the raw material of 
these early manufactures. The coast- 
wise trade was also extended ; vessels 
going to the Delaware to buy furs, and 
to New York to trade with the Dutch. 
A Spanish voyage of the ship " Trial " 
proved very successful, and greatly en- 
couraged the Boston merchants of that 
earby day. In 1645 eleven ships ar- 
rived from England, bringing linen, 
woollen, shoes and stockings, and oth- 
er useful goods ; and taking back for 
their return-cargoes wheat, rye, and 
pease. So early began the shipping of 
grain to the mother-country. The 
same year an attempt was made to 
bring slaves from Africa, but only two 
arrived at Boston. One of these ne- 
groes being sold here, the owner was 
compelled to deliver him up, " that he 
might be returned to his native coun- 
try." Shipbuilding thrived apace. 
The ship " Seafort," — so named out 
of compliment to her strength, — of 
400 tons, was built here ; and so ele- 



COMMERCE OF BOSTON 



*33 



COMMERCE OF BOSTON 



gant was her ornamentation of carven 
wood, that she was for years pointed 
out as an instance of the splendid 
work done in Boston shipyards. In 
1660 began the attempts of England to 
restrict the commerce of the colonies ; 
exportation^ to America were forbid- 
den except in English vessels navigat- 
ed by Englishmen ; and the colonists 
were required to send their products 
only to England, duties to be imposed 
on the productions of one ' another 
equal to the duties collected at English 
ports. But the Boston merchants and 
ship-owners determined not to obey 
such tyrannical laws. Before the 
close of the seventeenth century, our 
products were shipped to Portugal, 
Spain, and Madeira, as well as to the 
other colonists, the' West Indies, and 
Great Britain, in exchange for the 
fruits, wines, and manufactures of 
those countries ; and the construction 
of wharves on a systematic scale was 
begun. In 17 10 Long Wharf, a great 
undertaking in its time, was built. 
Shipbuilding continued to thrive. In 
17 14 there were at one time on the 
stocks here 40 topsail vessels, meas- 
uring altogether 7,000 tons. Up to 
the period of the Revolution, Boston 
continued to flourish commercially. 
There were 27 dock-yards here, and at 
one yard 12 ships were built in a single 
year. The conclusion of the Revolu- 
tion found the merchants ready to 
renew their extensive commerce. A 
temporary check was met from too 
heavy importations that glutted the- 
market, and occasioned some bad fail- 
ures among merchants. The British, 
still jealous of our maritime import- 
ance as a nation, continued their illib- 
eral legislation. One law, designed 
to injure our shipbuilding industry, 
then supplying British merchants with 
good and cheap vessels, prohibited 
British subjects from owning Ameri- 
can ships built after 1776. This law 
inflicted much damage upon our build- 
ers. Our law-makers replied with re- 
taliatory measures ; and the Boston 
merchants, whose energy could not be 



repressed, sought new and more dis- 
tant fields. The discovery of the sea- 
otter on the Oregon coast brought 
into the control of Boston merchants 
a profitable business, which they con- 
tinued to control for many years ; the 
trade of China was entered upon, and 
became a very lucrative one ; and com- 
mercial enterprises were opened in oth- 
er directions. " Those were the days of 
great enterprises," says Mr. William 
H. Lincoln in his " Boston's Commerce, 
Past, Present, and Future ; " " and the 
business abilities of our great mer- 
chants found ample scope. The profits 
of the China voyages sometimes ran 
into the hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars. A ship would frequently go to 
Oregon, take a cargo of otter-fur, go 
thence to China, load with tea, run 
across to Valparaiso, and exchange part 
of the tea for copper, and then, after 
voyaging to England, return home. 
Those, too, were days of adventure on 
the ocean. There were buccaneers 
lying in wait for the richly freighted 
merchantmen ; the cruisers of nations 
at war with one another preyed on com- 
merce, and danger lurked everywhere. 
Our great sea-captains were native-born 
boys, frequently beginning their nauti- 
cal careers ' before the mast.' In 1790 
there were 455 arrivals here of ships 
from abroad, and 1,200 of coast-wise 
craft. On a single day in 1791, 70 
vessels left Boston for all parts of the 
world. Then came the period of the 
Napoleonic wars, the Milan decree, 
and the war of 1812-15, so disastrous 
to commerce. On the restoration of 
peace, ships were again fitted out for 
China and the East Indies ; and a large 
trade was carried on with the West 
Indies in molasses and sugar." A 
most prosperous period was that be- 
tween the years 1820 and 1840. Great 
fortunes were during that time amassed 
by Boston merchants engaged in the 
shipping-interests, and many spent their 
money freely in building their fine 
" mansion-houses." In 1840 Enoch 
Train began his celebrated line to Liv- 
erpool, Donald MacKay building at 



COMMERCE OF BOSTON 



134 



COMMERCE OF BOSTON 



East Boston several monster packet- 
ships for it. In the same year also the 
first Cunard steamship was put on for 
Boston, — the " Acadia," whose arrival 
in Boston Harbor was a great event. 
The line was maintained exclusively 
to Boston until 1848, when a line was 
also established to New York. About 
this time came the decline of Boston's 
commerce with China and the East 
generally, and its transfer to New 
York. This occasioned a feeling of 
despondency, and discouraged endeav- 
ors to extend our commercial rela- 
tions in other directions. Another 
thing unfavorable to Boston was the 
establishment of branch European 
houses in New York, which began in 
1846. From 1850 to i860 commerce 
throve in some respects, but still Bos- 
ton was losing ground commercially. 
New York, with her railways and ca- 
nals, was monopolizing the business oE 
the country. The most dismal period, 
however, was from i860 to 1870. It 
was then freely predicted that New 
York would soon do all the importing 
of the country; and the croaker was 
abroad, with the doleful cry that " Bos- 
ton had seen her best days." Vessels 
would not come to Boston except at 
high rates of freight, because outward 
cargoes could not be obtained here. 
Those which did come were obliged 
to leave in ballast for other ports. In 
1867 a strong effort was made to estab- 
lish a direct line of American steam- 
ships to Liverpool ; but though backed 
by large capital and experienced men, 
it failed, the enterprise was abandoned, 
and the vessels sold at a sacrifice. The 
Cunard line continued its service dur- 
ing this period ; but high freight-rates 
were demanded, and the line was inad- 
equate to develop the business of the 
city. The Boston merchants found it 
impossible to compete with the lower 
rates paid by New-York importers. 
In 1870 a turn in the tide began. In 
that year the Boston and Albany 
road built its great grain-elevator at 
East Boston, making it possible to 
load steamships here, and also secured 



an equality of freight-rates from the 
West on goods intended for export. 
It was in the early part of this period 
that Thayer & Lincoln and Warren & 
Co. began to load steamships here. 
This work was one of immense diffi- 
culty : there were the prejudices of ship- 
pers to overcome, and the co-operation 
of the railways to secure. The change 
which has at last enabled Boston to 
become a great shipping-port has been 
brought about by the railway-compa- 
nies so reducing their rates as to suc- 
cessfully compete with the water-routes 
terminating at New- York City. The 
securing of cotton from the South for 
light freights for the steamship-lines 
was another important step forward. 
This was accomplished by offering low 
rates of freight, which diverted the cot- 
ton from New York. In 1870 the 
exports of cotton from Boston were 
valued at $135,000 : in 1881 the value 
had rised to $7,268,000. Another im- 
portant improvement is the system of 
through billing from interior points to 
Europe. These through bills, given 
to shippers in the South and West, are 
negotiable at the banks. The foreign 
commerce of the city in recent years 
has come to be fed by other railroad 
trunk-lines and through the Hoosac 
Tunnel ; and Boston now holds direct 
communication with the great trunk- 
lines of the country, and possesses, 
through recent improvements, the best 
terminal facilities of any port in the 
coast [see Terminal Facilities]. At the 
present time Boston occupies the posi- 
tion of the second port in the Union. 
In 1S82 the imports were about S71,- 
000,000, and the exports $56,000,000; a 
total trade of $131,000,000. The ex- 
ports have risen from $7,000,000 in 
1850 to $71,000,000 in 1882. In 1882 
about 200 steamships were loaded in 
Boston, when six years before it was 
regarded as promising that 100 a year 
were loaded. In 1880 the number was 
330. The total arrivals from foreign 
and domestic ports during 1882 were 
12,125 vessels of all classes; and the 
total clearances during the same period, 



COMMERCIAL CLUB 



*35 



COMMERCIAL EXCHANGE 



4,911. Of the arrivals, there were 
2,969 vessels from foreign ports, em- 
bracing 477 steamers, 22 ships, 359 
barques, 342 brigs, and 1,769 schoon- 
ers; and 9,156 coastwise, including 
1,655 steamers, 3 ships, 94 barques, 72 
brigs, 7,243 schooners, and 89 sloops. 
The foreign clearances included 453 
steamers, 13 ships, 274 barques, 292 
brigs, and 1,845 schooners, 2,877 m 
all; while the coastwise clearances 
were 855 steamers, 16 ships, 147 
barques, 90 brigs, and 926 schooners, 
a total of 2,034. At the present time 
there are ten or more different steam- 
ship-lines to Liverpool, Glasgow, Lon- 
don, Hull, West Hartlepool, and the 
Continent ; regular weekly lines to the 
Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova 
Scotia, and Prince Edward Island; 
sugar and molasses steamers from the 
West Indies ; coast-wise steamers to 
Philadelphia, Savannah, Baltimore, 
Norfolk, New York, and Portland; 
and an Australian, New-Zealand, and 
South-African line of packets connect- 
ing this port with all ports in Australia 
and the Cape. [See Steamships and 
Steamship Trade of Boston^ 

Commercial Club (The). — An 

organization of business-men, which 
holds monthly meetings, at each of 
which a dinner is eaten, and there is 
a private discussion of commercial, 
financial, and business topics. Stran- 
gers of prominence in business circles 
are frequently entertained as the guests 
of the club. The monthly meetings 
are suspended during the months of 
June, July, August, and September, 
when most of the members are out of 
town. The club was organized in 1868, 
and grew out of a commercial conven- 
tion held in Boston during the previous 
year, at which a committee of gentle- 
men was formed to entertain the dele- 
gates from abroad. The social relations 
growing out of this occasion led to the 
formation of a club to perpetuate these 
features, and to promote the harmoni- 
ous intercourse of gentlemen represent- 
ing various commercial interests. The 



officers consist of a president, vice- 
president, secretary, and treasurer, and 
an executive committee, all elected 
by ballot, annually. The officers for 
18S2-83 are : Curtis Guild president, 
William Henry Lincoln vice-president, 
George O. Carpenter secretary, Charles 
M. Clapp treasurer, — these gentlemen, 
with the following-named members, 
constituting an executive committee : 
William Henry Allen, Henry P. Kid- 
der, Francis F. Emery. The member- 
ship is limited to 60. The club is sup- 
ported by an initiation-fee and annual 
dues from each member, out of which 
the expense of the monthly dinners 
is met. The club has no club-house, 
but meets at various hotels, most fre- 
quently at Young's. 

Commercial Exchange. — In the 

Merchants'-Exchange Building, State 
Street. This was formerly the Corn 
Exchange, established in 1855, whose 
rooms were for a long time at the head 
of Commercial Street. The Corn 
Exchange was not incorporated until 
1868 ; and three years after it was re- 
organized, and the present name adopt- 
ed, that it might be sufficiently broad 
to comprehend other interests. Sev- 
eral leading provision, fish, and salt 
dealers joined the organization at 
about this time ; but after a while they 
gradually withdrew, and now the only 
interests represented in the Exchange 
are flour, grain, and hay. The ex- 
change-room is a spacious hall, 
reached through the Merchants' Ex- 
change by a short flight of marble 
steps at the rear. Sample-tables are 
provided, with large blackboards for 
quotations ; a case of " standards " for 
the different grades of flour and grain, 
which are established with much care, 
after approval by a majority of the 
members of the Exchange ; books for 
the record of daily receipts of flour 
and grain, etc. The " Change " hour 
is from 12 m. to ij^ p.m., every busi- 
ness-day. Business is limited to the 
buying and selling of flour or grain 
and other produce, at wholesale, for 



136 



COMMON 



cash unless otherwise provided for. 
Among the most important committees 
of the Exchange are those on inspec- 
tion, on flour, and on grain. These 
act as umpires to settle all cases of 
dispute as to the grade, soundness, etc., 
of the samples or commodities that 
come under their supervision. The 
present membership of the Exchange 
is about 250. Hersey B. Goodwin is 
president, and Frank W. Wise secre- 
tary. 

Common (The Boston). — Situated 
in what is now the very heart of the 
city, this is one of the most beautiful 
of public grounds to be found in any 
city of the world. The great, breezy 
parks of London are larger ; but none 
anywhere, in the midst of a crowded 
modern city, offers such a combination 
as this, connected as it is with the 
newer Public Garden and Common- 
wealth Avenue, which, within a few 
years, will unite it with a system of 
suburban parks, presenting a different 
variety of grounds, left more as Nature 
has formed them. The Common of 
to-day is due to the wise forethought 
of the very first settlers of Boston, 
and the good sense of those who came 
after them. Its title is as good as is 
that of the first settlers to the whole 
territory. First they had the royal 
grant, which, in the mind of the true 
Englishman, overrides the claims of 
the native proprietor, whoever he may 
be ; then they bought the whole penin- 
sula from Chickatabut, " the chief Sa- 
chem by and with the Advice of his 
Council ; " then they bought it again 
of the Rev. William Blackstone, the 
first settler on Shawmut, "the living 
fountains," — the citizens paying, every 
man, 6 shillings to Blackstone, " none 
paying less, some considerably more," 
making in all the sum of £30 [see 
Blackstone\ ; and lastly they obtained 
a deed of confirmation from the Indian 
sachem, Charles Josias, alias Wampa- 
tuck, grandson of Chickatabut, the for- 
mer sachem. After the purchase from 
Blackstone "the Town laid out a place 



for a trayning field, which ever since 
and now is used for that purpose 
and for the feeding of Cattell." So 
deposed four ancient men, survivors 
of the first-comers, before Gov. Brad- 
street, in 1684. A "trayning field" 
the Common is still to-day, but the 
" Cattell " ceased to graze upon it in 
1830. Even in the earliest time, care 
was taken that the Common should 
not be defaced; for in 1657 it was or- 
dered, " yt if any person shall hereaf- 
ter anyway anoy ye Comon by spread- 
ing stones or other trash upon itt, or 
lay any carrion upon itt, everey person 
so offending shall bee fined twenty 
shillings." The limits of the Common 
have varied somewhat. It originally 
extended as far as the Tremont House 
in one direction, and to Mason Street 
in another ; bordering westerly on the 
Back Bay, whose waters came up to 
the present line of Charles Street, flow- 
ing thence, an almost unbroken sheet, 
to the foot of the Roxbury hills. An 
almshouse and a " Granary " stood 
where Park Street now is, which was 
at first called Sentry Street. In 1734 
the Common was enclosed with a fence ; 
and about this time ordinances began 
to appear providing against " cutting 
down or despoiling " the trees, and 
against driving over it. In 1836 the 
present iron fence was put up, partly 
by subscription, at a cost of $82,159.85, 
the enclosure having an area of 43% 
acres. The low iron fence on the 
Tremont-street side, with, numerous 
entrances, was put up a few years ago, 
when the outside sidewalk was thrown 
into the street to widen it. The beau- 
tiful rows of elms, the " malls," which 
border the Common, were planted as 
early as 1728 on Tremont Street, and 
from time to time later on the other 
streets ; the Charles-street mall having 
been planted last, in 1824. There are 
five of these malls, known respectively 
as the Tremont-street, Park-street, Bea- 
con-street, Charles-street, and Boyl- 
ston-street malls. Though they are 
all attractive and inviting, the Beacon- 
street mall is called the most beauti- 



i37 



ful. The Tremont-street mall is the 
least rural and retired of them all, and 
the Boylston-street mall the most neg- 
lected. On the former of these two, 
during the warm weather, children find 
much delight in the venerable Punch- 
and-Judy show, the camera-obscura, 
and other time-worn " attractions ; " 
and country-folk are drawn to experi- 
ment with the weighing and lifting 
machines, the lung-testers, and the big 
telescope o' nights, which the curb- 
stone merchants of modest stock and 
slight expectations set up along the 
broad path to attract the nimble pen- 
ny into their slender tills. Here, near 
the West-street gate, used to stand the 
whipping-post and pillory, after their 
removal from the head of State Street. 
Near the Boylston-street mall, on the 
site of an old gun-house, was the deer- 
park, established in 1863, where, en- 
closed by a high wire grating, a con- 
tented family of deer used to graze, — 
until the autumn of 1882, when the 
herd was scattered; and adjoining this 
park is the Central (or old Common) 
Burying-ground, described in " Old 
Bury lug-Grounds" elsewhere in this 
Dictionary. Near the "long path" 
which extends southward from Joy 
Street to Boylston Street, there is an 
ornamental band-stand, rather ambi- 
tious in its style and finish, where on 
summer evenings, and on summer Sun- 
day afternoons as well (the town is 
steadily slipping farther and farther 
away from its Puritan straitness), free 
open-air concerts are given at the city's 
expense. Near this walk, at the foot of 
Flagstaff Hill, the " Old Elm," which 
in its day was considered to be the 
very "oldest inhabitant " of Boston, for 
years stood. It was believed to have 
antedated even the time of Blackstone ; 
and when it was finally destroyed in a 
brief though sharp storm and gale, in 
the winter of 1876, its loss was most 
sincerely deplored by the people, who 
had greatly cherished it as a visible 
link between the present and the past. 
It had witnessed many stirring scenes. 
Quakers, witches, murderers, and pi- 



rates had been hung from its limbs ; 
the " Sons of Liberty " had adorned 
it with lanterns in Revolutionary 
times ; duels had been fought under 
its branches ; and generation after 
generation .had sought shelter within 
the broad circle of its shadow. It was 
decrepit as long ago as 1755 ; but was 
protected with great care during all 
the years that followed, until the com- 
ing of the mighty wind that it could 
no longer resist as it had resisted 
previous storms and gales, and before 
which it fell. It was over 72 feet high, 
and measured 22 l /z feet in circumfer- 
ence a foot above the ground. It 
stood for years within a circular en- 
closure ; and now a shoot is flourishing 
in its place, and bids fair to perpetuate 
the line of family descent. The Frog 
Pond near by, with its fountain ; the 
Brewer Fountain [see Brezuer Foun- 
tain], near the Park-street mall ; the 
Soldiers' Monument [see Army a?ia 
Navy Monument], on Flagstaff Hill, 
near the " long path " and the Frog 
Pond; and the noble trees all over 
the enclosure, — are the other features 
of this rare old down-town park, the 
beauties and blessings of which are so 
warmly and proudly dwelt upon by 
the Bostonian who holds his town 
and its many advantages in such high 
esteem. That portion of the Common 
between the Charles-street mall and 
Flagstaff Hill is still a " trayning " 
field, though in a much slighter degree 
than in the olden time. Portions of 
the militia occasionally drill and are 
received here, and the ancient cere- 
mony of commissioning the officers of 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company [see Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company] by the governor 
in person is annually followed. This 
" trayning field," with the adjacent 
territory, has been the scene of many 
stirring events. It has been the mus- 
tering-place for great conflicts, and the 
favorite place of meeting in primitive 
days, on holidays, in piping times of 
peace. On the occasion of the annual 
muster-day, all the train-bands of the 



■38 



CONGREGATIONALISM 



county used to gather there ; and the 
people flocked to enjoy the sight of 
the soldiers and their manceuvrings, 
as the children of the present day 
flock to the enticing circus. On these 
and other holidays the field was lined 
with booths and tents for the sale of 
bewildering varieties of eatables and 
drinkables, and jollity and merriment 
reigned from early morning to candle- 
light. During the siege of Boston 
the Common was the fortified camp. 
Earthworks were thrown up on several 
of its eminences, of which traces have 
long since disappeared. The British 
artillery was stationed upon Flagstaff 
or " Powder-house " Hill, where there 
were intrenchments and a powder- 
house ; a battery was located on Fox 
Hill, in the neighborhood of the pres- 
ent Charles Street ; there was a strong 
fortification on the Boylston-street side, 
about opposite the present Carver 
Street; the marines were stationed 
near the Tremont-street side ; and the 
infantry were scattered in various parts 
of the enclosure. All along what was 
then the water-front, where on sunny 
afternoons the pensive tramp now 
slumbers on the hard benches of the 
Charles-street mall, trenches were dug ; 
and behind all these works, during the 
dreary winter of 1775-76, over 1,700 
red-coats sullenly waited for Washing- 
ton to attack the town. It was on the 
Common that the British forces en- 
gaged at Bunker Hill were arrayed be- 
fore they crossed the river ; and it was 
from the foot of the Common, near 
where the Providence-railroad Station 
now stands, that the troops embarked 
for Lexington on the night of the 18th 
of April, before. Here, in an earlier 
time, a part of the force which cap- 
tured Louisburg assembled; and here 
the troops that conquered Quebec were 
recruited by Amherst. And in more 
modern times, during the war of the 
Rebellion, many regiments assembled 
and encamped on the old "trayning 
field," whence Gov. Andrew sent them 
to the front with ringing words of 
patriotism and good cheer. Several 



attempts have been made to give the 
Common a more citified name, and to 
re-christen the Frog Pond; but these 
have, fortunately, ignominiously failed, 
as have also the attempts to utilize it 
for public buildings, or to push drive- 
ways and thoroughfares through it. 

Commonwealth Avenue. — See 
Back-Bay District. 

Congregationalism (Trinitarian) 
and Congregational Churches 
(Trinitarian). — In the early years of 
the present century, all the Congrega- 
tional Trinitarian churches in Boston, 
with the exception of the Old-South 
and Park-street Churches, became Uni- 
tarian. In the Charlestown district 
the First Church also remained Trini- 
tarian. During the years following, 
39 new Trinitarian churches came into 
existence, 25 of them in the city proper, 
and 14 in the new districts added by 
annexation. Several of these have 
since disappeared, some merged into 
other churches ; and at the present time 
the number within the city limits, in- 
cluding chapels, is 31. The oldest of 
the existing churches is the First 
Parish Church and Society of the 
Charlestown district. Beside these 
churches, the Congregational Trinita- 
rians maintain six great and far-reach- 
ing' societies, with headquarters in 
Boston, in the Congregational House, 
— the American Congregational Un- 
ion, the American College and Educa- 
tion Society, the American Missionary 
Association, the Congregational Pub- 
lishing Society, the Massachusetts 
Home Missionary Society, and the 
American Board. They also have 
their denominational newspaper, their 
ministers' organizations, and their Con- 
gregational Club; and their numbers 
are large, and of extensive influence. 
Each of the above-mentioned societies 
and organizations is sketched in its 
proper place in this Dictionary, and 
also the leading churches of the de- 
nomination at present in existence. 
On the next page is a list of the 
churches of the denomination : — 



CONGREGATIONAL CLUB 



*39 



CONGREGATIONAL CLUB 



Name of Church. 


Location. 


Orga 

IZED 


"" Name of Pastor. 


Berkeley-street Church . . . 


Berkeley, cor. Warren Avenue. 


1827 


William B. Wright. 


Boylston Cong. Church . . 


Curtis, near Boylston Stat'n, J. P. 




S. S. Matthews. 


Brighton Cong. Church . . 


Wash., c. Winship PI., Brighton. 


1827 




Central Church 


Berkeley, cor. Newbury. 


IS35 


Joseph T. Duryea. 


Central Cong. Church . . . 


Elm, cor. Seaverns Ave., J. P. 


l353 


George M. Boynton. 


Church of the Puritans . . . 


No. 176 Trcmont. 




Lucius R. Eastman. 


Cottage-street Church . . . 


Junction Cottage and Pond, Dor. 




Frank D. Sanford. 


Dorchester Second Church 


Washington, cor. Centre. 


1808 


Edward N. Packard. 


Eliot Church 


Kenihvorth. 


1834 


\ A. C. Thompson. 
1 B. F. Hamilton. 


E-street Church 


E Street, S. B. 


i860 


Simeon S. Plughson. 


First ParLh Ch. and Society . 


Harvard Square, Charlestown. 


1632 




Highland Church 


Parker, near Tremont. 


1869 


W. R. Campbell. 


Holland Church 


Parker, cor. Ruggles. 


1873 


G. Van De Kreeke. 


Immanuel Church .... 


Moreland, cor. Copeland. 


1857 


Lyman H. Blake. 


Lenox-street Chapel .... 


Lenox Street. 




W. L. Lockwood. 


Maverick Church 


Central Square, E. B. 


1836 


John H. Barrows. 


Mount- Vernon Church . . . 


Askburton Place. 


1842 


Samuel E. Herrick. 


Old-Colony Chapel .... 


Tyler, near Harvard. 




D. W. Waldron. 


Old-Soulh Church (New) . . 


Dartmouth, cor. Boylston. 


1669 




Olivet Church 


Concord Hall, West Springfield. 


1876 


Daniel M. Stearns. 


Park-street Church .... 


Tremont, cor. Park. 


1809 


John L. Withrow. 


Phillips Church 


Broadway, near Dorchester, S.B. 


1823 


R. R. Meredith. 


Pilgrim Church 


Stoughton, Upham's Corner, Dor. 


1867 


John W. Ballantine. 


Shawmut Branch Chapel . . 


642 Harrison Avenue. 




D. W. Waldron. 


Shawmut Church 


Tremont, cor. Brookline. 


1845 


Edwin B. Webb. 


South Evangelical .... 


Centre, cor. Mt. Vernon, W. Rox. 


1835 


Edward Strong. 


Trinity Church 


Walnut Street, Neponset. 


1859 


Robert F. Gordon. 


Union Church 


485 Columbus Avenue. 


1822 




Village Church 


River Street, Lowell Mills, Dor. 


1829 


S. P. Fay. 


Walnut-avenue Church . . . 


Walnut Ave., cor. Dale, Rox'y. 


1870 


Albert H. Plumb. 


Winthrop Church .... 


Green Street, Charlestown. 


1833 


Alex. S. Twombly. 



Congregational Club (The). — An 
association of ministers and laymen, 
"to encourage among the members 
of the Congregational churches and 
societies a more friendly and intimate 
acquaintance, to secure concert of 
action, and to promote the general in- 
terests of Congregationalism." It was 
organized in 1869, and grew out of a 
movement begun at " the pastors' 
meeting " held in March of that year. 
It has monthly meetings with refresh- 
ments, and an annual festival during 
Anniversary Week, which is a marked 
feature of each year. It also cele- 
brates Forefathers' Day and other 
occasions. Its meetings were at first 
held in the committee-room of the 
Oid-South Chapel, Freeman Place ; 
then for a while at No. 13 Bulfinch 
Street, at the rooms of the late J. B. 



Smith, a popular colored caterer in his 
day; then, from June, 1871, to Febru- 
ary, 1873, m Wesleyan Hall, No. 36 
Bromfield Street. Since February, 
1873, it has been located in Pilgrim 
Hall, Congregational House, its pres- 
ent headquarters. The annual festi- 
vals have been held in Horticultural 
Hall, in the then unfinished library in 
the Congregational House, and for the 
last few years in Faneuil Hall. Persons 
are admitted to membership in the 
club by ballot, having been proposed 
by a nominating committee one month 
previous. Twenty votes are necessary 
to constitute a ballot on each nomina- 
tion, and five votes in the negative 
prevent an election. An admission- 
fee of $10 is required, and $8 annual 
tax, or $5 for the year when admitted 
after the regular meeting in June. 



CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 



I40 



COOKING-SCHOOL 



The executive committee, consisting 
of the president, vice-presidents, sec- 
retary, and treasurer, and three other 
persons, control the funds, subject to 
the approval of the association ; and 
all matters of conference and business 
are introduced through it. The club 
has been popular from the start. It 
has been said of it, that " it has brought 
out the strength of the churches in 
this region, and given to the denomi- 
nation an enlarged energy." Its meet- 
ing are frequently of a fraternal nature ; 
representative clergymen of other de- 
nominations are often its guests ; and 
messages of cordial good-will have 
been exchanged with similar organi- 
zations of other denominations. The 
present membership is about 350. 
The club is free from debt, and it has 
invested funds with a market-value of 
$2,650. The president is J. F. Hyde. 

Conservatory of Music (The Bos- 
ton). — See Boston Conservatory of 
Music. 

Conservatory of Music (The 
New-England). — See New-England 
Conservatory of Music. 

Consuls. — The foreign consuls 
have their offices near together in the 
commercial sections of the city, none 
of them far from the wharves. Quite 
a number are located on Milk Street, 
several on Kilby, and a few on State 
Street. The British consul is to be 
found at No. 13 Exchange Place; the 
French, at No. 17 Batterymarch Street ; 
the German, at No. 6 Oliver ; the Rus- 
sian, at Nos. 50 and 60 India Square ; 
the Italian, at No. 42 Congress; and 
the Portuguese, No. 39 Lewis Wharf. 
On Milk Street, at No. 113, are the 
offices of the Belgian, Brazilian, Dan- 
ish, Netherlands, and Swedish and 
Norwegian consuls ; and at No. 77 is 
that of the Spanish consul. On State 
Street, at No. 75, is the office of the 
Austria-Hungarian consul; at No. 115, 
the Mexican ; and at No. 92, the Peru- 
vian. On Kilby Street, at No. 13, the 
Greek; No. 27, the Hawaiian ; No. 30, 



the Turkish ; No. 45, the Costa Rican ; 
No. 55, the Haytien. The consul for 
Uruguay is at No. 34 India Wharf. 

Cooking-School (The Boston), 
No. 159 Tremont Street, was organized 
in the summer of 1878, and was opened 
in October of that year at 158^ Tre- 
mont Street, occupying the top-floor 
of the building. The first year was 
merely an experiment ; and it was 
so successful that it entered upon its 
second year with a large number of 
classes, and with every prospect of 
a pecuniary as well as an educational 
success. In October of 1881 the school 
was removed to No. 159 Tremont 
Street, where a larger number of pu- 
pils could be accommodated. As the 
rooms were on the second floor, in- 
stead of the fourth, they were much 
more accessible ; and that also has had 
the effect of increasing the attendance. 
In connection with the school is a 
training-school for teachers ; and this 
is under the care of Mrs. M. J. Lin- 
coln, who has had associated with her 
an assistant-teacher for some of the ear- 
lier classes. In addition to the work 
at the school, Mrs. Lincoln lectures 
in outlying towns, and founds other 
schools, which are put under the charge 
of some of the pupils who go through 
the training-class. There are branch 
schools at the North-Bennet-street In- 
dustrial Home, and at the South End. 
These are supported by voluntary con- 
tributions from outsiders, but the work 
of instruction is done by the teachers 
of the principal school. The terms 
for instruction, which are very reason- 
able, are as follows : First course of 
12 lessons, in the least expensive and 
simplest kind of cooking, $5. Second 
course of 12 lessons, in cooking of a 
higher grade, $9; third course of 12 
lessons, in more elaborate and fancy 
dishes, $13 ; single lessons, $1 ; special 
lessons for cooks, $1 ; demonstration 
lessons, 50 cts. In December, 1882, 
the institution was incorporated ; its 
object being formally expressed to be 
to " give instruction in scientific cook- 



CO-OPERATIVE SAVING-FUND ASSO. 



141 



COPLEY SQUARE 



ery, and to disseminate information of 
hygienic methods in the culinary art, 
to all classes of society." It is man- 
aged by a board of managers, mostly 
ladies, who have the power of directors. 
Miss Lucy F. Brigham, 72 Mount- Pleas- 
ant Avenue, Roxbury district, is clerk 
of the corporation. [See Free Cooking- 
School] 

Co-operative Saving-Fund and 
Loan Associations. — Organizations 
modelled largely after the celebrated 
building associations of Philadelphia, 
the object of which is primarily to save 
money, and secondly to enable mem- 
bers to become owners of homesteads. 
The movement to establish such asso- 
ciations was begun in this city in 1877, 
a number of leading citizens, conspicu- 
ous among them the late Josiah Quincy, 
taking a prominent hand in it ; and that 
year several were incorporated under a 
general law passed by the Legislature. 
Like savings-banks; they come under 
the direction of the savings-banks 
commissioners. The person desiring 
to deposit and secure the benefits of 
a saving-fund and loan association 
purchases of one of them as many 
shares as he desires to save dollars 
per month : and, whatever sum he 
starts with, that sum must be paid 
each month ; it goes upon interest as 
soon as deposited, and can be with- 
drawn at any time by giving 30 days 
notice. The shares are $200 each, and 
each share entitles a member to a 
loan of $200. In order to obtain a 
loan, a member must have subscribed 
to as many shares as will represent 
the amount he desires to borrow. 
For instance, if he desires to borrow 
$1,400, he must have subscribed to 
seven shares. The monthly payments 
on this would be : dues on seven 
shares, $7 ; interest at 6 per cent 
on $1,400, $7 ; and if a premium of 
25 cts. per share is bid for the money, 
that would be, on seven shares, $1.75 ; 
a total of $15.75. This amount he 
must pay each month until his seven 
shares are worth $200 each, when his 



loan and shares will balance each 
other. The premium referred to 
above is the amount bid for the use 
of the money ; the system being to 
offer, at the regular monthly meetings 
of these associations, loans from the 
money paid in by shareholders, to 
those members bidding at public auc- 
tion the most per share. Experience 
has shown, that the shares in a co- 
operative association will mature in 
from nine to ten years. The borrower 
of $1,400, say, pays nominally, accord- 
ing to the above statement, at the 
rate of 7^ per cent for his money. 
But in ten years, at the rate of $15.75 
per month, he will have paid $1,890 
to the association, making the amount 
actually paid for the use of $1,400, 
$490, or not quite 4 per cent per year. 
Every borrower is required to furnish 
security in the form of a first mortgage 
of real estate, in addition to pledging 
one share of the stock for every 
$200 loaned. There were reported by 
the savings - bank commissioners in 
February, 1883, nineteen of these co- 
operative banks in operation in the 
State. The " Pioneer " of this city 
was the first chartered under the law 
of 1877, and it is at the present time 
the largest of its kind in the country. 
There are three others in the city prop- 
er, — the "Homestead," the " Work- 
ingmen's, " and the " Merchants'." 
There is one also in West Roxbury. 
The headquarters of the Pioneer, 
Homestead, and Workingmen's asso- 
ciations, where application for infor- 
mation and shares is to be made, is in 
the Wells- Memorial Building; D. El- 
dredge, secretary. 

Copley Square. — The open space 
in front of the Museum of Fine Arts 
and Trinity Church, bounded by St.- 
James and Huntington Avenues, and 
Dartmouth and Boylston Streets. A 
portion of the territory was originally 
part of the grant of commonwealth 
lands to the Institute of Technology ; 
but in 1882 a fund was raised by 
private subscriotions for its purchase, 



COPP'S HILL 



142 



COUNTRY CLUB 



and the entire space reserved by the 
city for public-park purposes. It is 
to be improved and embellished ; and 
it is proposed to erect a new statue in 
the centre of it, — possibly the pro- 
posed Paul Revere statue [see Statues 
and Monuments]. Even in its unfin- 
ished state, the square is striking from 
the character of the buildings sur- 
rounding it in its neighborhood. The 
grand solid tower of Trinity, and the 
lofty campanile of the " New Old 
South," and the highly ornate tower 
of the Brattle-square Church, give a 
sort of Florentine air to this section, 
as picturesque as can be found in any 
city of the country ; while the blocks of 
elegant private houses add much to its 
attractions. [See Back-bay District^ 

Copp's Hill. — The most northerly 
of the three hills which formed the 
distinguishing feature of the town 
of Boston at the time of its first set- 
tlement. It was at one time called 
" Windmill Hill," its summit being the 
site of a noted windmill in early days ; 
and again " Snow Hill." Its cogno- 
men of "Copp's Hill," it is supposed, 
was after one William Copp, an in- 
dustrious cobbler who dwelt near by on 
his own homestead. It was originally 
but about 50 feet high, a level plain on 
its summit. At its foot was Hudson's 
Point, from which the ferry-boat of 
Francis Hudson used to start on its 
trips for Charlestown across the river. 
During the siege of Boston, the British 
threw up a redoubt on the hill. On 
the morning of the battle of Bunker 
Hill [see Bunker-hill Monument, etc.], 
fire was opened by the British from 
the battery here, upon the American 
earthworks on Breed's Hill ; and dur- 
ing the battle a " carcass " (a kind of 
bombshell) and hot shot thrown from 
Copp's Hill set the fire that burned the 
village of Charlestown [see Charles- 
town District]. On the re-occupation 
of Boston after its evacuation by the 
British, March 17, 1776, three of the 
heavy guns of the battery here were 
found to be spiked and clogged so as 



to prevent their immediate use. The 
second of the burying-grounds in the 
town was established here, on the sum- 
mit of the hill, where the old mill had 
stood. It was first used for interments 
in 1660, and was for a long time 
known as the "Old North Burying- 
Ground." It is related, that the Brit- 
ish soldiers, when occupying the hill 
as a military station, used to make 
targets of the gravestones of the bury- 
ing-ground; and the marks of their 
bullets were visible for years after. 
Changes in the streets of the neigh- 
borhood made it necessary, in time, to 
cut down a large portion of the hill ; 
but the burying-ground was untouched, 
while its embankment was further pro- 
tected by the building of a high stone 
wall. The burying-ground is a re- 
markably attractive spot, in the midst 
of a section of the city long since 
abandoned to the humblest and least- 
favored population, but yet rich in 
historic material. In summer-time the 
ground is a cool and inviting spot for 
the people of the neighborhood ; and it 
always has attractions to the visitor in 
search of records and suggestions of 
the past. [See Old Bzuyiug-Grounds.] 

Country Club (The). — A Boston 
"jockey-club" organized on a liberal 
basis, and composed of gentlemen of 
social position, residing in Boston and 
vicinity, many of them prominent in 
the leading social clubs like the Som- 
erset and Union, who have a warm 
interest in matters relating to the 
running turf in New England. It is 
an outgrowth of the " Myopia Hunt 
Club," an organization also largely 
composed of Boston men, whose club- 
house is at Winchester, on the shore 
of Mystic Lake, and who now chiefly 
confine their sport to hunting with 
hounds, after the English plan, cours- 
ing along the fields of the pleasant 
country in the neighborhood of their 
club-house, sometimes to the conster- 
nation of the farmers and good people 
of the region, who are unused to the 
old English sport, and do not alto- 



COURIER 



143 



gether relish its introduction into con- 
servative New England. The club- 
house and grounds of the Country 
Club are at Clyde Park, in the neigh- 
boring beautiful town of Brookline. 
The Clyde-park property was leased 
by the club, upon its organization in 
the early autumn of 1882, for a term 
of five years. Here are a comfortable 
and attractive club-house, a steeple- 
chase course, lawn-tennis grounds, and 
other features of a modern American 
jockey-club establishment of the first 
class, with English additions. The 
first or " inaugural " meeting of the 
club was at Mystic Park, in Medford, 
on Oct. 24 and 26, 1882 ; the new club- 
grounds not being ready for use at 
that time. There were five races on 
each of these clays, — three on the flat, 
and two steeple-chases; and all the 
races were run by horses ridden by 
gentlemen-riders. The club numbers 
about 400 members. Robert C. Hoop- 
er is the secretary. 

Courier (The Boston), now pub- 
lished Sundays only, has had, as a 
leading daily newspaper, a most inter- 
esting history. Its publication was 
commenced on March 1, 1824. It was 
distinctively the product of Joseph 
Tinker Buckingham, as much so as, in 
later days, the New- York " Tribune " 
owed its origin and character to Horace 
Greeley. In each case the individual 
had little advantage in common-school 
education, but used the printing-office 
for a training which placed him on a 
plane rarely surpassed by any one con- 
nected with the press, particularly in the 
clear and vigorous expression of the 
English language. The " Courier " was 
designed as a business paper, and es- 
pecially to sustain the American sys- 
tem of building up American manu- 
factures. Its earlier numbers, however, 
opposed the tariff of 1824, and dissent- 
ed from the arguments of Mr. Clay on 
that subject. It did, however, subse- 
quently espouse that policy warmly, 
and the election of Mr. Clay as against 
John Quincy Adams. Educated in the 



Federal school of politics, Mr. Buck- 
ingham, with others, could not forgive 
the defection of Mr. Adams from its 
ranks. The winter of 1827 he spent 
in Washington, laboring for the new 
domestic policy, and in writing letters 
for his paper, then under the charge 
of his son Joseph H. Buckingham, 
who was afterwards also a European 
correspondent on two visits to Europe, 
and was connected with the paper 
some 20 years, sometimes as sole ed- 
itor. Edwin, a younger son of Joseph 
T. Buckingham, spent two years in 
Washington, writing for the "Cou- 
rier " and other papers ; and died, full 
of promise and much lamented, at the 
age of 23. In politics the paper fol- 
lowed the course of most Federalists, 
who became National Republicans and 
then Whigs ; but as a party-man Mr. 
Buckingham never was tractable, and 
could not be depended upon to serve 
the party against his own judgment. 
In its independence the " Courier " 
was the occasion of the nomination 
and election of Edward Everett to 
Congress. It was the advocate and 
supporter of Mr. Webster for the 
presidency, after its first choice of Mr. 
Clay over Mr. Adams. It opposed 
the Mexican war, the extension of 
slavery, and the fugitive-slave law, un- 
til Mr. Webster's famous 7th-of-March 
speech. But previous to this last 
event Mr. Buckingham, on the nomi- 
nation of Gen. Taylor for the presi- 
dency, had closed his connection with 
the paper; his valedictory appearing 
June 24, 1848. Although in the main 
prosperous, after a few years of its 
publication Mr. Buckingham sold one- 
third interest in the paper to Eben B. 
Foster, who successfully managed the 
business for many years. After his re- 
tirement the paper was published by E. 
B. Foster & Co. until 1859, with Samuel 
Kettell for a while as editor. Mr. Ket- 
tell was a humorous, versatile writer, 
a great linguist, and had been associat- 
ed with S. G. Goodrich in the prepa- 
ration of the Peter-Parley tales. Isaac 
W. Frye, who had been connected with 



144 



COURTS 



the news-department of the paper for 
several years, succeeded Mr. Kettell as 
editor on the latter's death, in Decem- 
ber, 1855. In i860 the "Courier" was 
the organ of the Bell and Everett Con- 
servative party, and through that policy 
extended its circulation largely in the 
South. When the concern was sold 
by Foster & Co., it was published suc- 
cessively by John Clark & Co., Clark, 
Fellows, & Co., and George Lunt & 
Co. George S. Hillard and others 
were partners in interest, also E. W. 
Foster (a son of the former publisher), 
Edward H. House, and Thomas Gill. 
Mr. Lunt was the editor when the war 
began in 1861 ; and the opposition of 
the paper to the government and its 
measures made it particularly obnox- 
ious to those who were in favor of a 
vigorous prosecution of the war, and 
hastened its downfall. Several of the 
proprietors left the concern at this 
time, Clark and Fellows both taking 
part in the war. The paper was re- 
duced in size twice, and in January, 
1865, was published as the " Evening 
Courier," by the Evening-Courier As- 
sociation; Joseph B. Morse of New- 
buryport (and previously connected 
with the " Traveller ") being the prin- 
cipal owner. In January, 1866, the 
name was changed to the " Evening 
Commercial;" Mr. Morse as editor, 
and Libby & Dennison as publishers. 
The daily was discontinued on the last 
day of December, 1866. Then it was 
succeeded by the present Sunday edi- 
tion, a stock-company being formed for 
its publication. Under its present 
style it has been successively edited 
by Warren L. Brigham, George Par- 
sons Lathrop, and Arlo Bates, the 
present editor. It has maintained a 
high literary position, and been accept- 
able to cultivated readers. During 
its career as a Sunday paper, it has 
been independent in politics. Joseph 
B. Travers, who was connected with 
the paper during its career as a daily, 
is the present publisher and chief pro- 
prietor. Its list of distinguished con- 
tributors has been very large. Before 



the war it included such names as 
Daniel Webster, Rufus Choate, Ed- 
ward Everett, Robert C. Winthrop, 
Otis P. Lord, Caleb Cushing, George 
Ticknor Curtis, C. C. Felton, Sidney 
Webster, Rev. Rufus Ellis, Charles 
Lanman, William H. Prescott, Benja- 
min R. Curtis, George Ticknor, and T. 
W. Parsons. The "Courier" is also 
distinguished as the paper for which 
James Russell Lowell's famous " Big- 
low Papers " were written, and in 
which they were first published. 

Courts. — The United-States courts 
are held in the United-States Court 
House on Tremont Street, corner of 
Temple Place. This was formerly the 
Masonic Temple, built in 1832. It 
is of rough Quincy granite, with two 
towers, 16 feet square and 95 feet high, 
surmounted by battlements and pinna- 
cles. There are five stories, and the 
rooms are lighted by long arched win- 
dows. The terms of the Circuit Court 
of the United States sitting here begin 
May 15 and Oct. 15. The rule-day is 
the first Monday of every month. 
The terms of the United-States Dis- 
trict Court begin the third Tuesday in 
March, fourth Tuesday in June, second 
Tuesday in September, and first Tues- 
day in December. The office of the 
United-States marshal of the district 
of Massachusetts, Gen. N. P. Banks, is 
also in this building. The Supreme 
Judicial Court, the Superior Court, 
and the Municipal Court have their 
sessions in the Court House on Court 
Square [see Court House]. The terms 
of the Supreme Co art begin on the 
first Tuesday of April and the second 
Tuesday of September. The Superior 
Court, civil session, holds its terms in 
Boston on the first Tuesday of January, 
April, July, and October. The crimi- 
nal session holds its terms the first 
Monday in each month. The terms of 
the Municipal Court for civil business 
are every Saturday at 9 a.m., for the re- 
turn and entry of civil actions not ex- 
ceeding $1,000; for criminal business, 
every day in the week except Sundays 



145 



COURT HOUSE 



and legal holidays, beginning at 9 a.m. 
This is popularly known as the Po- 
lice Court. There are also municipal 
courts in the South-Boston, Dorches- 
ter, Roxbury, West-Roxbury, Brighton, 
Charlestown, and East-Boston districts, 
each of which sits for the transaction 
of criminal business daily, Sundays and 
legal holidays excepted, as in the case 
of the court in the city proper. The 
Court of Probate and Insolvency is in 
the building occupied by the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society [see His- 
torical Society, The Massachusetts], No. 
32 Tremont Street, running through to 
No. 28 Court Square. The Registry 
of Deeds is in the same building. The 
Probate Court sits every Monday in 
the year, except the first, second, and 
fourth Mondays in August; and the 
Court of Insolvency, on Friday of 
each week, except during August. 

The chief-justice of the Supreme 
Court is Marcus Morton ; and the 
associate-justices are William C. En- 
dicott, Charles Devens, Walbridge A. 
Field, William Allen, Charles Allen, 
and Oliver Wendell Holmes, jun. The 
chief-justice receives a salary of $6,500 
per annum, and the associate-justices 
$6,000 each. 

The chief-justice of the Superior 
Court is Lincoln F. Brigham ; and the 
associate-justices are Julius Rockwell, 
Robert C. Pitman, John W. Bacon, P. 
Emory Aldrich, Waldo Colburn, Wil- 
liam S. Gardner, Hamilton P. Staples, 
Marcus P. Knowlton, Caleb Blodgett, 
and Albert Mason. The chief-justice 
of this court receives $4,800 per an- 
num, and the associate-justices $4,500. 

The chief-justice of the Municipal 
Court is William E. Parmenter ; and the 
associate-justices, Joseph M. Church- 
ill and M. J. McCafferty. The salary 
is $3,000 each. The justices of the 
South-Boston and Charlestown-district 
Municipal Courts receive $1,800 a 
year; the justice of the Roxbury-dis- 
trict Court, $2,000; and each of the 
justices of the other district courts, 
$1,200 each. The judge of probate 
and insolvency receives $4,000 per 



year ; and the register of probate and 

insolvency, $3,000. 

Court House (The County). — 
The County Court House on Court 
Street, with avenues along either side 
and in the rear known as Court Square, 
was erected in 1836. It is a gloomy 
granite structure, presenting a Doric 
front, with ponderous columns of 
fluted granite weighing 25 tons each. 
A similar portico on the rear, towards 
the City Hall, was removed about 20 
years ago, in order to add to the length 
of the building. The structure is the 
least adapted to the comfort and con- 
venience of courts, counsel, parties, 
and witnesses, of any court-house in 
the Commonwealth; and the building 
of a new court-house has for years 
been agitated, several sites having 
been considered, and the cost of a 
new building counted. It is possible, 
that during 1883 some practical step 
will be taken in this direction. In this 
court-house are held the sessions of all 
the State and city courts, which are 
open to the public ; and one or more, 
generally all of them, are in session 
during business-hours in the active 
seasons of the year. The Social Law 
Library, of about 15,000 volumes, in- 
tended for the use of the courts and 
members of the bar, is in this build- 
ing [see Social Lar L v-Library\. The 
" Tombs " is in the - basement. It was 
here that the "Anthony Burns riot," 
in May, 1854, occurred. Burns was a 
fugitive slave. He had been taken 
into custody by United-States officers, 
under a warrant issued by United- 
States Commissioner Edward G. Lor- 
ing, on the evening of May 24, and 
temporarily lodged here. The anti- 
slavery people were in a fever of ex- 
citement over this action ; and meetings 
were held in Faneuil Hall and else- 
where " to protest against the outrage 
on liberty," at which such men as 
Wendell Phillips, Theodore Parker, 
Francis W. Bird, and other prominent 
anti-slavery leaders of that day, were 
the principal speakers. Two evenings 



146 



CUSTOM HOUSE 



after Burns's arrest, when a great 
meeting was in progress in Faneuil 
Hall, and while Wendell Phillips was 
speaking, word was brought into the 
hall, that a party of negroes were in 
Court Square trying to release Burns. 
Thereupon the meeting at once dis- 
solved ; and the crowd pressed to the 
Court House, where it attempted to 
break in the doors. A fight ensued 
between the just-appointed new police- 
force and the populace, in which one 
constable was killed, and several per- 
sons were seriously injured. Indict- 
ments were afterwards found against 
Wendell Phillips, Theodore Parker, 
T. W. Higginson (who, with Albert 
G. Brown, jun., Seth Webb, and John 
L. Swift, had formed a plan to rescue 
the slave, and had forced his way into 
the Court House), and a few others; 
but the indictments were quashed, and 
the cases dismissed. The defendants 
were defended by John A. Andrew, 
Henry F. Durant,'john P. Hale, Wil- 
liam L. Burt, and Charles M. Ellis. 
Burns was remanded back to slavery; 
but he was afterwards bought by North- 
erners, given his freedom, and sent 
into Canada, where he died in 1862. 

Cricket. — Although there are many 
cricket-players in Boston and vicinity, 
the only club of any prominence dis- 
tinctively devoted to this sport is the 
Longwood Cricket Club, which may 
be regarded as the legitimate successor 
of The Boston Driving and Athletic 
Association [see Athletics}. Its mem- 
bers are principally professional and 
business men of Boston, who take an 
active interest in out-of-door sports. 
They have a large club-house, fitted 
up with lockers, lavatories, and other 
conveniences, on the outskirts of an 
extensive field, which has been laid 
out on an elaborate plan with a view 
of providing facilities for playing crick- 
et and lawn-tennis. The grounds are 
convenient to the Longwood station of 
the Boston and Albany Railroad, and 
to the Boston and Brookline horse- 



Custom House (The). — This 
stands at the foot of State Street. 
When it was built, it stood at the head 
of Long Wharf, and the bowsprits of 
vessels lying there, stretching across 
the street, almost touched its eastern 
front. It is a massive granite struc- 
ture, built to stand for generations. 
The form is that of a Greek cross. It 
was begun in 1S37, and finished and 
occupied in 1847. Jackson was presi- 
dent when the resolution authorizing 
its erection was passed, and Polk had 
nearly completed his term when it was 
completed and ready for use. It was 
built at a cost to the government of 
over $r,ooo,ooo, and a large part of the 
expenditure was in the massive Doric 
columns which surround it on all sides. 
The roof and dome are also of granite. 
The fluted granite columns are 32 in 
number, and weigh 42 tons each. The 
dome with its skylight, 25 feet in diam- 
eter, is 95 feet from the floor. The 
building is 140 feet long, 75 feet wide 
at the ends, and 95 feet through the 
centre; and it rests on 3,000 piles, over 
which a platform of granite 18 inches 
thick is laid in hydraulic cement. It 
is supposed to be fireproof. Within, 
the building is somewhat cramped and 
inconvenient, and it inadequately ac- 
commodates the great business that 
is transacted there. There is a large 
rotunda, 63 by 59 feet in dimensions, 
and 62 feet high, in the Grecian Co- 
rinthian style. The ceiling is supported 
by 12 marble columns, 3 feet in diame- 
ter and 29 feet high. On the entrance- 
floor are the offices of the naval officer, 
surveyor, cashier, and a deputy-col- 
lector, having in charge the entrance, 
clearance, and register of vessels. The 
collector's rooms are on the second 
floor, reached by a flight of granite 
steps. The Custom-house force at 
present numbers about 370 persons. 
The collector is Roland Worthington, 
editor and proprietor of the " Evening 
Traveller," appointed in the spring of 
1882. The special deputy-collector is 
John M. Fiske. Martin A. Munroe 
is deputy-collector of the first division, 



CUSTOM HOUSE 



147 



CUSTOM HOUSE 



Joseph H. Barnes of the second, and 
John L. Swift of the third. Daniel 
J Kill is naval officer, and Ivory H. 
Tope deputy naval officer; Adin B. 
Underwood is surveyor, and Orson 
Moulton deputy-surveyor; and Henry 
S. Briggs is general appraiser. There is 
a large force of clerks, day and night 
inspectors, weighers, gaugers, meas- 
urers, and storekeepers. Frederick 
Grant is auditor and disbursing-clerk, 
and E. L. Frothingham is cashier. 
The collector's private secretary, or 
clerk of correspondence as he is 
officially called, is Col. William M. 
-Olin, formerly private secretary of 
Govs. Talbot 'and Long. The collect- 
or's salary is $8,000 per annum; the 
several deputy-collectors, $3,000 each; 
naval officer and surveyor, $5,000 each ; 
auditor and cashier, $3,000 each. The 
United-States revenue-steamer " Al- 
bert Gallatin," Capt. D. B. Hodgdon, 
is connected with the customs service; 
and the revenue steam-tug "Hannibal 
Hamlin," first lieutenant commanding, 
J. H. Rogers. 

The earlier United-States Custom 
Houses were located farther up State 
Street. The first one was in a building 
near Congress Street, which was occu- 
pied in part as a dwelling by Gen. 
Benjamin Lincoln, the first collector. 
Thence it was removed to the corner 
of Change Avenue. Here its front was 
ornamented with two wooden figures, 
one representing Hope, and the other 
Justice. In 1S10 the first building es- 
pecially designed for a Custom House 
was erected in Custom-house Street. 
This, however, was soon outgrown ; 
and several other places were occupied 
during the period preceding the erec- 
tion of the present structure. For a 
while it was located in Merchants' 
Row, and at another time in Congress 
Street. _ The first colonial Custom 
House is supposed to have been on 
Richmond Street, corner of North, 
near North Square, where the famous 
" Red-Lion Inn " stood [see Hotels and 
North Square], Fifty or sixty years 
later the Royal Custom House was in 



what is now Scollay's Square, or its 
neighborhood ; and for some time after 
it was located on the corner of Tre- 
mont and Court Streets, in the house 
of John Wendell, on the site of the 
building famous as the house where 
Washington staid during his visit to 
Boston in 1789, — when Hancock neg- 
lected to show him the official courte- 
sies due to his station and prominence, 
— and which stood so late as the win- 
ter of 1883 |see Old Landmarks]. At 
the time of the Boston Massacre [see 
Massacre, The Boston], the Custom 
House was located on State Street, on 
the lower corner of Exchange. It was 
here that the affray began, resulting in 
the massacre. It bore the emblems of 
royalty, which, with those on the other 
public buildings, — the Old State House 
and the Court House, — were removed, 
after the reading of the Declaration of 
Independence, and burned in a heap 
in the middle of the street in front of 
the Old State House [see Old State 
House]. This building was at the same 
time occupied in the upper stories for 
a dwelling by Bartholomew Green, the 
printer of the " Boston News-Letter " 
[see First A T etvspaper] and of several 
books of note ; and from its balcony, 
Drake relates, shots were fired at the 
populace during the massacre. On 
its site, at one time, stood the State's- 
Arms Tavern. The Custom House 
under the State government was near 
Faneuil Hall. The present Custom 
House, when completed, was the cost- 
liest public building of its time. The 
architect was Ammi B. Young. 

The predecessors of the present col- 
lector, Roland Worthington, are given 
in the following list, with the dates of 
their appointment (Mr. Worthmgton's 
term began May 22, 1882) : Benjamin 
Lincoln, Oct. 24, 1789; Gen. Henry 
Dearborn, March 1, 1S09; Gen. Henry 
A. S. Dearborn, Nov. 17, 1812; David 
Henshaw, April 7, 1820; George Ban- 
croft, Jan. 20, 1838 ; Levi Lincoln, 
April t, 1S41 (governor of the State 
from 1825 to 1834) ; Robert Rantoul, 
jun., Aug. 28, 1843 (United-States sen- 



CUSTOM HOUSE 



I48 



CUSTOM HOUSE 



ator in 1851) ; Lemuel Williams, June 
28, 1844; Marcus Morton, May 1, 1845 
(governor of the State in 1841 and 
1844) ; Philip Greely, jun., May 1, 1849; 
Charles B. Peaslee, April 1, 1853; Ar- 
thur W. Austin, April 1, 1857 ; James 
S. Whitney, March 1, i860; John Z. 
Goodrich, April 1, 1861 (lieutenant- 
governor of the State just previous to 
his appointment) ; Hannibal Hamlin, 
Sept. 1, 1865 (vice-president with 
President Lincoln, and, later, United- 
States senator from Maine) ; Darius 
N. Gouch, Oct. 9, 1866 (congressman 



for two terms, and now United-States 
pension-agent); Thomas Russell, March 
18, 1867 (now member of the State 
board of railroad commissioners) ; 
William A. Simmons, March 12, 1874; 
Alanson W. Beard, April 1, 1878. The 
number of appointees at the Custom 
House at the present time is 381, and 
their salaries amount in all to about 
$482,000. Of these appointees there 
are in the collector's department, 307 ; 
in the naval office, 19; surveyor's de- 
partment, 9 ; and appraiser's, 46. 



DAVID SEARS CHARITY 



149 



DEBT OF THE CITY 



D. 



David Sears Charity (The). — A 
fund contributed by the late David 
Sears for the relief of the poor; the 
income only to be expended " in aid 
and for the support of citizens or 
families who may have seen better 
days, and for charity in all its forms, 
in such a manner as may best tend to 
alleviate the sufferings of human life, 
and render the condition of the poor 
more comfortable." It is administered 
by the overseers of the poor [see Over- 
seers of the Poor], The fund amounts 
to $260,645.43. 

Deaf and Dumb (Schools and So- 
cieties for the). — On Warrenton 
Street is an admirably conducted 
school, called the " Horace Mann 
School for the Deaf." It was founded 
in 1869, and until 1877 bore the name 
of the "Boston Day-school for Deaf - 
Mutes." There are about 80 pupils, 
boys and girls, in the school. The plan 
of separating the pupils who were 
born deaf from those made deaf by dis- 
ease is carried out as far as practica- 
ble. Prof. A. Melville Bell's system of 
visible speech is employed in the 
school as an aid in teaching articula- 
tion. The school is free for both 
sexes who are residents of the city, 
and a small fee is charged to others. 
It is supported mainly by taxation, 
being a part of the public-school sys- 
tem. There is a deaf-mute society, 
with headquarters in Boylston Hall. 
It was established in 1877". Religious 
instruction and weekly lectures in sign- 
language are given here to deaf-mutes ; 
and their social and intellectual inter- 
ests are promoted. Occasionally, also, 
pecuniary relief is given to the needy 
and unfortunate. Religious services 



are held here Sunday and Wednesday 
evenings. The trustees of this society 
are James Sturgis, Martin Brimmer, 
Francis Brooks, and Joseph Story. 
[See Boston Deaf-mute Society.] 

Debt of the City. — Boston began 
as a city in 1822, with a modest little 
debt, brought over from the town gov- 
ernment, of $100,000, which had been 
contracted for the prisons in Leverett 
Street, then in process of building, 
and long ago abandoned and re- 
moved [see JaiT\, and a new Court 
House. The current expenses of the 
infant city, during this first year of its 
existence, amounted to $249,000, while 
the tax-levy was $140,000. Mighty 
strides have since been made. At the 
opening of 1883 the total funded and 
temporary debt was $40,018,598.02 ; 
the net debt, and debt authorized, was 
$24,381,025.02 ; the expenditures of the 
various departments of the city for the 
year amounted to about $14,000,000 ; 
and the tax-levy for 1882 was about 
$10,000,000. The average rate of tax- 
ation the first seven years of the city's 
existence was $7.27 on $1,000 ; lower 
than that of the last seven years of town 
government, which averaged $8.15. 
In 1 88 1 the rate was $13.90 on 1,000. 
From 1824 to 1827 the debt steadily 
increased; taking its highest jump in 
the latter year, when the debt for the 
erection of the Faneuil-hall Market — 
popularly known as the Quincy Mar- 
ket — was included in the statement 
for the year. It then reached $1,011,- 
775. But the assets of the city were 
correspondingly increased. The next 
few years it fell a little, and in 1830 it 
was recorded at $891,930.75. Ten 
years later, in 1840, it had reached 



DEBT Of THE CITY 



l S° 



DEBT OF THE CITY 



$1,698,232.56; and there was consid- 
erable uneasiness by thrifty and pru- 
dent Bostonians at its growth, so much 
so that succeeding governments suc- 
cessfully strove to reduce it, scaling 
it clown, by 1846, to §1,153,713.16. 
Then came the introduction of water 
with its consequent expense, so that in 
1848, with the water-debt included, 
the total debt stood at $3,452,606.37. 
Thereafter there was a steady increase 
until 1853, when $7,859,435.66 was 
recorded. The next three years it 
was again decreased, touching $7,107,- 
149.77 in 1856. Then it began again 
increasing until 1862, when the war- 
debt was included : it reached $9,031,- 
307.77. Subsequently the annexation 
of adjoining municipalities, with the 
assumption of their debts, steadily 
swelled the total. In the statement 
for 1866, the debt of the Roxbury dis- 
trict was for the first time included, 
making the total $14,011,656.91: in 
that for 1870, the debt of the Dorches- 
ter district was included, and the total 
recorded was $18,687,350.91 ; and in 
1874, with the debts of the Charles- 
town, Brighton, and West-Roxbury 
districts, the debt reached $42,890,785.- 
77. In 1880 the record was $42,030,- 
125.36, showing a reduction. The 
highest figure reached was in 1876, 
when the total was $43,848,835.75. 

The official statement of the debt, 
in 1882, classified it as follows : — 

City debt proper $25,966,038.06 

Cochituate-water loans . . . 11,631,273.98 

Roxbury debt 122,000.00 

Charlcstown debt 1,060,000.00 

Charlestown Mystic-water debt . 1,127,000.00 
West-Roxbury debt 257,000.00 

$40,163,312.04 

The means on hand for paying the 
debt amounted to $15,901,650.44; the 
sinking-funds in charge of the board 
of commissioners on the sinking-funds 
being the larger part of this amount, 
reaching $15,633,229.37. The total 
debt of the city, less the means for 
paying it, was therefore $24,261,661.60. 
The year before it was $26,005,620.59. 



The net and authorized debt ascer- 
tained by deducting the Cochituate 
and Mystic water debt, the general 
sinking-funds, and the Cochituate and 
Mystic water sinking-funds, and the 
cash in hand, amounted to $17,178,372.- 
06 ; and thus the city had the right to 
borrow at the close of business, April 
30, 1882, $2,787,044.94, under the con- 
ditions of the law of the State (passed 
1875), limiting municipal indebtedness, 
three per cent on the valuation of the 
year ($665,513,900), amounting to $19,- 
965,417. Nearly the entire amount 
was, however, provided for loans au- 
thorized during the year, but not nego- 
tiated, amounting to $2,746,000. The 
sinking-fund commissioners act under 
authority of city ordinances, Dec. 24, 
1876; March 27, 1877 ; April 10, 1877 ; 
and the Act of the Legislature of 1875 
to regulate and limit municipal indebt- 
edness. The commission consists of 
the mayor as chairman, the auditor, the 
chairman of the joint committee on ac- 
counts of the city council, the chairman 
of the committee on finance on the 
part of the common council, two citi- 
zens at large, and the city treasurer as 
treasurer of the board. The total 
sinking-funds, April 30, 1881, were 
$14,511,849.19; receipts during the 
year 1881-82, $2,223,368.32 ; payments 
towards redemption of the debt, $1,- 
101,988.14: leaving a total on April 
30, 1882, of $15,633,229.37. Of this 
amount there was cash in banks, $2,- 
443,229.37 ; and City of Boston bonds, 
$13,108,000. The receipts for 1881-82 
were made up of the following : rev- 
enue from betterments, sales of land, 
etc., $403,681.95 ; interest on invest- 
ments, $ 744,429.87 ; interest on bank- 
deposits, $43,575.48; interest on re- 
deemed sterling debt, in London, 
$26,285.98 ; appropriation for debt in 
1881-82, $731,501.00; excess of in- 
come over expenses, — Cochituate- 
water works, $193,840.36; Mystic- 
water works, $80,053.68, — $273,894.04. 
Total, $2,223,368.32. The gross debt 
of the city at the close of 1882 was 
$113.28 per capita. 



DECORATIVE ART 



151 



DEER ISLAND 



Decorative Art (The Boston Soci- 
ety of). — Rooms at No. 8 Park Square. 
This admirable society, which has done 
so much to advance decorative art in 
various directions, and to utilize the 
taste and skill of its devotees, was 
organized in March, 187S, and incor- 
porated in 1882. Its purpose was at 
the outset announced to be to raise 
the standard of design in hand-wrought 
work and in manufacture, and to guide 
all those who use the needle, the brush, 
or the modelling-tool for decorative 
ends, to an appreciation of pure form 
and noble design, so that the objects 
produced or decorated by these agen- 
cies might be beautiful to the eye and 
satisfactory to the cultivated taste. 
Its manner of accomplishing the ends 
for which it was established was by 
opening rooms for the exhibition and 
sale of accepted work, in order to 
help those who needed help and en- 
couragement, to develop decorative- 
talent in the right direction by lend- 
ing good models to students, to en- 
courage and stimulate the production 
of designs for manufactured objects 
of a character calculated to increase 
their aesthetic and commercial value, 
to develop the art of needle-work, 
and to furnish a market outside of 
a limited circle of friends for the 
large amount of artistic work done by 
those who do not make it a profession, 
but who have attained a professional 
skill in execution. During the first 
year of its existence the receipts from 
sales and orders amounted to $2,821. 
Great care was exercised in the selec- 
tion of articles offered, and on this 
committee were several of the leading 
artists and architects of the city. Only 
such work would be presented for sale 
as would stand the strictest art tests. 
The need of better instruction for the 
workers was felt ; and on the 1st of 
October, 1879, the School of Needle- 
work, which had been heretofore a sepa- 
rate interest, was incorporated into the 
society, and a competent teacher from 
South Kensington, a graduate of that 
school, and afterwards teacher in the 



Royal Art Needle-work School, under 
the patronage of the Princess Louise, 
was secured. Mrs. Smith was thor- 
oughly trained in every branch of 
needle-work, and under her care the 
school has developed wonderfully. 
Large orders are executed ; and the 
work ranks with the best that is done 
in the New-York and Philadelphia 
schools, both of which are older than 
this. In 1882 the receipts on orders 
and sales were $12,000, an advance of 
$10,000 in the four years of its exist- 
ence. The rooms of the society are 
open from 10 a m. to 5 p.m., daily, on 
weekdays ; and prepared work and 
materials are on sale, as well as the 
finished work. The officers are, Mr. 
Roland C. Lincoln, president; Mr. 
John H. 'Sturgis, Mrs. Charles P. Cur- 
tis, jun., Mrs. Frederick L. Ames, vice- 
presidents ; Miss Georgina Lowell Put- 
nam, secretary; Mrs. George J. Fiske, 
treasurer ; executive committee, Mr. B. 
W. Crowninshield, Miss Georgina 
Lowell Putnam, Dr. W. S. Bigelow, 
Mrs. Martin Brimmer, Mrs. George J. 
Fiske, Miss C. H. Guild, Mr. Roland 
C. Lincoln, Mrs. Charles G. Loring, 
Mrs. Roland C. Lincoln, Gen. Charles 
L. Pierson, Mrs. Lucy R. Read, Mrs. 
Winthrop Sargent, Mrs. Francis Skin- 
ner, Mrs. G. H. Shaw, Miss L. P. 
Sohier, Miss A. C. Warren, Miss 
Wharton. Committee on the Art 
Needle-work School, Mrs. J. C. Ro- 
gers, Mrs. G. H. Shaw, Mrs. Martin 
Brimmer, Mrs. Francis E. Bacon, Mrs. 
Hollis Hunnewell, Mrs. Charles G. 
Loring, Mrs. William G. Weld, Mrs. 
J. W. Wheelwright. [See School of 
Art Needle-work. ~\ 

Deer Island, in the harbor, about 
4^_ miles down from Long Wharf, 
and nearly 1 mile from Nix's Mate 
and Long-island Head, across Broad 
Sound, is occupied by the city cor- 
rectional institutions, — the House of 
Industry and the House of Reforma- 
tion for juvenile offenders, — and one 
of its several almshouses [see Alms- 
houses and Public Institutions]. It is 



DEER ISLAND 



152 



DEER ISLAND 



one of the fairest islands in the har- 
bor, and has had its day, like others 
now abandoned to sober pursuits, as a 
local summer-resort. It is nearly a 
mile long; contains about 134 acres of 
upland, and about 50 of flats ; has 
two hills and four bluffs, known, one 
of the former and the highest as Sig- 
nal Hill, and the latter bearing the 
names of North Head, East Head, 
South Head, and Graveyard Bluff; 
and there are two small fresh-water 
ponds, one from which a good harvest 
of ice is generally obtained, known 
from this fact as Ice Pond, and the 
other as Cow Pond because it supplies 
the cattle on the island. Shurtleff 
describes the island as resembling a 
whale, with its head to the north and 
its back to the north-east. The rush- 
ing waters of Shirley Gut separate it 
from Point Shirley in Winthrop [see 
Point Shirley] ; on its north-east is the 
bay ; south-east Broad Sound, separat- 
ing it from Lovell's Island; and be- 
tween it and Long-island Head and 
Nix's Mate is the main ship-channel 
[see these islands mentioned, and 
Nix's Mate]. The island was once 
thickly wooded ; and it was early 
named Deer Island because " of the 
Deare which often swimme thither 
from the Maine when they are chased 
by the Woolves " (William Wood in 
his " New-England Prospect," printed 
in 1634). Sweetser, in his "King's 
Handbook of Boston Harbor," says, 
"A more modern romancer gives a 
vivid account of Sir Harry Vane, Endi- 
cott, and Winthrop, and their Pequot 
slaves, hunting the deer here with 
arquebuse and arbalest. Then there 
were high forests and grassy glades, 
swamps and thickets, all over the 
island." The cutting of the forests 
began in 1636, when permission was 
given the townspeople to take wood 
from the island ; and before very long 
the noble trees disappeared, and few 
have since been able to thrive there 
against the east winds. Boston came 
into possession of the island in 1634, 
together with Long and Hog Islands. 



It was first required to pay an annual 
tribute of £2 therefor ; but a year 
later this was reduced to 4 shillings, 
and Spectacle Island thrown into the 
bargain. In 1684, several Indians 
having laid claim to the island, a quit- 
claim was secured signed by the chiefs 
Wampatuck and -David, the former 
grandson of the famous Chickatabot, 
and the latter son of Sagamore 
George. The first use to which the 
island was put by the town was to 
make it a pound for stray swine and 
goats found roaming about the town, 
the fees to be applied to the mainte- 
nance of the "free schoole for the 
Towne." Subsequently the island was 
let to planters ; the income, as before, 
applied to the support of the school. 
In 1662-63 the lease reverted to Sir 
Thomas Temple, a lineal descendant 
of Earl Leofric of Mercia and Lady 
Godiva of Coventry, and brother of 
■ the famous Sir William Temple. A 
son of Sir Thomas, who afterwards 
became famous as Sir John Temple, 
was born on one of the harbor-islands. 
After his return to England, Sir Thom- 
as Temple befriended the colonies at 
court. In 1675-76, during King Phil- 
ip's war, the Christian Indians, torn 
from their inland villages, were con- 
fined here. Sweetser recalls the tes- 
timony of Eliot, their saintly apostle, 
that " they went to their captivity 
' patiently, humbly, and piously, with- 
out murmuring or complaining against 
ye English.' . . . Later in the winter," 
says Sweetser, "as town after town 
was destroyed by the hostile tribes, and 
homeless fugitives poured even into 
Boston, the hard-pressed Provincials 
sent down to Deer Island asking for 
volunteers. Many of the captives 
came forward, and were armed and 
sent to the frontiers, . . . where they 
fought their red brethren with equal 
valor and skill, so that they slew 400 
of them, and rescued many white cap- 
tives. ... In May, 1676, the surviving 
women and children and old men 
were returned to their villages in 
honor." Some of these unhappy 



DEER ISLAND 



153 



DIET-KITCHENS 



Christian Indians were sent into slave- 
ry in the West Indies, and never 
returned. For a time afterward the 
island was used as a prison for hostile 
Indians captured in war. Two centu- 
ries after, in the spring of 1882, to 
this island came the band of Zuni In- 
dians, who had travelled the great 
distance from the mysterious pueblos 
of New Mexico to the sea, to fill their 
ancestral vessels with its sacred waters, 
and to perform their weird religious 
ceremonies on the shores of " The 
Ocean of Sunrise." The island was 
a summer-resort during the first 20 
years or so of the present century. 
At one time it had a hotel, with all 
the paraphernalia of a summering- 
place, and a resort for picnic-parties. 
The establishment of city institutions 
began here in 1847. The first attempt 
at quarantine in Boston Harbor was 
made in the summer of that year in 
connection with this island ; and sev- 
eral large buildings were built to shel- 
ter Irish immig'-ints, many of whom 
died from the scourge of ship-fever. 
The next year a portion of the in- 
mates of the House of Industry were 
removed to the island ; and three or 
four years after, the large brick build- 
ing now known as the House of In- 
dustry was erected. This consists of 
a central block, with a cupola, and 
three large wings. The other build- 
ings are the House of Reformation 
for Girls, a brick schoolhouse for tru- 
ant boys, a wooden one for nursery, a 
brick workshop, laundry, bakery, and 
engineer's house ; farmhouse, green- 
house, barns, a large piggery, and nu- 
merous out-buildings. A broad avenue 
extends from the "front of the main 
building to the wharf, and around the 
island, passing the various buildings. 
Large vegetable-gardens on the hill- 
slopes are cultivated, and much prac- 
tical and profitable work is secured 
from the inmates of the institutions 
under their systematic management. 
[ See Public Institutions :] Steamer " J. 
Putnam Bradlee " makes daily trips to 
the island from Eastern-avenue Wharf. 



Dental College (The Boston).— 

No. 485 Tremont Street. Incorporated 
1868. An institution for the advance- 
ment of dental art, and instruction in 
it by means of lectures and clinical 
exercises. It has a library and mu- 
seum. It maintains, also, an infirm- 
ary, affording gratuitous dental treat- 
ment for poor persons, they being 
required only to pay for the gold and 
other material used. The annual com- 
mencement-exercises of the college 
take place in March. In 1882, 19 stu- 
dents graduated, receiving the degree 
of D.D.S. The president of the col- 
lege is J. J. Wetherbee. 

Dexter Fund. — A bequest from 
the late Samuel Dexter, by his will in 
181 1, for supplying firewood or coal 
to such objects of charity as are not 
supported in the almshouse, though 
sometimes relieved by the overseers 
of the poor. The charity is adminis- 
tered by the overseers of the poor 
[see Overseers of the Poor]. The fund 
amounts to $2,999.58. 

Diet-Kitchens. — These excellent 
institutions were established, one for 
the North End in 1874, and the other 
for the South End in 1875, t0 furnish 
nourishing food daily to applicants who 
bring orders from dispensary physi- 
cians. The North-end kitchen is in 
the rear of No. 34 Lynde Street, which 
runs from Cambridge to Green Street ; 
and the South-end kitchen is at No. 19 
Bennet Street. These are open from 
11 to 1 daily, except Sundays. The 
operations of the North-end kitchen 
are limited to the district bounded by 
the water, Central Wharf, Milk, Wash- 
ington, Winter, Tremont, Boylston, and 
Arlington Streets, Commonwealth Av- 
enue, and Parker Street, including the 
North and West Ends; and the 
South-end kitchen supplies the sick 
poor living beween Essex Street and 
the Roxbury line. The orders^ for 
these diets state what is to be given, 
and for how long. Any person can 
purchase the diets at cost. About 
50,000 diets are annually given out 



DIRECTORS FOR PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS 



154 



DISPENSARIES 



from the North-end kitchen, and about 
half that number from the South-end 
kitchen. The North-end kitchen is 
managed by a committee of women, and 
the South-end kitchen by a board of 
twelve managers, all of them women. 

Directors for Public Institutions. 
— See Public Institutions. 

Directory for Nurses. — A direct- 
ory for nurses, satisfactorily recom- 
mended and ready when called for, is 
kept by Dr. Edwin H. Brigham, No. 
19 Boylston Place. Wet-nurses find 
places from the Temporary Home, 
Chardon Street; and such nurses can 
be secured at the Lying-in-Hospital, 
No. 24 McLean Street. 

Disabled Soldiers and Sailors 
(Aid to). — Aid from the city is given 
through the Charity Bureau, Chardon 
Street, to disabled soldiers and sailors 
and their families, and the families of 
those who lost their lives in the late 
war, or who have died since the war 
of injuries received or diseases con- 
tracted during service. The Mas- 
sachusetts Employment Bureau for 
disabled soldiers obtains employment, 
and helps such as are in need to self- 
support, provides transportation to any 
place where work is found, gives infor- 
mation to benevolent people or organi- 
zations concerning needy soldiers, and 
investigates cases. It also controls 
and directs the Soldiers' Messenger 
Corps, established in 1867, for mes- 
senger-service. The number of mes- 
sengers thus employed is now small, 
and diminishes year by year. The 
office of the Massachusetts Employ- 
ment Bureau is at No. 34 Pemberton 
Square. [See Soldiers' 1 Messenger 
Corps .] 

Dispensaries ( General) . — There 
are several dispensaries in the city, 
each of which does an extensive 
work, and performs it systematically. 
The Boston Dispensary is the oldest, 
and the third institution of the kind 
in the country. It Was founded in 
1796, and incorporated in 1801. It 



has a central office at Bennet and Ash 
Streets, near the centre of population 
of the city proper ; and operates in 
the city at large, which it divides, for 
convenience, into nine districts. At the 
central office physicians are in attend- 
ance daily, at stated hours, who treat 
men, women, and children, perform 
surgical operations, and dispense medi- 
cines which are prepared here. To 
each of the nine districts a physician 
is also assigned, who treats those at 
their homes who are unable to call at 
the central office. The staff of phy- 
sicians and surgeons at the central 
office give their services gratuitously, 
and those serving in the districts at a 
very small compensation. The dis- 
pensary is supported by invested funds 
and private contributions. The cen- 
tral office is open daily from 8 A.M. to 
6 p.m., and on Sundays and legal 
holidays from 9 to 10 a.m. About 
35,000 patients are treated yearly at 
the central office or in the districts, and 
about 180,000 receipts are dispensed. 
In the Chariest own district there is 
a free dispensary, connected with the 
Charlestown Free Dispensary and 
Hospital, at No. 27 Harvard Square, 
Charlestown district [see Charles- 
town Free Dispensary and Hospital} ; 
and in the Roxbury district a dispens- 
ary (formerly a separate institution, 
founded in 1841) is connected with 
the Roxbury Charitable Society, at 
No. 118 Roxbury Street, Roxbury dis- 
trict [see Roxbury Charitable Society]. 
A homoeopathic medical dispensary, in- 
corporated in 1856, is maintained, with 
a central office and two branches cover- 
ing the South and West Ends. The 
central dispensary is at No. 11 Bur- 
roughs Place ; the South-end, or col- 
lege dispensary as it is called, is at 
School of Medicine Building, East- 
Concord Street [see Boston Univer- 
sity, School of Medicine] ; and the 
West-end branch is in the Charity 
Building, Chardon Street, Room 5. 
Homoeopathic treatment and medi- 
cines are provided at these gratui- 
tously to poor persons, and very sick 



DISPENSARIES 



55 



DORCHESTER SOLDIERS' MONUMENT 



patients are visited at their homes. 
The dispensaries are open every day 
except Sundays. [See Homoeopathic 
Medical Dispensary :] 

Dispensaries (Special). — At 18 
Staniford Street, West End, is a dis- 
pensary for diseases of women, and 
also at the same place one for diseases 
of children. Both were established in 
1873. The former is open on Mon- 
days, Wednesdays, and Fridays, from 
10 a.m. to 12 m. ; and the latter on 
Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 
the same hours. At these, medical 
advice and treatment are given to the 
needy poor, but no medicines. There 
is a dispensary connected with the 
New-England Hospital for Women 
and Children on Codman Avenue 
[see New- England Hospital, etc.]. This 
is at No. 19 Fayette Street. Patients 
are received daily from 9 to 10 a.m. ; 
and medical advice is given to needy 
women and children gratuitously, with 
medicine at 25 cts. a bottle, or free. 
Visits are also made in South Boston, 
and the central or south portions of 
the city proper, to the homes of those 
not able to attend the dispensary. 
Dispensaries for special diseases are 
also connected with the Free Hospital 
for Women, No. 60 East-Springfield 
Street; the Children's Hospital, No. 
1583 Washington Street; Boston 
Dental College, No. 485 Tremont 
Street ; Massachusetts General Hos- 
pital ; the Charitable Eye and Ear In- 
firmary, No. 176 Charles Street ; and 
Carney Hospital [see these]. 

Docks. — See Terminal Facilities 
and Wharves. 

Dorchester District. — The o 1 d 
township of Dorchester originally in- 
cluded what is now South Boston (an- 
nexed to Boston in 1804), Washington 
Village (joined to the city proper in 
1855), Squantum (added to the town of 
Quincy the same year), and a portion 
added to Hyde Park in 1868. Before 
the annexation of the old town to Bos- 
ton, it contained four sections, — Dor- 



chester proper, Neponset, Harrison 
Square, and Mattapan. Dorchester 
was first settled by a party of English 
Puritans, who landed at Nantasket, 
June 11, 1630. The town was estab- 
lished on the same date as Boston. A 
church was built by the first settlers, 
which long ago disappeared, and its 
exact site is unknown. The first water- 
mill in America was set up in Dorches- 
ter, and the New-England cod-fishery 
originated here. In 1634 it was the lar- 
gest town in New England. Situated 
on Dorchester Bay, an arm of Boston 
Harbor, it is a healthful, attractive, and 
picturesque region; and years ago it 
became a favorite place of suburban 
residence for Boston business-men. It 
is one of the most interesting of the 
outlying districts of the city, and its 
people are among the most cultivated. 
Many of the older estates are very 
beautiful, being adorned with fine gar- 
dens. The older streets are wide, and 
shaded by noble trees ; and from its 
hills extended views of the harbor on 
the one side, and the country on others, 
are to be had. Dorchester is an his- 
toric place, and has many points of 
interest to the observant stranger. 
[See Dorchester Burying-ground under 
the head of Old Burying-grounds ; also 
First Parish Church, Dorchester^ 
Dorchester retained its town organiza- 
tion until annexed to Boston, June 22, 
1869. [See Annexations^ 

Dorchester Heights. — See Siege 
of Boston ; also portion of the para- 
graph on Water-works. 

Dorchester Soldiers' Monument 
(The). — In the open space in front 
of the church on Meeting-house Hill, 
Dorchester district. This is of red 
Gloucester granite, 31 feet high, and 8 
feet square at the base, resting on a 
ledge of rock. The form is that of an 
obelisk. Its base has square projec- 
tions at the angles, supporting four but- 
tresses, each with an upright cannon in 
half-relief. Between these are raised 
polished tablets, with the names of the 
Dorchester soldiers who lost their lives 



DORIC HALL 



156 



DRAMA IN BOSTON 



in the war of the Rebellion. Above 
the tablets are garlands of laurel in 
relief. The die containing. the tablets 
is capped by a heavy cornice ; and 
above is a second die, with ornamental 
scrolls at the corners. On the four faces 
of the die are round panels, with sunk- 
en marble tablets having appropriate 
inscriptions and symbols. The shaft, 
an obelisk which rises from the second 
die, is four feet square at the base, and 
has two projecting belts ; the lower one 
with a large star in relief on each face, 
and the upper the shield of the United 
States. The architect was B. F. 
D wight. The monument was dedicat- 
ed on Sept. 17, 1867. The oration on 
the occasion was delivered by Rev. 
Charles A: Humphreys of Springfield. 

Doric Hall. — See State House. 

Drives. — See Amusements, and 
Suburbs of Boston. 

Drama in Boston (The). — The 

introduction of the theatre in Boston 
was strenuously opposed by many of 
the townspeople, and the playhouse 
was an established institution in New 
York and Philadelphia long before it 
was at all tolerated here. In 1750 an 
Act was passed " to prevent stage- 
plays and other theatrical entertain- 
ments," imposing heavy fines on the 
owner of the premises in which such 
entertainments should be given in 
defiance of the law, and upon the 
spectators and actors as well ; and 
several unsuccessful attempts were 
made to secure its repeal, during the 
years succeeding, before it finally dis- 
appeared from the statute-books. In- 
deed, the theatre was well established 
in Boston while the Act was still in 
existence. The first attempt at a 
theatrical entertainment was the per- 
formance of Otway's " Orphan " in 
the British Coffee-House on State 
(then King) Street (on the spot now 
occupied by the building No. 66 State 
Street), by a " company of gentle- 
men," in 1750; and it was this enter- 
prise that led to the passage of the 



Act forbidding " stage-plays." In 1775 
the British officers, aided by a so- 
ciety for Promoting Theatrical Amuse- 
ments, formed of Tory gentlemen and 
ladies, set up a theatre in Faneuil 
Hall, where several plays, tragedies, 
and farces were performed in a crude 
way, the soldiers being the actors ; and 
an attempt was made to perform a 
play by Gen. Burgoyne, " The Block- 
ade of Boston," the entertainment 
being suddenly broken up in a panic 
by the announcement that a battle was 
going on in Charlestown, and that the 
officers were ordered to their posts 
[see Faneitil Hall']. It was not until 
1792 that another attempt was made 
to introduce theatrical entertainments. 
The law against them had been re- 
enacted in 1784; and discussions in 
town-meeting and efforts in the Gen- 
eral Court had failed to secure its re- 
peal, though quite a number of prom- 
inent citizens favored the more liberal 
legislation asked for. Consequently 
the new playhouse was called the 
" New Exhibition Room," and the 
drama was introduced in the guise of 
a " moral lecture." This " Exhibition 
Room " was a rude structure, a stable 
reconstructed, situated on Board Alley, 
now Hawley Street. It was under 
the management of Joseph Harper, a 
member of the company of Hallam 
& Henry, who had established play- 
houses in New York and Philadelphia, 
and also in the neighboring city of 
Providence, and who had unsuccess- 
fully striven to obtain authority to open 
a theatre here under " proper restric- 
tions." The bill at the opening of 
the " Exhibition Room " is given in 
Drake's " Landmarks of Boston." It 
announces that " this evening, the 10th 
of August, will be exhibited Dancing 
on the Tight Rope by Monsieurs Pla- 
cide and Martin. Mons. Placide will 
dance a Hornpipe on a Tight Rope, 
play the Violin in various attitudes, and 
jump over a cane backwards and for- 
wards." There was also to be an 
" Introductory Address by Mr. Har- 
per, singing by Mr. Wools ; various 



DRAMA IN BOSTON 



157 



DRAMA IN BOSTON 



feats of tumbling by Mons. Placicle 
and Martin, who will make somersetts 
backwards over a table, chair, etc. 
Mons. Martin will exhibit several feats 
on the Slack-Rope. In the course of 
the Evening's Entertainment will be 
delivered The Gallery of Portraits, 
or The World as it goes, by Mr. 
Harper. The whole to conclude v with 
a Dancing Ballet called The Bird 
Catcher, with the Minuet de la Cour 
and the Gavot." For succeeding per- 
formances, Col. W. .W. Clapp in his 
chapter on The Drama in Boston, in 
the " Memorial History," records that 
Otway's " Venice Preserved " was an- 
nounced as a moral lecture in five 
parts, " in which the dreadful effects 
of conspiracy will be exemplified ; " 
Garrick's farce of " Lethe " was pro- 
duced as a satirical lecture entitled 
" Lethe, or iEsop in the Shades ; " 
Shakspeare's plays were also intro- 
duced as "moral lectures;" and a 
moral lecture in five parts was given, 
" wherein the pernicious tendency of 
libertinism will be exemplified in the 
tragical history of George Barnwell, 
or The London Merchant." This 
evasion of the law did not long con- 
tinue unmolested. During the midst 
of a performance on the evening of 
Dec. 5, 1792, Sheriff Allen appeared 
on the stage, and arrested Harper the 
manager, who was representing the 
crooked-back tyrant. The audience 
thereupon became tumultuous, and ex- 
pressed their indignation by tearing 
down the portrait of Gov. Hancock, 
which hung in front of the stage-box, 
and the State arms, and trampling 
them under their feet. The next day 
Harper was defended at the hearing 
in Faneuil Hall by Harrison Gray 
Otis ; and his discharge was secured 
on a technicality based on the illegality 
of the warrant, which had not been 
properly issued. After this, perform- 
ances continued in " The Exhibition 
Room," but only at intervals, until 
the spring of 1793; when the move- 
ment was begun for the erection of the 
Federal-street Theatre, public senti- 



ment in favor of the theatre having 
strengthened meanwhile. The Federal- 
street was finished, and opened for its 
first performance on the evening of 
Feb. 4, 1794. It stood on the corner 
of Federal and Franklin Streets : the 
site is now occupied by the establish- 
ment of Jones, McDuffee, & Stratton 
[see Art-Stores]. It was called the 
Boston Theatre, and sometimes the 
" Old Drury " after Drury Lane, Lon- 
don. In its erection many influential 
people of the town were interested ; 
and when it was opened, it was pro- 
nounced to be the finest theatre in the 
country. Charles Bulfinch was the ar- 
chitect. It was built of brick, with an 
arcade projecting from its front, which 
served as a carriage-entrance. Corinth- 
ian pilasters and columns decorated 
front and rear, after the style then the 
rage in the town. From the main en- 
trance was a spacious saloon, and two 
staircases at the rear led up to corri- 
dors at the back of the boxes ; while 
the entrance to the pit and gallery was 
from the sides of the building. The 
interior was circular in form, the ceil- 
ing composed of elliptic arches resting 
on Corinthian columns. The walls were 
painted azure, and the columns straw 
and lilac color. There were two rows 
of boxes, the second tier hung with 
crimson silk. The roomy stage was 
flanked by two columns. Over it the 
arms of the nation and the State were 
painted, with the motto depending 
from them, " All the World's a Stage." 
At the east end of the building was a 
large ball-room, with several retiring- 
rooms. The theatre was amply pro- 
vided with exits. The bill on the 
opening night was " the truly repub- 
lican tragedy " of " Gustavus Vasa, 
the Deliverer of his Country ; " and 
the farce of " Modern Antiques, or The 
Merry Mourners." Charles Stuart 
Powell and Baker were the managers, 
and the company was from England. 
The prologue was written by Robert 
Treat Paine, and delivered by Powell 
in the character of Apollo. The first 
year was an unprofitable one. On the 



DRAMA IN BOSTON 



158 



DRAMA IN BOSTON 



2d of February, 1798, the theatre was 
burned ; but it was at once rebuilt, and 
re-opened on Oct. 29, the same year. 
It continued with, varying fortunes, 
and under various managements, until 
1833 ; when, another wave of opposi- 
tion to the theatre passing over the 
town, it was leased to the society of 
" Free Inquirers," and converted into 
a lecture-room. In T834 it fell into 
the possession of the Academy of 
Music, an institution for instruction in 
vocal and instrumental music [see 
Music in Boston] ; and its name was 
changed to the Odeon. In 1846 it 
was reconverted into' a theatre, and 
in 1852 it was taken down to make 
way for a business-block. During its 
career many actors eminent in their 
time appeared upon its boards. Among 
them were Thomas A. Cooper, James 
Fennel (the first to give Shakspearian 
readings in Boston), the elder Wallack, 
Edmund Kean, Henry J. Finn (who 
perished in the steamer " Lexington "), 
the elder Booth, Macready, Forrest, 
and the first Charles Matthews. The 
Kean riot occurred here, when the actor 
was driven from the stage ; the occasion 
of it being his refusal on a previous 
visit to play because the house was 
thin. Though it was a lively affair 
while it lasted, and the riot-act was 
read, beyond the destruction of furni- 
ture inside the theatre, no serious 
damage was done. 

The second theatre was the Hay- 
market. It was a large building of 
wood, and stood on Tremont and 
Boylston Streets, nearly on the spot 
now occupied by the Evans House. 
It opened on Dec. 26, 1796, under the 
management of Powell, the first man- 
ager of the Boston ; which he relin- 
quished after the first year, and opened 
the new theatre as a rival establish- 
ment. The opening bill was " Belle's 
Stratagem." The house, though un- 
attractive externally, was well arranged 
inside. It had three tiers of boxes, a 
pit and gallery, and a large saloon. 
It was not a success as a playhouse, 



1823 the City Theatre was opened in 
" Washington Gardens." These Gar- 
dens were on Tremont Street, extend- 
ing from midway between Winter 
Street and Temple Place and West 
Street. The St. Paul's Church and 
the United-States Court House now 
occupy the northern part of the site. 
The Gardens were surrounded by a 
brick wall ; and the City Theatre, 
afterwards known as the Washing- 
ton Theatre, and also as the Vaux- 
hall, was constructed from an am- 
phitheatre built within the grounds in 
1819 for summer entertainments. The 
house was adapted for a circus as well 
as a theatre. It stood removed from 
the street, in the rear of the lot now 
occupied by St. Paul's. In 1827 the 
old Tremont Theatre was built, and 
was opened on the 24th of September, 
that year. This was, during the most 
of its career, a theatre of high standard. 
On its boards many sterling actors and 
actresses made their first appearance 
in Boston. Charlotte Cushman made 
her debut here on April 8, 1835; 
Fanny Kemble appeared here for the 
first time in Boston ; and among the 
others who trod its boards were J. 
Sheridan Knowles, James E. Mur- 
doch, Ellen Tree, John Vandenhoff, 
Fanny Ellsler, Buckstone, and John 
Gilbert (whose first appearance was 
on Nov. 28, 1828). The building had 
a plain granite front, in imitation of 
the Ionic, with pillars supporting an 
entablature and pediment. The en- 
trance-hall was something like that of 
the old Federal-street. It was wide 
and spacious, with stairways ascend- 
ing to the boxes of the dress-circle. 
The interior of the theatre was invit- 
ing, and was well arranged, with a 
spacious stage and attractive fittings ; 
and it was provided with spacious 
lobbies and retiring - rooms, and a 
saloon, — a customary feature of the 
earlier theatres. Isaiah Rogers, the 
architect of the Tremont House [see 
Tremont Honse\ was the architect. 
The opening bill, as given by Drake 
in his " Landmarks," was " Wives as 



DRAMA JN BOSTON 



159 



DRAMA IN BOSTON 



they Were, and Maids as they Are," 
and the farce of " Lady and the Devil." 
It was announced that " the orchestra 
will embrace the most distinguished 
musical talent in the country ; leader, 
Mr. Ostinelli." There was a prize 
opening address, which was read on 
the occasion. William Pelby was the 
first manager, and among succeeding 
managers were J. B. Booth and Thomas 
Barry. In 1843 tne theatre was sold 
to the Baptists ; and its career as a 
playhouse was ended with the per- 
formance of June 23, that year. It was 
next rebuilt as the Tremont Temple 
[see Tremont Temple]. The Old Na- 
tional was the next theatre to be es- 
tablished. This was first opened as 
the Warren Theatre ; and it stood on 
Portland Street, near the corner of 
Traverse, where before had been the 
American Amphitheatre. As the 
Warren Theatre it was opened on 
July 3, 1832, by William Pelby, man- 
ager. In 1836 it was reconstructed, 
and then re-opened as the National. 
Thomas Barry was for a while man- 
ager. On April 22, 1852, it was burned ; 
but was rebuilt, and re-opened on the 
1st of November following. In 1856 
its name was changed to Willard's 
National Theatre ; then, a few months 
after, to the People's National Thea- 
tre. The following year its old. title 
of the National was resumed. In 
1862 it became a variety theatre, 
under the name of Union Concert- 
Hall ; and on March 24, 1863, it was 
again burned, and its career ended. 
The Lion Theatre, opened Jan. 11, 
1836, occupied the site of the modern 
Bijou Theatre. In 1839 it was con- 
verted into a lecture-hall, known as 
the Mechanics' Institute ; then, in 1839, 
it was opened by the Handel and 
Haydn Society as the Melodeon ; in 
1844 it was converted into a tempo- 
rary theatre for the engagement of Ma- 
cready, then supported by Charlotte 
Cushman ; subsequently it became a 
leading concert and lecture hall ; in 
1859 it was rebuilt, and became a min- 
strel-hall ; in- i860 parlor-operas were 



given in it ; during the National Sail- 
ors' Fair in the Boston Theatre, in the 
winter of 1S64, a series of brilliant 
amateur theatrical entertainments were 
given here for the benefit of the fair ; 
then it became a billiard-hall ; and in 
1878 was re-arranged as the Gaiety 
Theatre, whose career closed in 1882, 
when the Bijou succeeded. The ori- 
ginal Boston Museum and Gallery of 
Fine Arts, on Tremont Street, where 
the Horticultural Society's building 
now stands, was first opened June 14, 
1841 ; and the present Boston Museum, 
on Nov. 2, 1846. The Eagle Thea- 
tre, corner of Haverhill and Traverse 
Streets, flourished from June, 1842, to 
March, 1843, under the management 
of Wyzeman Marshall. The Howard 
Athenaeum was first opened in Octo- 
ber, 1845. Brougham and Bland's 
Boston Adelphi, on Court Street, be- 
tween Cornhill and Brattle Street, 
had a career extending from April, 
1847, t0 1848. Bland's Lyceum, Sud- 
bury Street, near Court Street, was 
opened in September, 1848 ; in 1852 
it became the Eagle Theatre, and 
flourished until 1853, under several 
names, as a variety theatre and min- 
strel-hall. The Dramatic Museum, 
on Beach Street, was opened in 
October, 1848 ; in 1849 was Thome's 
American Museum, the senior Charles 
R. Thorne manager ; after that the 
Beach-street Museum, and then as 
the Olympic, closing its career in 
1850. The present Boston Theatre 
was first opened Sept. 11, 1854. The 
Aquarial Gardens, on Central Court, 
now occupied by the extension of the 
dry-goods establishment of Jordan, 
Marsh, & Co., opened in i860; and it 
was afterwards transformed into a 
theatre as the Theatre Comique. It 
so continued from 1865 to 1869 ; then 
it was called the New Adelphi, and 
in 1870 the Worrell Sisters' Adel- 
phi. The New Tremont Theatre, 
remodelled from Allston Hall, the 
southerly end of Studio Building, Tre- 
mont Street, was opened in 1863 ; and 
during a part of its career excellent 



DRUGGISTS' ASSOCIATION 



I 60 



DUDLEY-STREET OPERA HOUSE 



performances were given by French 
dramatic companies and American 
stars; though it was. used at times as 
a variety theatre and a minstrel-hall, 
and closed as a theatre in 1866. The 
Continental Theatre, on the site of 
the old Apollo Gardens, Washington 
Street, corner of Harvard, opened on 
Jan. 1, 1866, had a checkered career 
until 1872, from 1868 for a while 
known as the Olympic, and later as 
St. James. Selwyn's Theatre, after- 
wards the Globe, was opened Oct. 29, 
1867 ; Burnell's Museum, later the 
Boylston, 1874; the Park Theatre, 
1879; Dudley-street Opera House, 
1879; and Novelty, later Hooley's, and 
now Windsor, 1879 '■> an d the several 
garden-theatres, in 1879. [Sketches of 
the several existing theatres are given 
elsewhere in this book ; and also of 
the garden-theatres, under the title of 
Simimer Gardens^ Boston is now 
regarded by the " profession," and 
managers in the business, as one of 
the best "show " places in the country, 
where the best efforts and the greatest 
" stars " will almost always pay. 

Druggists' Association (The Bos- 
ton). — Organized in 1875 for the fur- 
therance of the interests of the whole- 



sale and retail drug-trade, the paint 
and oil trade, medicine-houses, and 
co-ordinate branches of trade. It is 
largely a social organization. It has 
monthly meetings and dinners at the 
Parker House. It has a membership 
of about 75. The president is Thomas 
Doliber, and the secretary Henry Can- 
ning. 

Dudley - street Opera House 
(The), corner of Washington and 
Dudley Streets, is a bright little play- 
house in the Roxbury district. It was 
constructed from Institute Hall. The 
interior is not specially showy, but has 
a pleasing appearance. The stage is 
small, but conveniently arranged ; and 
the opera-chairs for the audience are 
so placed on the inclined floor as to 
insure a good view for all occupying 
them. There are three entrances to 
the auditorium, and one to the stage. 
The house seats 700. It was first 
opened in 1879; and regular perform- 
ances were that season, and one or two 
succeeding seasons, given. At present, 
however, it is opened occasionally to 
travelling combinations, and leased to 
amateur companies, or for concerts or 
public meetings. Nathaniel J. Brad- 
lee is the proprietor. 



EAST BOSTON 



161 



EAST BOSTON 



E. 



East Boston, connected with the 
city proper by ferry, and with the 
mainland at Chelsea and Winthrop by 
bridges, with its splendid water-front 
and its system of wharves, to be fur- 
ther improved and extended during the 
immediate future, was 50 years ago in- 
habited by a single family, and was of 
little or no importance except as a 
place for recreation by fishing-parties. ' 
It is an island, and was for a long time, 
in the earlier days, known as Noddle's 
Island, after William Noddle, who first 
lived upon it or occupied it, and whom 
Gov. Winthrop called " an honest man 
of Salem." It was known also as Mav- 
erick's, and sometimes as William's, 
Island. In 1633 the Court ordered 
that " Noddles Ileland is granted to 
Mr Samll Mauack [Maverick] to enjoy 
to him and to his heirs forever. Yield- 
ing and payeing yearly att the Generall 
Court, to the Gouv r for the time being, 
either a fatt weather, a fatt hogg, or xls 
in money, and shall gieu leave to Bos- 
ton and Charles Towne to fetch wood 
contynually as their neede requires 
from the southerne pte of sd ileland." 
Mr. Maverick lived in a fort here 
which he had built in 1630. In 1636 
the island was "layd to Boston." It 
then contained about 660 acres, to- 
gether with several hundred acres of 
marshes and flats, which were confirmed 
as part of it by the Colonial Legislature 
in 1640. In 1776 a fort was built here 
for part protection of the town, but it 
was not utilized. Later, in 18 14, an- 
other and quite substantial fort was 
erected on Camp Hill ; possibly the 
site of Mr. Maverick's fort, but cer- 
tainly the site of that erected in 1776. 
This later work was done by members 
of various societies of the State as well 



as the city; and when it was completed 
it was named Fort Strong, after Gov. 
Strong. In the autumn of 1819 a duel 
was fought on the island between 
Lieut. Francis B. White and Lieut. 
William Finch of the United-States 
service ; and Lieut. White, the chal- 
lenging party, was instantly killed. 
Dr. Shurtleff, in his " Topographical 
and Historical Description of Boston," 
locates the place of this duel not far 
from the present Border Street, near 
two elms that formerly stood there. 
The project to improve the island was 
conceived long before the incorpora- 
tion of the "East-Boston Company" 
in 1833, which carried the work for- 
ward. Gen. William H. Sumner, 
whose family in part owned the island 
near the close of the last century, and 
who himself became an owner later, is 
credited with the conception of the 
idea of improving the place on a broad 
plan. In 1801 he made an unsuccess- 
ful attempt to secure the establish- 
ment of the Navy Yard there instead 
of at Charlestown. The charter of the 
East-Boston Company, which was com- 
posed of about a dozen capitalists, pro- 
vided that certain portions of land 
should be set apart for sites for a pub- 
lic school, engine-houses, and a burial- 
ground. The work of improvement 
once begun, it was pushed forward 
rapidly. The place was laid out into 
streets and lots, and public and private 
sales of lands were made which netted 
handsome profits. In 1836 the ter- 
minus of the Eastern Railroad was lo- 
cated here ; the Maverick House was 
next built; then, in 1840, the Cunard 
Line was established, with its docks 
here ; the place became an important 
ship-building centre (here was built the 



EAST BOSTON 



l62 



EASTERN RAILROAD 



" Great Republic," the largest sailing- 
ship in the world in its day) ; and in 
1850-51 the Grand-junction Railway, 
uniting the several railway-lines en- 
tering the city, and the wharves con- 
nected with it, were completed, — the 
occasion being celebrated with other 
events during the great Railroad Jubi- 
ilee, which extended over three days, 
and brought together many great men 
of that day, including the president of 
the United' States and representatives 
of the Canadian government. The 
Grand-junction Railway subsequently 
passed into the control of the Boston 
and Albany Railroad [see Boston and 
Albany Station and Line]. East Bos- 
ton, though less attractive than in its 
palmier days, is an interesting part of 
the city. Its streets are wide ; it has 
several little parks; some fine water- 
views are to be seen from its high 
points; its manufactories are numer- 
ous and important ; and its wharves 
and docks are among its most con- 
spicuous features. The principal thor- 
oughfares are Meridian Street running 
north and south, and Chelsea Street, 
with other streets intersecting these, 
running for the most part in direct 
lines across the island. Webster 
Street commands a fine view of the 
harbor and the city proper. The 
streets are named chiefly for battles of 
the Revolution, for leading commercial 
cities, or for famous poets and ai'tists. 
The several squares are named respec- 
tively, Central, Belmont, Putman, Pres- 
cott, and Maverick. The first two are 
the largest, and are pleasant places, 
with well-shaded paths. A larger and 
more ambitious park is contemplated ; 
the city having appropriated in 1881 
$50,000 to meet the expense of pur- 
chasing and laying it out [see Public- 
Park System]. There are two ferries to 
East Boston, known as the North and 
vSouth, which are owned by the city. 
The ferry of the Boston, Revere-beach, 
and Lynn Railroad also connects with 
East Boston [see Boston, Revere-beach, 
and Lynn Railroad]. The total valua- 
tion of East Boston in 1882, $7,760,400. 



Eastern Railroad Station and 
Line. — Passenger-station on Cause- 
way Street, between the stations of 
the Boston and Lowell and Fitchburg 
roads. This station is a brick build- 
ing, with a central tower upon which 
is a clock. The interior is somewhat 
crowded, the great business of the 
railroad having outgrown it ; but it is 
well arranged for the prompt despatch 
of trains. The waiting-rooms are at 
the front of the building, and the 
train-house at the rear. The station 
was built in 1863, replacing a former 
station destroyed by fire. The East- 
ern Railroad Company was chartered 
April 14, 1836, to build a road from 
East Boston to the New-Hampshire 
line. This was completed on Nov. 9, 
1840. The main line now runs from 
Boston to Portland, and from Conway 
Junction to North Conway, N. H., 
connecting there with the Portland 
and Ogdensburg, running through the 
midst of the White Mountains, — a fa- 
vorite route with tourists. The main 
line is 180 miles in all, and its branches 
cover 102 miles; the total length of 
lines owned, leased, and operated by 
the road being 281.69 miles. The 
length of road in Massachusetts is 120.- 
79 miles; in New Hampshire, 107.63; 
and in Maine, 53.55 miles. It has. a 
close alliance with the Maine-Central 
system, and thus substantially controls 
all the traffic to the east of Portland 
and with the Maritime Provinces. 
For many years the road enjoyed 
great prosperity, but since 1873 it has 
passed through many hardships. From 
1876 its affairs, however, have steadily 
improved ; and the reports of recent 
years have been most encouraging. 
Its summer business is extensive and 
profitable. Passing along the North 
Shore, its main line and branches touch 
the most noteworthy of the summer- 
resorts of that region. The Gloucester 
Branch, from Beverlv, through Beverly 
Farms, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mag- 
nolia, Gloucester, to Rockport, is one 
of the best branches controlled by the 
company, doing an immense summer 



163 



ELECTIONS 



business. The president of the East- 
ern is George E. B. Jackson ; general 
manager, Payson Tucker ; and the gen- 
eral passenger-agent, Lucius Tuttle. 

Elections. — The municipal elec- 
tion takes place annually on the Tues- 
day after the second Monday in Decem- 
ber. The officers chosen are : mayor ; 
the board of aldermen, which consists 
of 12 members; the common council, 
consisting of 72 members (the two 
latter bodies together constituting the 
city council), each to serve one year; 
8 members of the school-committee 
(one-third of the entire body), to serve 
three years ; and one street-commis- 
sioner, to serve three years. The may- 
or, aldermen, members of the school- 
committee, and street commissioner 
are chosen by the city at large, and 
the council men by the 25 wards. The 
wards of the city are divided into small 
and compact voting-precincts, each pre- 
cinct containing as nearly as practica- 
ble 500 voters; the polling-places are 
selected by the board of aldermen ; 
and the several election-officers, con- 
sisting of a wai'den, a deputy-warden, 
a clerk, a deputy-clerk, two inspectors 
of elections, and two deputy-inspectors 
for each precinct, who serve for one 
year, are all appointed annually before 
Oct. 1, by the mayor, with the approval 
of the board of aldermen. These elec- 
tion-officers are paid at the rate of $5 
per diem for actual service ; with the 
exception of the clerks of precincts, 
who are paid at the rate of $7 per diem, 
on condition that their records are kept 
to the satisfaction of the city-clerk, to 
whom their returns are made. The 
final examination of the returns is 
made by the board of aldermen, and 
notification in writing is given to those 
elected. The preparation, correction, 
and revision of the voting-lists are 
under the direction and control of the 
board of registrars of voters ; which 
consists of three " able and discreet 
men, inhabitants of the city," one of 
whom is appointed by the mayor, with 
the approval of the board of aldermen, 



each year, for a term of three years. 
Each member of this board receives a 
salary of $2,500 per annum. The office 
of the board is at No. 30 Pemberton 
-Square. The voting-lists are made up 
15 days before a regular election, and 
posted in convenient places about the 
city ; and persons qualified to vote, 
whose names are not on the lists, are 
given an opportunity to present them- 
selves for registration until ten o'clock 
in the evening of the seventh day next 
preceding the day of election, when 
registration ceases. Persons otherwise 
qualified must have resided in the 
State one year, and within the city six 
months, next preceding the election 
for which the registration is made. 
Women of 21 years and upwards, who 
have resided in the State and city the 
prescribed time, and who have paid, 
themselves, or by their guardians or 
trustees, a State, county, or city tax 
assessed upon them within two years 
next preceding the election for which 
registration is made, have the right to 
register, and vote for members of the 
school-committee ; and women are 
also eligible to membership in the 
committee. The polls are assessed 
annually in May. The proportion of 
voters registered to the population is 
small. According to statistics pub- 
lished November, 1882, in the Bos- 
ton " Herald," it has averaged of late 
years lower than any other large city 
in the country. New York, with a 
population of 1,206,590, cast for presi- 
dent in 1880, 204,343, or one vote in 
about 5.9 of population ; Philadelphia, 
with a population of 846,984, polled 
173,837 votes, or one in about 4.87, in 
the same election ; Brooklyn, with a 
population of 566,689, threw 112,-813 
votes in 1880, or one in about 5.02 of 
population; while Boston cast in 1880 
only one vote in about 6.79 of popula- 
tion. The number of polls assessed 
in 1882 was 102,594, or over 25 per 
cent increase over the figures of 1875. 
Reckoning the number of legal voters 
at the same ratio of increase, there were 
in Boston in 1882 over 85,000 legal 



ELECTRIC LIGHT 



164 



EMANCIPATION GROUP 



voters. There were registered for the 
State election in November, 55,493. 

Electric Light (The). — In very 
recent years this light has been quite 
extensively introduced into the city. 
In 1880 the privilege of lighting Scol- 
lay Square was secured by the Brush 
Electric Light Company; it having 
introduced the light to some extent in 
illuminating the exterior, and in a few 
cases the interior, of stores and hotels 
here. Later other companies obtained 
a foothold in the city; and during 
1882-83 the streets have been more 
extensively lighted by electricity than 
ever before since the introduction of 
the new light. It has also been utilized 
to a greater extent in illuminating inte- 
riors. Besides Scollay Square, portions 
of Court, State, Washington, and Tre- 
mont Streets, Park Square, and other 
sections are lighted with the electric 
light, which is furnished by three com- 
panies, — the Brush, the Weston, and 
the American. The city provides the 
posts from which the lamps are sus- 
pended, the companies supplying the 
lamps and the light. The city pays at 
the rate of 65 cents per light per night. 
The light is also employed in front of 
a large number of stores, hotels, and 
public places. In the Tremont House 
and in Young's Hotel, several of the 
halls and large dining-rooms are thus 
illuminated ; also the outside of the 
Hotel Brunswick, and the interior of 
the Hotel Vendome in part. Into the 
latter the Edison incandescent light is 
introduced. It is attached to the 
chandeliers in the large dining-room, is 
used in the passenger-elevator, and em- 
ployed as portable lamps in the office 
and reading-rooms. This light has also 
been introduced into the " Herald " and 
"Advertiser" offices, the Bijou Thea- 
tre, and several large manufacturing 
and business concerns. It is proposed 
to immediately introduce it into dwell- 
ings, supplying the electricity from 
central stations situated in different 
section of the city, along wires in pipes 
laid underground, and entering the 



houses through meters ; the occupants 
being charged for the use of the elec- 
tricity as recorded by this meter, in the 
same manner as is done with gas. The 
Brush Company proposes a similar in- 
troduction of the light for domestic pur- 
poses. Its light for street and general 
illumination is an arc light ; while that 
for domestic purposes is the Swan 
light, an English invention and an 
incandescent light. The Weston also 
has an arc and an incandescent light, 
the latter known as the Maxim light ; 
and the American Company also has 
both kinds. The Brush Company has 
two large generating stations, one near 
Merrimack Street, and the other in 
the Back-bay district ; and the Wes- 
'ton's principal generating-station is 
near the corner of South and Beach 
Streets. 

Eliot Congregational Church 

(Congregational Trinitarian), Roxbury 
district, Kenilworth Street. This was 
organized Sept. 18, 1834, by members 
formerly of the old First Parish ; and 
its church-edifice was completed and 
dedicated in November of the year 
following. Rev. John S. C. Abbott, 
the prolific writer of popular histories 
and other publications, was the first 
pastor. His pastorate continued until 
1S41 ; when in the following year he 
was succeeded by the present senior 
pastor, Rev. Augustus C. Thompson, 
D.D. Rev. Benjamin F. Hamilton was 
installed as associate pastor in 187 1. 

Elks. — See Benevolent and Protec- 
tive Order of Elks. 

Emancipation Group. — The 
bronze Emancipation Group, stand- 
ing nearly opposite the Boston and 
Providence Railroad Station in Park 
Square, was designed by Thomas Ball, 
cast at Munich, and presented to the 
city by the Hon. Moses Kimball, in 
1879. It is almost the only work of 
art.out-of-doors in the city that is any 
thing more than a portrait-statue. The 
principal figure is, however, an excel- 
lent and faithful representation of 



EMMANUEL CHURCH 



165 



ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL 



President Lincoln in feature, figure, 
and attitude. The figure of the slave, 
kneeling at his feet in gratitude, the 
broken fetters falling from his limbs 
in obedience to the grand Proclamation 
of Emancipation, is admirably con- 
ceived, and his face full of expression. 
On the granite pedestal is the word 
" Emancipation; " and on the base are 
these words : " A race set free, and the 
country at peace. Lincoln rests from 
his labors." The statue cost, exclusive 
of curbing (which was furnished by the 
city), $17,000. It is a duplicate of 
the " Freedman's Memorial " statue in 
Lincoln Square, Washington. It was 
unveiled Dec. 9, 1879 > tne Hon. Fred- 
erick O. Prince, then mayor of the city, 
delivering the oration. The sculptor 
Bartlett, in his " Civic Monuments of 
New England," does not speak highly 
of this monument ; dismissing it with 
the remark that " It is not an easy task 
to find merit in this work." [See Stat- 
ues and Monuments l\ 

Emmanuel Church, Newbury 
Street, Back-bay district. This church 
was organized in i860' to furnish a 
parish for the Rev. Frederick D. Hunt- 
ington, who had been pastor of the 
South Congregational Church (Uni- 
tarian), and Plummer Professor of 
Christian Morals and Preacher to the 
University at Cambridge, and had left 
the Unitarian denomination to join the 
Episcopal Church. The first meeting 
to consider the project was held on 
March 17, that year, at the residence of 
William R. Lawrence, No. 98 Beacon 
Street. The first services were held in 
Mechanics' Hall, on the corner of Bed- 
ford and Chauncy Streets ; and the 
new church-building was consecrated 
April 24, 1862. Dr. Huntington was 
ordained deacon in Trinity Church, on 
Sept. 12, i860; and the following Sun- 
day he took charge of his new parish. 
He continued as rector here until 1869, 
when he was made bishop of Central 
New York. The late Rev. Dr. Alex- 
ander H. Vinton, who had been rector 
at St. Paul's from 1842 to 1858, when 



he removed to Philadelphia, returned 
to Boston, and succeeded Dr. Hunt- 
ington at Emmanuel. He continued 
here until the close of 1877, when he 
was obliged by advancing age to give 
up the rectorship ; and he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Leighton Parks, the 
rector now. Emmanuel is a stone 
church, built of Roxbury conglomerate, 
and of rich and brilliant interior. It 
is one of the wealthiest parishes in the 
city. 

English High School (The). — Es- 
tablished in 1 82 1, to meet the demand 
for a school where those not desiring 
a collegiate education, or lacking the 
means to procure a college training, 
might receive instruction in some of 
the higher branches beyond those 
taught in the elementary grammar- 
schools, and generally taught in colleges 
only. This want was well expressed 
in the report of a town-committee ap- 
pointed in June, 1820, to consider the 
feasibility of establishing an English 
classical school. " The mode of edu- 
cation now adopted," it said, " and the 
branches of knowledge that are taught 
at our English grammar-schools, are 
not sufficiently extensive, nor otherwise 
calculated to bring the powers of the 
mind into operation, nor to qualify a 
youth to fill usefully and respectably 
many of those stations, both public and 
private, in which he may be placed. 
A parent who wishes to give a child an 
education that shall fit him for active 
life, and shall serve as a foundation for 
eminence in his profession, whether 
mercantile or mechanical, is under the 
necessity of giving him a different edu- 
cation from any which our public 
schools can now furnish. Hence many 
children are separated from their par- 
ents, and sent to private academies in 
this vicinity to acquire that instruction 
which cannot be obtained at the public 
seminaries." On Jan. 15, 1821, it was 
voted by the freeholders, and others 
entitled to vote in town affairs, almost 
unanimously, to establish such a school 
as was asked for ; and in May follow- 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



1 66 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



ing the school was opened. It was 
first established in the upper story of 
the grammar-school building" then 
standing on Derne Street, corner of 
Hancock; then, in 1824, it was re- 
moved to Pinckney Street, corner of 
Anderson; next, in 1844, to the Latin- 
school Building, on Bedford Street, 
which it shared with the Latin School 
[see Latin School] ; and then, in 1881, 
to the present building on Dartmouth 
Street, Warren Avenue, and Mont- 
gomery Street [see Public-School Build- 
ings]. The first master of the school 
was George B. Emerson. He was 
succeeded by Solomon P. Miles, who 
early resigned on account of ill-health. 
The' third master was Thomas Sher- 
win, who occupied the position until 
his death in 1869. During his long ser- 
vice, first as sub-master, and then as 
principal, some 4,000 pupils entered 
the school. The present head master 
is Francis A. Waterhouse. From the 
start the school was a marked success. 
It was the assertion of Mr. Philbrick, 
long the superintendent of schools, 
made in 1864, that "from the day of its 
establishment this school has been one 
of singular excellence: never in its 
history has there been a period, ever 
so short, when it was not, as a whole, 
admirably managed and instructed." 
And the Rev. J. Fraser, now the bishop 
of Manchester, Eng., who visited the 
school in 1865, said, in his report to 
the British Parliament, that it was a 
" school which I should like, if possi- 
ble, to place under a glass case, and 
bring it to England for exhibition as a 
type of a thoroughly useful middle 
school. . . . Take it for all in all, and 
as accomplishing the end for which it 
professes to aim, the English High 
School at Boston struck me as the 
model school of the United States." 

Episcopal (Protestant) Church in 
Boston, and its Churches. — The es- 
tablishment of the Episcopal Church 
in Boston was stoutly resisted by the 
colonists, and the manner of its intro- 
duction here greatly incensed many of 



them. The first Episcopal church in 
the town, and also in New England, 
was organized as early as 1686. It was 
formed in the Town House, on the 15th 
of June of that year; the use of one 
of the Congregational meeting-houses 
for this purpose being promptly denied 
by the council. The minister was 
Rev. Robert Ratcliffe, a minister of 
the Church of England, brought over 
by Edward Randolph, the principal 
agent in establishing the Church of 
England in Massachusetts; who first 
appeared in the colony in 1676, bent 
on this purpose and the overthrow of 
the charter, and finally was imprisoned 
with Andros and others in 1689, and 
eventually sent back to England. 
When Andros arrived, commissioned 
by James II. to be the governor of 
New England, on the 20th of Decem- 
ber following the setting-up of the 
Episcopal Church in the Town House, 
he ordered that the South Congrega- 
tional meeting-house be taken for the 
use of the Episcopalians ; and for some 
time after the two congregations occu- 
pied the meeting-house by turns, the 
Episcopalians generally in the fore- 
noon of Sundays, and the Congrega- 
tionalists in the afternoon. This one 
of many arbitrary acts of the obnox- 
ious governor greatly incensed the 
people, and helped to arouse in them 
the opposition to his course and that 
of his supporters which ultimately led 
to his overthrow. In 1688 the Episco- 
palians began the erection of a meeting- 
house of their own, taking for its site 
a part of the lot set off by the early 
settlers for the town burying-ground, 
now the old King's-chapel burying- 
ground. This was the beginning of 
the first King's Chapel. The house 
was ready for occupancy in June, 16S9, 
shortly after the overthrow of the 
Andros government. This little wood- 
en building sufficed for the Episcopa- 
lians of the town for a while. In 17 10, 
the number having considerably in- 
creased, the chapel was much en- 
larged; and 13 years later a second 
Episcopal church was built. This was 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



167 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



Christ Church, still standing on Salem 
Street, and one of the most respected 
of the few remaining old landmarks 
of the city. Ten years later, Trinity, 
the third Episcopal church in Boston, 
was built, on Summer Street ; the cor- 
ner-stone of which was laid in April, 
1734, by Rev. Roger Price, then rector 
of King's Chapel. The present King's 
Chapel, of stone, was begun in 1749, 
and completed in 1754. Then, in 1787, 
this chapel, which had been the first 
Episcopal church in Boston, became 
the first Unitarian; and until 1816 
Christ Church and Trinity alone rep- 
resented the Episcopalians here. In 
the latter year St. Matthew's Church in 
South Boston was organized ; its ear- 
lier services being held in a school- 
house, and principally conducted by 
lay-readers. Two years afterwards a 
church was built, which was conse- 
crated by Bishop Griswold ; but it 
was not until 1824 that a rector was 
settled, — Rev. John L. Blake. In 
1819 St. Paul's parish was formed, 
founded principally out of Trinity 
Church; and on June 3, 1820, the 
present church-building on Tremont 
Street was consecrated, also by Bishop 
Griswold. Next, after an interval of 
10 years, a fifth Episcopal society was 
established, under the name of Grace 
Church. From 1829 to 1836 its ser- 
vices were held in various halls. On 
the 30th of June, 1835, the corner-stone 
of its church, on Temple Street, was 
laid ; and on the 14th of June, the year 
following, the church was consecrated. 
From that period its growth was rapid 
for several years. But after the death, 
in 1862, of Rev. Dr. Charles Mason, 
who had been its rector since 1847, its 
numbers fell off, until in 1865 the 
church was dissolved, and the church- 
building sold to the Methodist-Episco- 
pal society then situated in North- 
Russell Street. The Church of the 
Messiah, on Florence Street, was the 
next church to be organized in the city 
proper. It was formed in September, 
1843, m P art by former members of 
Grace Church, who had moved to- 



wards the South End. Like so many 
other societies, its earlier meetings were 
held in a hall. Its present church- 
building was consecrated by Bishop 
Eastburn, on Aug. 29, 1848. Then St. 
Stephen's Church, a free church for the 
poor, was established on Purchase 
Street, in 1845, by the late Rev. Dr. E. 
M. P. Wells. It was endowed, and the 
expense of its building met, by the late 
William Appleton. It was destroyed 
in the great fire of 1872. Next the 
Church of the Advent was established. 
This was the first representative here 
of the " Tractarian School " in the Epis- 
copal Church. Its first meeting-place 
was in a hall on Merrimack Street, 
where it was organized Dec. 1, 1844. 
Its first church-building was on Green 
Street, nearly opposite Crescent Place, 
a former Congregational church. It 
removed to its present church on Bow- 
doin Street in 1864; and it began the 
building of its second church, on the 
corner of Mount- Vernon and Brimmer 
Streets, in 1872. Its work among the 
poor, and its mission-work, were begun 
early in its career. Since its organiza- 
tion it has been a free church. St. John's 
Church, in East Boston, was organized 
in November, 1825, by seven persons 
who met first in a small store ; and in 
1851 a church-building was nearly 
completed, when it was destroyed by 
a gale. In 1852-54 a second church 
was built. In April, 1851, St. Mark's 
Church was organized; and in 1852 
the parish purchased the building of 
the Shawmut Congregational Society, 
which it afterwards removed to New- 
ton Street, the present location. Em- 
manuel Church, on Newbury Street, 
was consecrated April 24, 1862 ; and 
Rev. Dr. Huntington, formerly of the 
Unitarian denomination, and now bish- 
op of Central New York, was its first 
rector. The first Episcopal church in 
the Roxbury district was St. James 
parish, organized in 1832, and estab- 
lished in its own church-building, a 
structure of stone, in 1834. In the 
Charlestown district, St. John's parish 
was organized in 1841 ; in the Dorches- 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



168 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



ter district, St. Mary's was organized 
in 1849; an( ^ m Jamaica Plain (West- 
Roxbury district), St. John's, in 1845, 
having for several years previous been 
a mission of St. James in the Roxbury 
district. Several of the larger churches 
maintain missions. An independent 
mission is that of the Free Church of 
St. Mary for Sailors, on Richmond 
Street, which was begun as a mission 
for sailors in Ann (now North) Street, 
by Rev. John P. Robinson, in 1845. 
Among the Episcopal institutions are 
the Church Home for Orphans and 
Destitute Children at South Boston, 
founded in 1855; St. Luke's Home for 
Convalescents, in the Roxbury district; 
and the Episcopal Divinity School at 
Cambridge. Rev. Dr. Edward Bass of 



Newburyport was the first bishop of 
Massachusetts, consecrated May 7, 
1797, in Philadelphia. He served un- 
til his death in 1803 ; and his success- 
ors were Dr. Samuel Parker, died De- 
cember, 1804; Dr. Alexander V. Gris- 
wold, chosen in 181 1, died in- 1843; Dr. 
Manton Eastburn, died Sept. 12, 1872; 
Dr. Benjamin H. Paddock, the present 
bishop, consecrated Sept. 17, 1873. The 
church-headquarters are in Hamilton 
Place, in the rooms of the Episcopal 
Church Association. Following is a 
list of Episcopal churches now in ex^ 
istence in the city, with the date of 
their organization or consecration. 
The leading churches are sketched in 
fuller detail elsewhere in this book. 



Name. 


Location. 


S3 . 


Present Rector. 


All Saints 

Christ 


Dorchester Ave., Dorch. Dist. 

Salem Street. 

Bowdoin Street. 

Mt. Vernon, cor. Brimmer St. 

286 Charles Street. 

Cortes Street. 

Florence Street. 

Newbury Street. 

Richmond Street. 

Dorchester St. (So. Boston). 

2 Park. 

Cottage St. (Dorch. District). 


1868. 
1723.. 
1844. 

1876. 

1863. 
1843. 
i860. 
1843. 
1874. 
1877. 
1877. 
1832. 

1871. 
1841. 

i8 45 . 
1871. 

1851. 

1851. 
1849. 
1816. 
1875. 
1819. 
1733- 


George S. Bennett. 
William H. Munroe. 


Church of the Advent . . . 
Church of the Advent (new) . 
Church of the Evangelists . . 
Church of the Good Shepherd . 
Church of the Messiah . . . 

Emmanuel 

Free Church of St. Mary's l 


C. C. Grafton. 
C. C. Grafton. 
Reuben Kidner. 
George J. Prescott. 
Henry F. Allen. 
Leighton Parks. 


Reformed 

St. Ann's Chapel 


James M. Gray. 
Percy Browne. 
J. R. Peirce. 

George S. Converse. 
Thomas R. Lambert. 

Sumner U. Shearman. 
Augustus Prime. 

L. B. Baldwin. 

L. W. Salstonstall. 
John Wright. 
John Wright. 
Frederick Courtney. 
Phillips Brooks. 


St. John's of Roxbury . . . 
St. John's of Charlestown . . 

St. John's of East Boston . . 
St. John's of Jamaica Plain . . 
St. Margaret's 

St. Mark's 

St. Mary's 

St. Mary's of Dorchester . . 

St. Matthew's 

St. Matthew's Chapel .... 

St. Paul's 

Trinity 


(Roxbury district). 
1262 Tremont Street. 
Bow, cor. Richmond Street 

(Charlestown district). 
Paris, cor. Decatur St. (E. B.). 
Centre Street (Jamaica Plain) . 
Washington, cor. Church St. 

(Brighton district). 
West-Newton Street. 
Parmenter Street. 
Bowdoin Street (Dorch. dist.). 
408 Broadway (South Boston). 
East Fifth St., cor. N (S. B.). 
134 Tremont Street. 
Copley Square, Boylston and 

Clarendon Streets. 





Formerly Mission for Sailors, Ann Street; established by the Rev. J. P. Robinson. 



EPISCOPAL CITY MISSION 



169 



ETHER MONUMENT 



Episcopal City Mission. — Con- 
ducted by Rev. J. H. Hillyar, city 
missionary. Its purpose is to provide 
those who are attached to the doctrine 
and worship of the Protestant-Episco- 
pal Church, and who cannot afford to 
support parishes of their own, with suit- 
able places of worship and the minis- 
trations of their church, and also to 
carry on a work of systematic benevo- 
lence among the poor. The services 
of the mission are held in St. Mary's 
Church, No. 20 Parmenter Street, and 
at St. Stephen's House, No. 6 Tyler 
Street. Personal visitation is carried 
on by the missionary and zealous and 
experienced lay-assistants ; and inti- 
mate relations are maintained with the 
associated charities [see Associated 
Charities], 

Essex Club. — See Political Clubs. 

Ether Monument. — The monu- 
ment to commemorate the discovery 
of anaesthetics, which stands near the 
north-westerly corner of the Public Gar- 
den, on the Arlington-street side, tow- 
ards Beacon Street, was presented to 
the city in 1868 by Thomas Lee, the 
giver, also, of the Hamilton statue. 
It is of granite and red marble, with a 
shapely shaft, surmounted by two well- 
modelled ideal figures illustrating the 
story of the Good Samaritan. It is 
thirty feet in height, rising from a 
square basin. The base is cubical. 
On each vertical face is a niche con- 
taining a spouting lion's head, with 
sculptured water-lilies and other aquat- 
ic plants. Upon this base rests a sur- 
base adorned with mouldings ; from 
which arises a die, bearing upon each 
of its four sides an inscription, sur- 
mounted by a bas-relief in marble. 
These are sunk in the tympana of four 
pointed and cuspidated arches, each 
supported by two stunted shafts of red 
Gloucester granite; upon the capitals 
of these, poppies and oak-leaves are 
sculptured, the decoration being carried 
around the monument in a string-course. 
These arches form a canopy, from 
which a grouped quadripartite shaft of 



red granite, highly polished, rises, its 
capital decorated with oak-leaves ; and 
upon this is the group representing the 
Good Samaritan and the sufferer to 
whom he is administering. The main 
inscription is as follows : — 

TO COMMEMORATE 

THE DISCOVERY 

THAT THE INHALING OF ETHER 

CAUSES INSENSIBILITY TO PAIN. 

FIRST PROVED TO THE WORLD 

AT THE 

MASS. GENERAL HOSPITAL 

IN BOSTON 
OCTOBER A.D. MDCCCXLVI. 

The bas-relief accompanying this rep- 
resents a surgical operation in a civic 
hospital, the patient being under the 
influence of ether. A second inscrip- 
tion is the following : — 

neither shall there be any more pain, 
[revelation. 

This is with an allegorical bas-relief 
representing the Angel of Mercy de- 
scending to relieve suffering humanity. 
The third is this : — 

IN GRATITUDE 

FOR THE RELIEF 

OF HUMAN SUFFERING 

BY THE INHALING OF ETHER, 

A CITIZEN OF BOSTON 

HAS ERECTED 

THIS MONUMENT. 

A.D. MDCCCLXVH. 

This with a bas-relief of the interior 
of a field-hospital, showing a wounded 
soldier in the hands of the surgeons. 
The fourth inscription is as follows : — 

THIS ALSO COMETH FORTH 

FROM THE LORD OF HOSTS 

WHICH IS WONDERFUL 

IN COUNSEL, 

AND EXCELLENT 

IN WORKING. 

[ISAIAH. 

The bas-relief accompanying this in- 
scription is an allegory of the triumph 
of science. The model for the crown- 
ing group of the monument, and the 
four marble bas-reliefs, are the work 
of J. Q. A. Ward. On the occasion of 



170 



EVERETT STATUE 



the dedication of the monument, on 
June 27, 1868, Dr. Henry J. Bigelow 
delivered the address of presentation 
to the city. The sculptor Bartlett's ' 
criticism of this monument, in his 
" Civic Monuments in New England," 
is, that " it produces an excellent effect 
as a whole." Of the group represent- 
ing the parable of the Good Samari- 
tan, however, he says, " In painting 
and ordinary illustrations the Good 
Samaritan has been represented as 
performing one or the other of these 
kind acts [binding up the wounds, 
pouring oil and wine into them, or car- 
rying the unfortunate to a place of 
refuge]. In this group he is doing 
neither. Because of this the compo- 
sition is wanting both in comprehen- 
sion of subject and in representation 
of fact. ... It would be difficult to 
contrive a more excruciating position 
than that occupied by the man who fell 
among thieves and into the considera- 
tion of this artist. The execution of 
the group is in keeping with its con- 
ception. The right arm and hand of 
the Good Samaritan are evidently in- 
tended to be engaged in the tender op- 
eration of caring for a wound ; but from 
the distended veins these members 
might be those of a coal-heaver or 
blacksmith. The left arm is, like an- 
atomical sculpture, well veined : it is 
doing something. The general im- 
pression of the group is, that it has 
not room enough ; and it is made still 
more uneasy by the cutting-away of 
every part of the plinth except where 
the figures touch it." [See Statues and 
Monuments.} 

Euterpe (The). — An association 
formed in 1878 to promote the cause 
of music, by giving concerts of cham- 
ber-music with stsing-players. It gives 
from four to five concerts during the 
regular season, securing its players 
from Boston and New- York profes- 
sional musicians. Its membership is 
limited to 1 50. Membership is secured 
through election by the executive com- 
mittee, the candidate being first pro- 



posed by a member of the club. The 
assessments are not fixed, but vary 
according to the expenses of the sea- 
son. The club gave in its first season 
four concerts, in its second and third 
five, and its fourth four. Some of these 
were given in the Mechanics' Hall, at 
the corner of Bedford and Chauncy 
Streets, and the others in the Meionaon. 
Charles C. Perkins is president of the 
club, Francis H. Jenks secretary, and 
William F. Apthorp treasurer. [See 
Music in Boston?^ 

Evans House (The), No. 175 Tre- 
mont Street, opposite the Common. 
This was for several years one of the 
most popular of the smaller down- 
town hotels. It was conducted on the 
American plan, and was patronized by 
families occupying suites by the sea- 
son, as well as by transient guests ; its 
agreeable and convenient situation 
adding much to its attractiveness. 
Among its most constant patrons were 
members of the dramatic profession, 
with whom it was a favorite inn ; and 
this was quite fitting, for it occupies 
very nearly the site of the barnlike 
Haymarket Theatre, one of the earlier 
of the Boston playhouses [see Drama 
in Boston]. In the summer of 1882 the 
house was closed 5 and in the spring of 
1883 it was remodelled, the lower por- 
tion being converted into store prop- 
erty, and the upper floors arranged 
for lodging-rooms and apartments for 
bachelors. The landlord during the 
closing years of its career as a hotel 
was A. L. Howe, who also conducted, 
during the summer season, the Hotel 
Wellesley at Wellesley, and the Mas- 
sapoag House at Sharon, Mass. Dur- 
ing one or two seasons a " tally-ho ! " 
coach made regular trips between the 
Evans and the Wellesley. 

Everett Statue. — The bronze 
statue of Edward Everett, standing in 
the centre of the Beacon-street side 
of the Public Garden, is the work of 
William W. Story. It was modelled 
in Rome, in 1866; cast at Munich; and 
formally presented to the city, and put 



EXECUTIONS 



171 



EYE AND EAR INFIRMARY 



in place, in November, 1867. The fund 
for its erection was raised by popular 
subscription in 1865, and the success of 
the movement was so great that more 
than a sufficient amount was received. 
Of the surplus, $10,000 was given to 
the Governor-Andrew statue fund [see 
Andrew Statue], $5,000 to the Washing- 
ton equestrian-statue fund [see Wash- 
ington Statue], and a portrait of Everett 
for Faneuil Hall was obtained and 
paid for. The statue faces to the east, 
and admirably represents the features 
of Mr. Everett. The exaggerated atti- 
tude has been criticised as too dramatic 
for a portrait-statue, but it is claimed 
for it that it is not untrue to nature. 
The orator is represented as standing 
with his head thrown back, and his 
right arm extended and raised, in the 
act of making a favorite gesture. T. H. 
Bartlett, the sculptor, pronounces it 
"the only portrait-statue in Boston that 
has a defined and undistracted inten- 
tion as the basis and structure of its 
composition." And he says, " Had it 
been executed with the graceful ele- 
gance of Chantrey's Washington, the 
undemonstrative refinement of Green- 
ough's Franklin, or the proud vigor of 
Reede's Marshal Ney, every one would 
crown it, and the sneers of the public 
would be turned into smiles. It is 
thoroughly studied, far more than any 
of its companion statues ; but its exe- 
cution is dry and thin. The observer 
cannot fail to notice the attention paid 
to the movement of the body, legs, and 
drapery, not only as facts, but with 
reference to principles and their rela- 
tions." [See Statues and Monuments^ 

Executions. — Public executions 
were formerly had on the Common, 
sometimes, it is believed, on the old 
elm-tree which was destroyed by a 
gale in 1876. Quakers sealed the testi- 
mony of their faith by dying here ; and 
supposed witches, the unhappy victims 
of the delusion which so widely pre- 
vailed at one time, also perished on 
this spot. Pirates were hung on the 
islands in the harbor, one of which, 



Nix's Mate [see Nix's Mate], still 
bears, according to a legend, the name 
of one, who, with his companions, was 
executed upon it. Later, the sentence 
of the law was carried into effect on 
" the Neck," near the present Maiden 
Street, at the South End. Of later 
years, however, executions have been 
conducted privately, within the walls 
Of the Jail [see Jail] ; and they have, 
happily, been few and infrequent. 

Eye and Ear Infirmary (The Mas- 
sachusetts Charitable) , Charles, near 
Cambridge Street. Established in 
1824, and incorporated in 1827, strictly 
as a charity designed to relieve those 
who cannot afford to obtain such relief 
elsewhere. Its establishment was 
largely due to Drs. Edward Reynolds 
and John Jeffries. During its early 
days it was mostly supported by yearly 
subscriptions, but the liberal aid of the 
State enabled it in time to do its work 
without the necessity of regular annual 
appeals. The present building was 
erected for its use in 1849, an d has 
since been considerably enlarged. It 
is a spacious brick building with two 
wings. The main building is 67 feet 
front by 44 deep, and about 40 feet 
high. The front is embellished by 
stone dressings in Italian style, and the 
wings are plain. The first story con- 
tains the receiving and reading rooms ; 
and in the wings are male wards, with 
operating, apothecary, and bath rooms. 
On the floors above are the female 
wards ; and in the basement the kitch- 
ens, wash-rooms, laundry, etc. In 1881 
a new wing was added, generous friends 
of the institution contributing to the 
fund to meet the expense, by which it 
is rendered possible for the surgeons 
to perform their work in a more satis- 
factory manner ; and in 1882 an appeal 
to the benevolent and charitable public 
for subscription to a permanent fund 
of $100,000 was successfully made. 
The Infirmary has done an extensive 
work from the beginning. During the 
first year of its existence 698 patients 
were treated, and during 1882 the num- 



EYE AND EAR INFIRMARY 



172 



EYE AND EAR INFIRMARY 



ber of house and out patients was over 
11,000. No charge is made for the 
services of its surgeons, which are 
gratuitously given, nor for glasses for 
the eyes when required; and only a 
nominal price for board is asked from 
the few patients who can afford to con- 
tribute slightly to their support while 
undergoing treatment. A large num- 
ber of the cases treated are those of 
temporary trouble. Patients from all 
parts of the country are treated here. 



The building of the institution is agree- 
ably situated, some distance back from 
the street, and surrounded by an ample 
yard shut out from the noisy thorough- 
fare by a high wall. Dr. Calvin Ellis, 
No. 114 Boylston Street, is president 
of the board in charge of the institu- 
tion, Franklin H. Story treasurer, and 
Edward I. Browne secretary. It is 
one of the worthiest and most useful 
of the many substantial private chari- 
ties of the city. 



FANEUIL HALL 



173 



FANEUIL HALL 



P. 



Faneuil Hall, the " Cradle of Lib- 
erty," yields to no building in the 
whole country, save perhaps Inde- 
pendence Hall in Philadelphia, in 
interest. First built and given to the 
town in 1740 for a town-hall and mar- 
ket, by Peter Faneuil, a wealthy mer- 
chant of French descent, it was de- 
stroyed internally by fire in 1761; was 
rebuilt by the town the following 
year ; and in 1 805 was considerably 
enlarged and improved. The lower 
story has been used generally, accord- 
ing to the original plan of the founder, 
as a market-house; and above it is 
the great hall, 78 feet square, with 
ample galleries surrounding it on three 
sides, and a generous platform with 
extended front. The end of the hall 
opposite the entrance is hung with 
many interesting pictures. The lar- 
gest of these is the great painting rep- 
resenting Daniel Webster addressing 
the United-States Senate, in the old 
Senate Chamber (now the room occu- 
pied by the Supreme Court of the 
United States), on the occasion of his 
celebrated reply to Hayne of South 
Carolina. This was painted by Hea- 
ley, and is chiefly interesting from the 
portraits it gives of the senators and 
other citizens of distinction of that 
day. Other portraits of Washington, 
Peter Faneuil, John Hancock, John, 
Samuel, and John Quincy Adams, 
Joseph Warren, Commodore Preble, 
Edward Everett, John A. Andrew, 
Abraham Lincoln, and others, are 
among the interesting canvases hung 
here. Until a few years ago the pic- 
tures here were all originals ; but, on 
account of the great risk to which they 
were exposed from fire, many of them 
were a few years ago copied, the origi- 



nals being deposited in the Art Muse- 
um, and the copies taking their places 
here. From the time of the building 
of this hall, all town-meetings were 
held within its walls. In the troublous 
times that preceded the Revolution, it 
was the scene of the most exciting 
public meetings ; and the great patriot 
orators of that day sounded from this 
platform the stirring notes that gave 
the chief impulse to the patriotism of 
the whole country. In later times, 
too, down to the present day, the gen- 
eral gatherings of the citizens of Bos- 
ton in times of public excitement have 
been held in Faneuil Hall ; and many 
of the great orators, local and nation- 
al, have been heard from its venerable 
and inspiring platform. For many 
years previous to the Revolution, the 
offices of the town were established 
here, and also the naval office and the 
notary public. During the siege it was 
converted into a playhouse ; and under 
the patronage of the " Society for 
Promoting Theatrical Amusements," 
performances were given before crowd- 
ed audiences. " The Blockade of Bos- 
ton," a play written by Gen. Burgoyne, 
was performed here one time only by 
officers of the British army ; the per- 
formance being broken up, and the 
audience scattered in a most uncere- 
monious way, by the exciting report 
brought in by a sergeant, that the 
" Yankees are attacking our works in 
Charlestown." The funds for rebuild- 
ing after the fire of 1761, in which all 
of the building save the walls was 
destroyed, were in part raised through 
a lottery authorized by the State. The 
lottery-tickets, of which there were 
seven classes, bore the ample signature 
of John Hancock, as governor. The 



FANEUTL-HALL MARKET 



174 



FANEUIL-HALL MARKET 



gilded grasshopper, the vane upon the 
cupola of the building, was not a copy 
of the crest of Peter Faneuil's arms, 
as has been assumed by some, but — 
according to the " Sexton of the Old 
School" papers — was selected in imi- 
tation of that upon the pinnacle of 
the Royal Exchange in London. 
When the alterations were made in 
the building in 1806, the width and 
height of the hall were doubled ; and 
the galleries were put in at this time. 
The hall is never to be had for hire, 
but, upon the application to the city 
government of a certain number of 
citizens, may be obtained for holding 
public meetings. The main floor, be- 
ing unprovided with seats, accommo- 
dates a very large number of persons 
standing. The city charter forbids 
the sale or lease of the hall. The 
stories above the great hall are occu- 
pied as the armory of the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery Company [see 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany], which possesses an interesting 
museum of Revolutionary and Colo- 
nial relics. 

Faneuil-Hall Market occupies the 
space between North and South Mar- 
ket Streets, immediately in front of 
Faneuil Hall. It is in every respect 
one of the most commodious, conven- 
iently arranged, and best-equipped mar- 
ket-houses in the country. It was built 
in 1825-26, and is one of the mon- 
uments of the energetic and far-sighted 
administration of the elder Mayor 
Quincy ; who, as Drake well expresses 
it, "invested the sluggish town with 
new life, and brought into practical use 
a new watchword, Progress." During 
his administration, not only was this 
great market-house built, but six new 
streets were opened, and a seventh 
greatly enlarged ; and flats, dock and 
wharf rights were obtained to the ex- 
tent of 142,000 square feet. " All this," 
says Quincy's History, " was accom- 
plished in the centre of a populous city, 
not only without any tax, debt, or bur- 
den upon its pecuniary resources, but 



with large permanent additions to its 
real and productive property." The 
corner-stone of this market-house was 
laid in 1825, with much ceremony; and 
the work was finished in 1826. It is 
built of Quincy granite, and in the most 
thorough manner. It covers 27,000 
feet of land ; is 535 feet long, and two 
stories high. The centre part, 74 by 
55 feet on the ground, rises to the 
height of 77 feet, and is surmounted by 
a stately dome. The wings in their 
entire extent are 30 feet high. Upon 
each end of the building is a portico, 
with four columns, of the Grecian 
Doric style, each being one shaft of 
Quincy granite. The first story is oc- 
cupied by the market, and the floor 
above by warerooms ; the large hall di- 
rectly under the dome being the meet- 
ing-room of the Produce Exchange 
[see Produce Exchange], In the mar- 
ket the stalls are on each side of a 
grand corridor through the entire 
length of the building. The occupants 
of the stalls, beside the retail business 
of furnishing the daily supplies of many 
city and suburban tables, are also deal- 
ers on a large scale in provisions of 
every sort, — an immense business, the 
extent of which is but slightly shown, 
even in the stir and bustle which per- 
vade this market at all times of the 
day. A walk through this busy place, 
especially in the early hours of the day, 
will be found of interest to all those 
to whom the supplying of the food of 
a great city is among the most inter- 
esting objects of their curiosity. The 
floor above the market, now occupied, 
as stated above, by warerooms and the 
Produce Exchange, was once a vast 
hall called " Quincy Hall ; " and here 
with Faneuil Hall, — a temporary 
bridge thrown across and over the 
square connecting the two, — the trien- 
nial exhibitions of the Massachusetts 
Charitable Mechanic Association used 
for many years to be held [see Char- 
itable Mechanic Association, The Mas- 
sachusetts]. The cost of this market- 
house, exclusive of the land, was $150,- 
000 ; and the cost of the market-house, 



FARM-SCHOOL 



*75 



FIRE-SERVICE 



land, and street and other improve- 
ments connected with the "Quincy 
scheme," was $1,141,272. While these 
several improvements were under way, 
they appeared to many of the conser- 
vative Bostonians as visionary ; but the 
lapse of time has fully demonstrated 
their wisdom to all. This market- 
house is popularly known as the 
Quincy Market, but the official title is 
as given above. The plate deposited 
beneath the corner-stone of the mar- 
ket-house bears this inscription : " Fan- 
euil-Hall Market, established by the 
city of Boston. This stone was laid 
April 17, Anno Domini MDCCCXXV. 
In the forty-ninth year of American 
Independence, and in the third of the 
incorporation of the city. John Quin- 
cy Adams, President of the United 
States. Marcus Morton, Lt. Governor 
and Commander-in-chief of the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts. The 
population of the city estimated at 50,- 
000; that of the United States, 11,000,- 
000." [See Markets and Market- 
Houses .] 

Farm-School for Indigent Boys. 

— See Asylums and Homes ; also 
Thompson's Island. 

Fatherless and "Widows Society. 

— See Boston Fatherless and Wid- 
ows Society. 

Female Asylum. — See Boston Fe- 
male Asylum. 

Fire-Alarm System. — See Fire- 
Service. 

Fir e-Service. — The fire-depart- 
ment of the city is under the direction 
of the Board of Fire-Commissioners, 
a paid commission, consisting of three 
members, one member appointed an- 
nually in April, for a term of three 
years from the first Monday in May 
following. The nomination is made 
by the mayor, subject to confirmation 
by the city council. There are a 
chief-engineer, with headquarters at 
the City Hall ; 10 assistant-engineers, 



with headquarters at engine and hook- 
and-ladder houses ; 2 " call "-engineers; 
25 foremen; 14 assistant-foremen; 30 
enginemen ; 29 assistant-enginemen ; 
84 hosemen ; 31 laddermen ; 1 chemi- 
cal-engineman ; 48 drivers ; 2 hostlers ; 
1 teamster ; and 3 deck-hands on the 
fire-boat : 268 in all of the permanent 
force. Of the " call "-force there are 
34 'foremen, 2 assistant-foremen, 204 
hosemen, and 11 1 laddermen: 351 in 
all. The force in the fire-alarm de- 
partment numbers 13 ; and the repair- 
shop employes, 12, — making a total 
force of 663. There are 29 regular 
steam fire-engine companies ; 5 engines 
in reserve ; 7 regular chemical-engine 
companies, and 1 engine in reserve ; 12 
horse hose companies ; 12 regular hook- 
and-ladder companies ; 1 apparatus in 
reserve, and 1 aerial-ladder company ; 

I fire-boat, having four steam-pumps 
and high-pressure boiler and engine of 
80 horse-power; 1 water-tower (Fort- 
Hill Square), 50 feet high; 18 fuel- 
wagons ; 8 sleighs and 45 pungs ; 4 
coal-supply houses ; 5 supply-wagons ; 
several pieces of spare apparatus ; 1 
hand-engine and 2 hose-carriages on 
Deer Island; 149 horses; and 67,196 
feet of hose. The sliding-pole, by 
means of which the men can drop from 
their sleeping or recreation rooms di- 
rectly in front of the apparatus, has 
been introduced into 14 of the engine- 
houses ; and the swinging-harness and 
quick-ringing electric gongs are in use 
in all the permanent houses. It is the 
rule of the department, that, when any 
signal for a fire on either the gong or 
tapper is received at the quarters of 
any company, every member shall re- 
port for duty on the floor as soon as 
possible after the first stroke ; the 
horses are to be hitched up, and the 
company prepared to leave quarters 
upon the word " Go ! " by the officer 
in command. Inspection has shown 
that the average length of time taken 
to comply with this order, when all 
the men are in bed except the house- 
patrol, at the sound of the alarm, is 

I I y z seconds. The city is divided into 



FIRE-SERVICE 



I76 



FIRE-SERVICE 



10 fire-districts, each .of which is under 
the charge of an assistant-engineer. 
There are 4,461 hydrants, and in ad- 
dition 238 fire-reservoirs in different 
sections of the city, each containing 
from 300 to 500 hogsheads of water, 
which can be used in an emergency. 
The headquarters of the fire-alarm 
telegraph is at the top of the City 
Hall [see City Hall], where a constant 
watch is kept night and day by the 
operators. Each operator has as- 
signed to him certain hours of duty, 
during which he is responsible for the 
correct working of the apparatus in 
giving alarms, all testing of the cir- 
cuits, and other details pertaining to 
the service. An automatic arrange- 
ment is connected with the receiving- 
apparatus, by which assistance may 
be called from the sleeping-apart- 
ments if at any time the operator 
should be suddenly incapacitated by 
illness from performing his duties. 
No operator is permitted to sleep dur- 
ing his watch, unless relieved by some 
one else, or by consent of the superin- 
tendent. There are 307 regular fire- 
alarm boxes. Special boxes are lo- 
cated in the several theatres. They 
are placed at the prompter's stands, 
where they are accessible at all times. 
On the first, second, and third alarms 
from the theatre-boxes, extra appa- 
ratus responds. The number of miles 
of wire operated and cared for is 260. 
The annual cost of maintaining the 
fire-alarm department is 120,724 (cost 
for 1S81-S2). The cost of maintaining 
the general department, 1881-82, was 
$457,217.21. The salaries of the fire- 
commissioners are $3,000 each ; of the 
chief-engineer, $3,000 ; superintendent 
of fire-alarms and inspector, $2,800 ; 
assistant-engineers, $1,600; call as- 
sistant-engineers, $300 ; foremen of the 
permanent force, $1,250; assistant- 
foremen, $1,000; enginemen, $1,200; 
assistant-enginemen, $1,100 ; hosemen, 
laddermen, and chemical-engine men, 
$1,000 each; hostlers, $720; veteri- 
nary surgeon, $1,200; captain of the 
fire-boat $1,250, mate $1,000, engine- 



man $1,200, assistant-engineman >i.- 
100, and deck-hands $1,000; perma- 
nent foreman of call-force, $1,000 ; call 
foremen £300 and $225, assistant-fore- 
man $225; permanent drivers $1,000, 
hosemen $225 and $175, hosemen chem- 
ical engine $100, laddermen $225 and 
5175. West-Roxbury district: per- 
manent foreman $1,000, call-foreman 
$200, engineman $1,200,- assistant-en- 
gineman $1,100, drivers $1,000, hose- 
men of engine-company $150, of chem- 
ical engine $100, driver of chemical 
engine $1,000, and laddermen $150. 
Brighton district . permanent foreman 
$1,000, engineman $1,200, assistant 
engineman $1,100, driver in charge of 
chemical engine $1,000, general dri- 
ver $1,000, call-foreman $150, hose- 
men and laddermen $100. Fire-alarm 
telegraph : superintendent $2,300, as- 
sistant-superintendent $4.50 a day, 
foreman of construction $4.25 a day, 
operators and repairer $3.75 a day, 
assistant-repairers $3, $2.50, and $2.25 
a day, and batteryman $600 per an- 
num. The average loss of property 
per year in the city during the last 50 
years, including the great fire of 1872, 
amounted to $1,994,344. The amount 
destroyed in the 1872 fire is estimated 
at $75,000,000. 

The fire-system now established dates 
from 1873, when the paid fire-commis- 
sion was established during the admin- 
istration of Mayor Henry L. Pierce. 
The first steam fire-engine was intro- 
duced in 1S54, but steam fire-engines 
did not entirely take the place of the 
hand-engines until i860. The system 
of telegraphic fire-alarms was intro- 
duced in 1S51, and was the invention 
of Dr. William F. Channing of this 
city, and perfected by Moses G. Far- 
mer of Salem. In 1845 Dr. Channing, 
in a lecture before the Smithsonian 
Institute in Washington, suggested 
the employment of the telegraph as a 
means of giving alarms of fire ; in 
1S4S the subject was brought before 
the city government here by the may- 
or, and some experiments were tried; 
in 1851 the sum of $10,000 was appro- 



FIRE-UNDERWRITERS' UNION 



177 



FIRST CHURCH IN EOSTON 



priated to test the system ; and during 
the next year it was brought into suc- 
cessful operation, Boston being the first 
city in the country to employ it. In 
1837, when Samuel A. Eliot was 
mayor, the change was first made from 
a partially volunteer to a paid fire- 
department. In 1765 the first fire- 
engine built in Boston, built by David 
Wheeler, a blacksmith, was success- 
fully tried. In 17 14 fire-wards were 
first established, each of whom was 
provided with a red staff, five feet in 
length, headed with a " bright brass 
spire of six inches long ; " and was 
given power to command all persons 
at fires, to pull down or blow up 
houses, protect goods, etc. In 17 11 
the first engine-house was built, "near 
the town-house." In 1676 the first en- 
gine was imported, and the first regu- 
lar engine-company was established, 
with Thomas Atkins, carpenter, as 
captain, and twelve others called as- 
sistants. In the early days every 
householder was required to be pro- 
vided with long-handled hooks and 
ladders; and large " fire -swabs " were 
used, — swabs attached to poles twelve 
feet long, with which water was 
splashed upon the burning sides and 
roofs of the wooden houses on fire. 
The fire-commissioners now are John 
E. Fitzgerald chairman, Henry W. 
Longley, and Edward A. White ; and 
William A. Green is chief-engineer. 

Fire-Underwriters' Union. — No. 

35 Congress St. This is an organiza- 
tion formed originally to establish and 
enforce uniform rates of premiums. 
Its chief work at the present time is to 
gather and circulate facts of all kinds 
of interest and value to all fire-under- 
writers. Since the Great Fire in 1872, 
it has done excellent sen-ice in influ- 
encing the introduction of practical 
fire-defences, by means of which both 
the old and new business sections 
of the city have been rendered more 
secure against fire. The establishment 
of the protective department [see Fire- 
Department, under City Government] 



was largely due to its influence. Its 
membership includes almost all agents 
of local companies doing business in 
the city. George F. Osborne is presi- 
dent, and Osborne Howes, jun., is 
secretary. The Union was preceded 
by a board of fire-insurance compa- 
nies and a board of insurance-agents; 
and the two combined in forming the 
present organization. 

First Church in Boston. — The 

church of which Rev. Rufus Ellis, 
D.D., is the pastor, whose strikingly 
beautiful church-building, one of the 
finest specimens of architecture in the 
highly ornamented Back-bay district, 
stands on the corner of Berkeley and 
Marlborough Streets, is the direct 
descendant of the " First Church of 
Christ in Boston," which was estab- 
lished soon after the founding of the 
town ; having first been organized in 
Charlestown, under a large tree, by 
John Winthrop, Thomas Dudley, and 
others. When the colonists removed 
to " Trimontane," the first meeting- 
house, built of mud walls and thatched 
roof, was raised on the south side of 
what is now State Street, w T ith John 
Wilson as the first "teacher." This 
primitive structure (built in 1632) was 
succeeded by a more pretentious build- 
ing, built directly on the site of the 
present Rogers Building, opposite the 
head of State Street; and this stood 
until its destruction by fire, along with 
the old Town House [see Old State 
House\ in October, 171 1. A new 
meeting-house was at once built, which 
was occupied for regular services in 
May, 1 7 13. In time this came to be 
known as " the old brick meeting- 
house." It was a solidly built struc- 
ture of the plain and severe style of 
architecture of the colonial period. 
Its interior resembled the famous old 
meeting-house in Hingham. Here the 
first church-organ ever heard in Boston 
was introduced, and the meeting-house 
bell was brought from England. The 
"governor's pew " was a conspicuous 
feature of the interior ; being raised 



FIRST CHURCH IN BOSTON 



I 7 8 



FIRST CHURCH IN CHARLESTOWN 



above the others, and protected by cur- 
tains, behind which the dignity and 
exclusiveness of the great man of the 
colony were effectually preserved. In 
1808 the property was sold to John Joy, 
for $13,500 in cash, and the cost of a 
new church-building, which was erected 
in Chauncy Place. The old meeting- 
house was torn down, and " Joy's Build- 
ing " was built on its site ; and in 1881 
this was in turn removed, and the new 
building now standing in its place was 
completed in 1882. It is the property 
of the heirs of Col. Charles O. Rogers, 
the early proprietor of the " Boston 
Journal " [see Journal, The Boston} : 
hence its name. The meeting-house 
in Chauncy Place was dedicated July 
21, 1808 ; and this, in 1868, gave place 
to the present building in the Back- 
bay district. The latter was built by 
the architects Ware and Van Brunt. It 
is of stone, highly ornamented. The 
most striking features of its exterior 
are the fine carriage-porch on the 
corner, of unique design, and the 
vestibule on the Berkeley-street front. 
The interior is rich and tasteful. The 
colored glass windows were imported 
from England; and the organ was 
built in Germany by the makers of 
the Music-hall organ [see Music Half]. 
The cost of the structure was $325,000. 
The pastors of the church have been 
as follows : Revs. John Wilson and 
John Cotton, the first installed in No- 
vember, 1632, and the second in Octo- 
ber, 1633 (the former died in August, 
1667, and the latter in December, 1652) ; 
Rev. John Norton, installed 1656, died 
1663 ; Rev. John Davenport, 1668- 
1670; Rev. James Allen, 1668-17 10; 
Rev. John Oxenbridge, 1670-1674; 
Rev. Joshua Moody, 1684-1697 ; Rev. 
John Bailey, 1 693-1697 ; Rev. Benjamin 
Wads worth, 1 696-1 737; Rev. Thomas 
Bridge, 1705-1715; Rev. Thomas Fox- 
croft, 1717-1769; Rev. C. Chauncy, 
D.D., 1727-1787; Rev. John Clark, 
D.D., 1778-1798 ; Rev. William Emer- 
son, 1 799-181 1 ; Rev. John L. Abbott, 
1813-1814; Rev. N. L. Frothingham, 
1815-1850 (resigned); Rev. Rufus El- 



lis, D.D., May 4, 1853. This church 
is now Congregational Unitarian. 

First Church in Brighton (The). 
— The town of Brighton, originally a 
part of Cambridge, was incorporated 
and named in 1807 [see Brighton Dis- 
trict] ; and the first church which bore 
its name was the " First Church of 
Brighton," Unitarian, established in 
1783. The church from which this 
sprung was founded in 1744. Its first 
pastor was Rev. Dr. John Foster, 
who was ordained in 1784. His pas- 
torate covered a period of 43 years. 
He died two years after his retirement 
from this pulpit, and was buried in the 
old burying-ground of the town, on 
Market Street, where a monument 
stands to his memory. The next 
pastor was Rev. Daniel Austin, whose 
term of service extended from 1828 to 
1838. Succeeding pastors have been : 
Rev. Abner D. Jones, from 1839 to 
1842 ; Rev. Frederick A. Whitney, from 
1843 to J 847 ; Rev. Charles Noyes, from 
i860 to 1863; Rev. Samuel W. Mc- 
Daniel, 1867 to 1869 ; Rev. Thomas 
Timmins, 1870 to 187 1 ; and Rev. Ed- 
ward I. Galvin, 1872 to 1876. The 
Rev. William Brunton is the present 
pastor. The meeting-house now used 
was built in 1808-09. 

First Church in Charlestown 
(The). — This was organized in Oc- 
tober, 1632, about two years after the 
removal of Winthrop and his follow- 
ers to Boston, and the transplanting 
thither of the First Church, which had' 
been organized in Charlestown [see 
First Church], Up to this time those 
who had remained in Charlestown at- 
tended the Boston church: but at 
length, finding the journey inconven- 
ient, 35 members living in Charles- 
town were dismissed from that church 
at their own request, for the purpose 
of forming the First Church on their 
own side of the river. Accordingly 
they " entered into a church covenant 
the 2d to the 9th month 1632," and 
chose as their first minister, or " teach- 



FIRST CHURCH IN CHARLESTOWN 



79 



FIRST CHURCH IN CHARLESTOWN 



er," Rev. Thomas James, who had just 
arrived from England. For four years 
the church-services were held in the 
" Great House," where the governor 
and several others had dwelt before 
the removal to Boston, and which 
stood on the site of the old City Hall 
in the square. The first meeting-house 
was built in 1636, but precisely where 
it was located is not known ; the rec- 
ords stating vaguely that it was " be- 
tween the town and the neck." The 
second was built three years later, in 
the square, on the north side, between 
the present entrance to Main Street 
and the city building, before annex- 
ation the City Hall ; and this was from 
that time the First Church site until 
the firing of the town by the British in 
1775. Mr. James's term as "teacher" 
was not of long duration. He was 
dismissed in March, 1636, and was 
succeeded by Rev. Zachariah Symmes. 
It is recorded, that, during the lat- 
ter 's term, Rev. John Harvard, the 
founder of Harvard College, who was 
admitted as an inhabitant of Charles- 
town in 1637, and who died there in 

1638 [see Harvard Monument], was 
"sometimes minister of God's word." 
Mr. Symmes was followed by Rev. 
Thomas Allen, who was minister from 

1639 to 1 65 1. Rev. Thomas Shepard, 
the next minister, whose term began 
in 1659, died in 1677, from small-pox. 
He was succeeded, three years after, 
by his son, of the same name, who 
also died while in office, and after only 
five years pastorate. Rev. Charles 
Morton succeeded the younger Shep- 
ard ; his term beginning in November, 
1686, and continuing until his death in 
1698. He was the first clergyman to 
solemnize marriages, a ceremony which 
had previously been performed only by 
civil magistrates. Rev. Simon Brad- 
street, who had been chosen as Mr. 
Morton's assistant, but declined the 
appointment, succeeded him on his 
death. He was ordained in May, 1698, 
and was the senior minister of the 
church until his death, which occurred 
in 1 741. Rev. Joseph Stephens be- 



came his colleague in 17 13. He died 
in 1721, as the elder Shepard had died 
forty years before, of smallpox. The 
disease at this time was a terrible 
scourge. Nearly all of Mr. Stephens's 
family died of it, and several leading 
people in the town fell its victims. 
Rev. Hull Abbot succeeded Mr. 
Stephens as Mr. Bradstreet's col- 
league, ordained in 1723, and later 
became the senior minister. His pas- 
torate extended over half a century, 
ending with his death, in the spring of 
1774. Rev. Thomas Prentice became 
the associate pastor in 1739. He was 
the minister of the church when the 
British burned the town, on June 17, 
1775; and the meeting-house, with the 
other buildings and dwellings of the 
place, was destroyed. He died on 
June 17, 1782, at the age of 80. Five 
years after his death, during which 
period the church was without a settled 
pastor, Rev. Joshua Paine, jun., was 
called to the pulpit. He was ordained 
Jan. 10, 1787. His service, however, 
was quite brief, ended by his death 
from consumption in February the fol- 
lowing year. The next pastor was the 
famous Rev. Jedediah Morse, the "fa- 
ther of American geography," one 
of the foremost and most aggressive of 
the leaders of the Orthodox party in 
the early controversies with the Uni- 
tarians, when the latter captured so 
many of the Trinitarian churches ; con- 
spicuous in the movement which re- 
sulted in the establishment of the 
Theological School at Andover ; and 
whose most distinguished son was 
Samuel Finley Breese Morse, the in- 
ventor of the electric telegraph, born 
in Charlestown, April 27, 1791 [see 
Old Landmarks]. Dr. Morse's pas- 
torate extended from April 30, 1789, 
when he was installed, to Feb. 22, 1820, 
when he was dismissed, having re- 
signed the position in August preced- 
ing. Towards the close of his minis- 
try, in 181 5, the Unitarians in his par- 
ish, where the two parties were quite 
evenly divided, withdrew, and formed 
the Second Congregational Society in 



FIRST CHURCH IN CHARLESTOWN 



I 80 



FIRST CHURCH IN DORCHESTER 



Charlestown [see Unitarianism and 
Unitarian ( Congregational) Churches\. 
Preceding this secession in 1800, a 
number withdrew, and formed a Bap- 
tist society; and in 181 1 there was still 
another withdrawal of a larger number, 
who formed the First Universalist So- 
ciety in Charlestown [see Universalist 
Denomination and Churches\ Rev. 
Dr. Warren Fay succeeded Dr. Morse. 
He was settled Feb. 23, 1820, and 
served until August, 1839. The next 
pastor was Rev. Dr. William I. Bud- 
ington, settled April 22, 1840. Dr. 
Budington during his ministry wrote 
his " History of the First Church." 
He retired from the position when 
called to Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1854 ; and 
was succeeded by Rev. Dr. James B. 
Miles, who served from Jan. 2, 1855, 
to Oct. 2, 187 1, when he was dismissed 
to become secretary of the American 
Peace Society. His work in the latter 
office was earnest and on a broad scale, 
his aim being to advance the principle 
of arbitration instead of war ; to this 
end he visited several European courts. 
He died in November, 1875. ^> r - 
Miles's successor in the Charlestown 
pulpit was Rev. Francis F. Ford, who 
served from 1872 to 1874; Rev. Henry 
L. Kendall, from 1876 to 1S79. The 
church is now without a settled pastor. 
The meeting-house of the First 
Church, which was burned in the de- 
struction of the town in 1775, was built 
in 17 1 5-16. It had a tall steeple, part 
of which was blown down in the winter 
of 1750-51. Inside it was roomy, and 
had two galleries. For five years after 
the burning of the town, a "block- 
house erected by the enemy at the 
place originally fortified against the 
natives," and which stood near the site 
of the old church, was used for Sunday 
services and other purposes. On Oct. 
27, 1782, " Town-house hill " was given 
by the town to the parish for a new 
meeting-house ; and this was immedi- 
ately built. It was of wood, with a 
tower and a steeple designed by the 
architect Bulfinch, who designed so 
many public and other buildings in the 



city proper during his day [see Archi- 
tecture}. It was 72 by 52 feet, and 27 
in height; and it stood directly oppo- 
site the head of Henley Street. With- 
in it the services in commemoration of 
Washington's death, Dec. 31, 1799, were 
held. In 1804 the house was widened 
to 84 feet, and a chapel was built in the 
parsonage-garden. This at one time 
extended down the hill to the site of 
the old City Hall ; and the parsonage 
was situated in what is now Harvard 
Street, quite near the church. The 
present brick meeting-house was built 
in 1834, and dedicated July 3 of that 
year. In 1852 it was remodelled, and 
a Norman tower built; and in 1868 a 
chime of six bells, the gift of Miss 
Charlotte Harris of Boston, was added. 
On Nov. 12, 1882, the 250th anniver- 
sary of the church was celebrated. 

First Church, in Dorchester 
(The). — The " First Parish in Dor- 
chester," which dates from 1630, was 
the third church planted in the colony. 
It was organized in Plymouth, Eng., 
March 20, 1630, the eve before the 
embarkation of the first settlers of 
Dorchester in the " Mary and John." 
Its first meeting-house, built in 1631, 
stood near the present corner of Cot- 
tage and Pleasant Streets, Dorchester 
district. It was a log house, with pali- 
sades to protect it from the Indians : 
and it was for some time used also as 
the place of deposit for military stores. 
It stood for 14 years. The second 
meeting-house was built on the same 
spot in 1645 '■> an d m *6~o it was moved 
to Meeting-house Hill, and here the 
successive meeting-houses of the parish 
have ever since stood, giving the hill 
its name. The third meeting-house 
was built in 1677, at a cost of ^200; 
the fourth in 1743, at a cost of .£3,300 ; 
and the fifth, the present quaint struc- 
ture, in 1816. The first ministers of 
the parish, John Maverick and John 
Warham, were chosen pastors on the 
organization of the church in England. 
The first religious service held on this 
side of the water was in the open air, 



FIRST CHURCH IN DORCHESTER 



FIRST CHURCH IN JAMAICA PLAIN 



the Sunday after the settlement at 
Dorchester, June, 1630. Maverick, on 
his death, was succeeded by Rev. 
Richard Mather. lie had as asso- 
ciates Revs. Jonathan Burr and John 
Wilson, jun.,* both of whom he sur- 
vived as pastor, serving for 23 years. 
Mather died in 1669, and in 1671 was 
succeeded by Rev. Josiah Flint, whose 
labors began in the first meeting-house 
on the hill. He died in 1680, and was 
the next year succeeded by Rev. John 
Uanforth, son of Rev. Samuel Dan- 
forth, colleague of John Eliot of the 
Roxbury church. Mr. Danforth was 
the minister of the parish for 48 years. 
The next pastor was Rev. Jonathan 
Bowman, whose service began in 1729. 
He also had a long pastorate, extend- 
ing over 40 years ; but it was not al- 
together a peaceful one, particularly 
towards its close ; and it finally ended 
with his dismissal after a long con- 
troversy over charges that he had 
refused baptism to a child, that he did 
not teach the doctrine of original sin, 
that he acted arbitrarily as modera- 
tor at church-meetings, and that he 
preached old sermons. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Moses Everett, who 
was ordained in 1774. It was during 
the latter's ministry, which continued 
until 1793, that the church became 
Unitarian ; but Rev. S. J v Barrows, 
the historian of Dorchester in the 
" Memorial History of Boston," says 
that " there is nothing in the history 
of the church which shows just when 
it ceased to be Calvinistic and became 
Unitarian ; while from time to time 
there were controversies and agitations 
over many less important measures, 
such ' as the introduction of a new 
hymn-book, or the change of the 
method of singing from ' lining-out ' 
to singing by note." " The transition," 
he adds, " was silently and almost in- 
sensibly made." Rev. Thaddeus M. 
Harris, who had been librarian of 
Harvard College, succeeded Mr. Ev- 
erett. He was ordained in 1793, ana ^ 
served until 1836, a period of 40 years. 
Rev. Nathaniel Hall, who had" been 



his colleague for a year, followed him 
as sole pastor ; and served for 40 
years, until his death in 1875. R- ev - 
Samuel J. Barrows was his successor, 
ordained in 1876. He resigned in 
1881 to assume the editorship of the 
" Christian Register," a position he still 
holds ; and Rev. Christopher A. Eliot, 
the pastor now, succeeded him. 

First Church in East Boston. — 
Though efforts were made to establish 
regular Unitarian worship in East 
Boston in 1835, two y ears after the 
establishment of the East-Boston Com- 
pany, and the beginning of the work of 
building up the place [see East Bos- 
ton], and services were held for a 
while in a schoolhouse on Paris Street 
[see Unitarian Denomination and 
Churches'], the first church to be 
formally organized was the present 
Maverick Church. The society was 
gathered in May, 1836, with ten mem- 
bers, and was recognized by the sister 
Congregational Trinitarian churches 
in the city proper as the " First Con- 
gregational Church in East Boston." 
In 1838 the society was incorporated 
by the Legislature, under the name of 
the Maverick Congregational Society. 
The present church-building in Central 
Square was built in the autumn and 
winter of 1844-45, an< ^ was dedicated 
on Feb. 6, 1845. The first pastor of 
this church was Rev. Dr. William W. 
Newell, settled in July, 1837. His 
pastorate continued for four years ; 
when he was succeeded, after an inter- 
val of about a year, by Rev. Amos 
A Phelps, installed in March, 1842. 
The succeeding pastors have been 
Rev. Robert S. Hitchcock, from 1846 
to 1850; Rev. Dr. Rufus W. Clark, 
1852—57 ; Rev. Thomas N. Haskell, 
1858-62 ; Rev. Dr. Joel S. Bingham, 
1863-70 ; Rev. Daniel W. Waldron, 
1871-72; Rev. J. V. Hilton, 1873-80; 
and Rev. John H. Barrows, 1880. 

First Church in Jamaica Plain 
(The), West-Roxbury district, was 
organized in 1770 as the Third Parish 
in Roxbury. Its organization was 



FIRST CHURCH IN ROXBURY 



l82 



FIRST CHURCH IN ROXBURY 



largely due to the- influence of Mrs. 
Susanna Pemberton, daughter of Peter 
Faneuil, and the liberality of her hus- 
band. The first meeting-house was 
completed in 1770; and in 1783 Gov. 
Hancock gave the society a church- 
bell which had been removed from the 
" New Brick " Church in Boston. In 
1 82 1 this was replaced by a new and 
larger bell. The first meeting-house 
was of wood; and in 1854 it was re- 
placed by a picturesque stone build- 
ing, which in 1871 was extensively re- 
modelled. In 1863 the corporate name 
of the society was changed to " The 
First Congregational Society of Ja- 
maica Plain." The first pastor of the 
church, Rev. Dr. William Gordon, an 
Englishman, and the author of the 
" History of the American Revolution," 
was a Calvinist ; but his parish was 
early in sympathy with the new Uni- 
tarian faith, and his successors are 
classed with that denomination. Mr. 
Gordon served until 1786. He was 
succeeded by Rev. Thomas Gray, who 
was installed in 1793. ln J ^36 Rev. 
George Whitney became his associate, 
and remained until 1842, when he was 
succeeded by Rev. George H. Allen. 
In 1847 Mr. Gray died, and Rev. 
Grindall Reynolds became the pastor. 
He was succeeded by Rev. James W. 
Thompson in 1859. In 1876 Rev. 
Charles H. Dole became his associate, 
and on the death of Mr. Thompson, in 
1880, succeeded as sole pastor, which 
position he continues to hold. 

First Church in Roxbury. — The 

"First Religious Society of Roxbury" 
was formed in 1632 ; and its first meet- 
ing-house, on the site of the present 
old-fashioned church in Eliot Square, 
Roxbury district, was " a rude un- 
beautified structure." Rev. Thomas 
Welde was the first " teacher ; " and 
the famous missionary among the In- 
dians, Rev. John Eliot, the first pastor. 
Welde continued with the church until 
1641, when he was sent to England as 
agent of the colonies, where he re- 
mained until his death. He was one 



of the fiercest opponents of Mrs. 
Hutchinson, and of the Baptists and 
the Quakers. Eliot was of gentler 
mould. " The passion of his life," 
says Rev. John G. Brooks, the suc- 
cessor of Dr. Putnam as pastor of the 
church, in his historical discourse on 
the occasion of the 250th anniversary 
of the founding of the church, "was 
the good of his race. He braved 
every danger to spread the gospel 
among the hated savage tribes; and 
he gave them not only the gospel, but 
education and civilization. We can- 
not, if we would, appreciate his feat of 
translating the Bible into the Indian 
tongue. We have done so little to- 
ward the solution of the Indian prob- 
lem ourselves, that we wonder that he 
did so much." After Welde's depar- 
ture for England, Eliot was left alone 
as pastor until Rev. Samuel Danforth 
was called as his assistant, in 1649, 
and the next year ordained as his col- 
league. Danforth was not alone a 
man " mighty in the Scriptures," but 
he was an ardent student of astronomy. 
He died in 1674; and Eliot was again 
left alone in charge of the church, 
this time for fourteen years. Then 
in 1688 Rev. Nehemiah Walter came 
over from Ireland, and he made such 
a favorable impression by his first 
sermon that he was called at once. 
It was customary, where there were 
two ministers, to call the younger 
one teacher, and the elder one pastor; 
but Eliot, in ordaining Walter, named 
him both pastor and teacher. He was 
an accomplished student of Hebrew 
and Greek. Eliot died July 20, 1690, 
aged 86, and was juried in the old 
Roxbury burying-ground [see Old 
Burying-Grounds\. Mr. Walter con- 
tinued as pastor until his death, Sept. 
17, 1749. In 1 7 18 his son was or- 
dained as his colleague ; but the 
younger man not long after died, in 
1725, when but 28 years of age. Rev. 
Oliver Peabody followed the elder 
Walter as pastor, serving but a short 
time, his career being cut short by his 
death in 1752 ; and Rev. Amos Adams 



FIRST CHURCH IN ROXBURY 



•S3 



FIRST CHURCH IN SOUTH BOSTON 



succeeded him, ordained in 1753. The 
latter died in 1775, while chaplainof 
a Continental regiment, and was buried 
with military honors. After his death 
the pulpit was vacant for seven years. 
Then Rev. Dr. Eliphalet Porter was 
called. He was ordained in 1782; 
and his service extended over more 
than half a century, closing with his 
death in 1S33. It was under his pastor- 
ate that the church became Unitarian. 
" Profoundly influenced by the teach- 
ings of Lindsay and Priestly," says 
the Rev. Mr. Brooks, " Dr. Porter, 
after a dispassionate review of the 
argument, joined the movement of the 
day, and guided his church through 
the storm to the haven of Unitari- 
anism." Rev. Dr. George Putnam 
succeeded Dr. Porter, first having 
been associate-pastor from 1830. Dr. 
Putnam's pastorate covered a period 
of nearly 50 years ; closing, like that 
of Dr. Porter, with his death, which 
occurred in 1S76. The year before Dr. 
Putnam's death, Rev. John G. Brooks 
was made associate-pastor ; and on 
the death of the senior he became the 
sole pastor, and so he continued to be 
until 1882, when he resigned the posi- 
tion. In December, 1882, Rev. James 
de Normandie was made pastor. — 
The first meeting-house was in 1658 
"repayred for the warmth and comfort 
of the people," and made more habit- 
able by being plastered and shingled , 
and it is related that a " pinakle " was 
set up upon each of its ends. In 1674 
a new meeting-house was built ; and in 
1693 the building of "pues around the 
meeting-house except where the boys do 
sit " was permitted. Before that time 
the people sat on rude benches ; and 
the permission to build " pues " must 
have been a great boon, except to the 
boys, who were refused such luxuries. 
The singing, at this time, was from 
the Bay Psalm-book, each line "lined 
out." Prayers were an hour long, and 
the sermons longer. The congrega- 
tion was seated according to rank; 
and the men were placed on one side 
of the meeting-house, and the women 



on the other. The second . meeting- 
house stood until 1741, when it was 
taken down, and a new one built upon 
its site. The latter, three years after, 
in the early spring month of March, 
was destroyed by fire ; and the tradi- 
tion is, that the fire caught from the 
foot-stoves used by the people in the 
congregation. At any rate, the use of 
foot-stoves in church was thereafter 
prohibited. The house was promptly 
rebuilt ; and the new structure was 
completed in 1746. This stood until 
1804, when the present now venerable 
meeting-house was built. During the 
siege of Boston, the meeting-house 
then standing was used as a signal- 
station by the Americans; and it was 
from its belfry that the signals were 
displayed telling the joyful news of 
the evacuation of Boston by the Brit- 
ish. The church and its belfry were 
a target for the British guns, but it 
escaped with a few scratches. The 
present church is a picturesque struc- 
ture, and its situation is exceptionally 
fine. It has several times since its 
erection been repaired and renovated, 
the most extensive changes having 
been made in 1857 ; but the old archi- 
tecture has been preserved, and the 
interior of the structure has not been 
so extensively modernized as to affect 
its original impressive simplicity. 

First Church in South Boston 

(The). — The credit of establishing 
the first church in South Boston, set 
off from Dorchester and joined to 
Boston in 1804, belongs to the Episco- 
palians. This was St. Matthew's 
Church. It was gathered in March, 
1816; and the services of the Episco- 
pal Church were begun by a layman, 
John H. Cotting. Until 18 18 the 
services were held in a schoolhouse ; 
when, in June of that year, a modest 
church-building was erected on Broad- 
way, between D and E Streets, and 
was consecrated by Bishop Griswold, 
then bishop of Massachusetts. The 
services were principally conducted by 
lay-readers until 1824, when Rev. John 



FIRST CHURCH IN WEST ROXBURY 



184 



FIRST CORPS OF CADETS 



H. Blake was settled as rector. Suc- 
ceeding rectors were Rev. Mark A. De 
Wolf Howe, Rev. E. M. P. Wells, 
Rev. Horace L. Conolly, Rev. Dr. 
Joseph H. Clinch, and Rev. Dr. J. I. 
T. Coolidge (who had been a Unita- 
rian clergyman). Rev. John Wright 
is the rector at this time. Rev. Dr. 
Clinch was rector of St. Matthew's 
for 22 years, when he resigned ; and 
Rev. Dr. Coolidge succeeded him the 
year following, in 1861. The rector- 
ship of Rev. John Wright began in 
1874. The present church-building is 
an attractive structure, its interior dec- 
orations modest, and its conveniences 
ample. 

First Church in "West Roxbury. — 
The Second or " Upper " Parish of 
Roxbury was formed in 17 12 by mem- 
bers of the First Parish living in what 
is now the West-Roxbury district of 
Boston, who were dismissed from the 
old church for the purpose of forming 
the new. The first meeting-house was 
on Walter Street, some distance from 
the present one ; and the first pastor 
was Rev. Ebenezer Thayer of Boston. 
Mr. Thayer was pastor until his death 
in March, 1733, when he was succeeded 
by Rev. Nathaniel Walter, son of Rev. 
Nehemiah Walter of the First Parish 
in Roxbury. Mr. Walter's pastorate 
also continued until his death, which 
occurred in March, 1776. It was dur- 
ing his pastorate that several influen- 
tial families were dismissed from the 
parish in 1770, at their own request, to 
form the First Congregational Church 
in Jamaica Plain [see First Church in 
Jamaica Plain\ When the new parish 
was formed, the old parish built a new 
meeting-house, about a mile farther 
west of the site of the first struc- 
ture, on Centre Street, a portion of 
which still remains in the present build- 
ing. Mr. Walter's successor here was 
Rev. Thomas Abbott, who was or- 
dained Sept. 29, 1773. Mr. Abbott was 
pastor for ten years ; he was not known 
to be a Unitarian, but the church was 
among the earliest to fall into the Uni- 



tarian line. Rev. John Bradford was 
the next pastor, ordained in 1785 ; Rev. 
John Flagg succeeded him, serving 
from 1825 to 1831 ; Rev. George Whit- 
ney followed, serving from 183 1 to 
1836; then came Rev. Theodore Par- 
ker, who was pastor for nine years, 
from 1837 to 1846; next Rev. Dexter 
Clapp, from 1848 to 1851 ; then Rev. 
Edmund B. Willson, from 1852 to 
1859; Rev. T. B. Forbush, from 1863 
to 1868; and then the present pastor, 
Rev. Augustus H. Haskell, who was 
installed in 1870. Theodore Parker's 
quiet life and experience here are pleas- 
antly referred to in his own writings 
and in O. B. Frothingham's biography 
of him. His parishioners here were 
described by Frothingham as " a small 
but choice circle of elegant, graceful, 
cultivated people, used to wealth, ac- 
complished in the arts of life, of open 
hearts, and, better still, of human in- 
stincts, who lived in such near neigh- 
borhood that a path from Mr. Parker's 
gate led directly to their gardens and 
welcoming doors." On the occasion 
of Mr. Parker's ordination, the sermon 
was preached by Rev. Dr. Francis ; 
the prayers were by Revs. Chandler 
Robbins, Henry Ware, and Francis 
Cunningham ; and hymns were sung, 
written for the occasion by Rev. John 
Pierpont and John S. Dwight. The 
old church was largely rebuilt in 1821, 
and has since been extensively reno- 
vated and enlarged. 

First Corps of Cadets. — Tempo- 
rary armory, Columbus Avenue, cor- 
ner of Ferdinand Street. The history 
of this famous company dates from 
Oct. 16, 1 741. It was then the body- 
guard of the governor, and bore the 
title of the "Governor's Company of 
Cadets." Lieut.-Col. Benjamin Pol- 
lard was its first commander ; and in 
the archives of the company his com- 
mission, signed by Gov. Shirley, is still 
preserved. Up to 1774 the corps con- 
tinued as the governor's body-guard; 
and it is at the present time the com- 
pany that performs escort to the gov- 



FIRST CORPS OF CADETS 



185 



FIRST CORPS OF CADETS 



ernor the first Wednesday in January 
each year, when he heads the proces- 
sion of the executive and legislative 
departments to church to hear the elec- 
tion-sermon. In August, 1774, Gov. 
Thomas Gage, the royal official sent 
out from England, deposed Col. John 
Hancock from his command of the 
company, for his political sentiments. 
The indignant Cadets thereupon sent 
a committee to the governor to inform 
him that they considered this dismissal 
of their commander as equivalent to 
the disbandment of the corps, and 
could no longer regard themselves as 
the governor's company ; to which the 
haughty official replied, that, had he 
known their errand, he would have 
prevented it by disbanding the corps 
itself. The corps also sent a compli- 
mentary message to Hancock, who 
responded in this spirited fashion : 
" I shall ever be ready to appear in a 
public station whenever the humor or 
the interest of the community call me ; 
but I shall prefer the retirement of a 
private station to being a tool in the 
hands of power to oppress my country- 
men." As a body the Cadets took no 
part in the siege of Boston ; but after 
the evacuation by the British, in 1776, 
they formed the " Independent Com- 
pany," under Col. Henry Jackson, and 
two years after were actively engaged 
in the Revolutionary conflict in Rhode 
Island. After the organization of the 
State government, the issue of com- 
missions to the officers of the company 
was authorized by the Legislature, by 
resolve of Oct. 18, 1786; and from 
that date it resumed its functions as 
the governor's body-guard, and became 
a part of the State militia. The arms 
of the company are a six-pointed star, 
with the motto "Monstrat Viam." By 
the order of Hancock, when he was 
governor, the State arms were substi- 
tuted upon the standards of the com- 
pany for the family arms of the several 
governors which had hitherto been em- 
blazoned thereon. But the corps still 
uses as a seal, and as an ornament to 
its equipments, the arms of Govs. Shir- 



ley and Bowdoin. The latter's sword 
is still preserved among the relics of 
the corps. In 1799 the company's name 
was again changed to the " Independ- 
ent Corps of Cadets;" in 1803, to the 
" Independent Cadets ; " in 1840, to the 
"Divisionary Corps of Independent 
Cadets ; " in 1854, back again to the 
"Independent Company of Cadets;" 
1866, the " First Company of Cadets ; " 
and 1874, " First Corps of Cadets," as 
at present. The corps plans to build 
a new and extensive armory on its 
land on Columbus Avenue, running 
back to Ferdinand Street, — a lot of 
261 feet front and no feet deep. The 
estate is held by the Cadet Veteran 
Association, an organization formed 
for the specific purpose of holding this 
property ; as, by law, the corps cannot 
hold real estate. All persons who have 
served in the company for the term of 
two enlistments are eligible to mem- 
bership in the Veteran Association, 
and each goes through the form of an 
election to it. The trustees of the 
association, holding the property for 
the benefit of the corps, are John Jef- 
fries, Charles R. Codman, Henry L. 
Pierce, Francis H. Peabody, and Au- 
gustus T. Perkins. The armory as 
planned will be a head-house and drill- 
hall. The head-house will stand on 
Ferdinand Street; and the long hall, 
about 200 feet long by 100 feet wide, 
will adjoin it. The structure will be 
made like a citadel. The walls will 
be of brick and stone, of more than 
usual thickness ; and embrasures two 
inches wide, guarded with iron shutters, 
will be made in them. In the hall a 
narrow gallery will give access to the 
second tier. In the head-house will 
be the administration-office, dressing- 
rooms, workshop, and kitchen, with a 
full supply of cooking-apparatus. The 
dining-room will be in the basement. 
The hall of the armory will be larger 
than any other in the city, except that 
of the Manufacturers' and Mechanics' 
Institute. A temporary drill-shed was 
constructed in the autumn and winter 
of 1882, and so placed that the perma- 



FIRST NEWSPAPER 



186 



FIRST NEWSPAPER 



nent armory building may be erected 
around and over it. The commander 
of the Cadets now is Lieut.-Col. 
Thomas F. Edmands. 

First Newspaper (The). — The 
first newspapers of the New World 
were published in Boston. The very 
first venture was attempted in 1690, 
with the publication of " Publick Oc- 
currences. Both Forreign and Domes- 
tick," printed by Richard Pierce for 
Benjamin Harris at the "London Cof- 
fee House." It came to a sudden 
end after a single issue. The General 
Court denounced it as containing " re- 
flections of a very high nature," and 
caused it to be promptly suppressed ; 
at the same time forbidding "any- 
thing in print without license first 
obtained from those appointed by the 
government to grant the same." The 
paper was printed on three pages of a 
folio, two columns to a page, each 
page about 11 inches long and 7 wide. 
It was the design of its projectors 
that " the Countrey shall be furnished 
once a moneth ( or if any Glut of 
Occurrences happen oftener) with an 
Account of such considerable things 
as have arrived unto our notice." 
The publisher further announced in 
his prospectus, that "that which is 
herein proposed is First, That Mem- 
orable Occurrences of Divine Provi- 
dence may not be neglected or forgot- 
ten as they too often are. Secondly, 
That people everywhere may better 
understand the Circumstances of Pub- 
lique Affairs, both abroad and at 
home ; which may not only direct 
their Thoughts at all times, but at 
some times also to assist their Business 
and Negotiations. Thirdly, That some 
things maybe done towards the Curing 
or at least the Charming of that Spirit 
of Lying which prevails among us, 
wherefore nothing shall be entered 
but what we have reason to believe is 
true, repairing to the best fountains 
for our Information. And when there 
appears any material mistake in any- 
thing that is collected it shall be cor- 



rected in the next. Moreover, the 
Publisher of these Occurrences is will- 
ing to engage that whereas there are 
many False Reports maliciously made, 
and spread among us, if any well 
minded person will be at the pains to 
trace any such false Report, so far as 
to find out and Convict the First 
Raiser of it, he will in this Paper ( un- 
less just Advice be given to the con- 
trary ) expose the name of such person 
as A Malicious Raiser of a False Re- 
port. It is supposed that none will 
dislike this Proposal, but such as in- 
tend to be guilty of so villanous a 
Crime." Surely a worthy mission this, 
to seek the truth and publish it, and 
to expose the Malicious Raiser of a 
False Report ; but its announcement 
greatly disturbed the fathers, who 
were possessed of none of the mod- 
ern notions about the freedom of the 
press ; and so the modest enterprise 
was ruthlessly crushed at its first show- 
ing of itself, as a dangerous thing, to 
be got out of the way with alacrity. 
One copy only of this first short-lived 
newspaper is preserved, and it is held 
by the Colonial State-paper Office in 
London as a most interesting curiosity. 
A copy of it, by Dr. Samuel A. Green, 
was published in vol. i. (1857) of 
"The Historical Magazine." After 
this, for nearly 14 years, there was no 
second attempt; written news-letters 
supplying the place of the printed 
newspaper. In 1704 the "Boston 
News-letter" made its appearance, 
"printed by authority;" and this, con- 
tinuing its publications regularly for 
many years, in fact for 72, was really 
the first paper established in the 
town and the colonies. Its first num- 
ber bore date of April 24, 1704. Its 
appearance was an event in Boston. 
" There was a visible sensation," says 
Hudson, in his "Journalism in the 
United States : " " the first sheet of the 
first number was taken damp from the 
press by Chief-justice Sewall, to show 
to President Willard of Harvard Uni- 
versity as a wonderful curiosity in the 
colony." It was published by John 



FIRST NEWSPAPER 



187 



FLOWER AND FRUIT MISSIONS 



Campbell (or Campbel as he so gener- 
ally wrote it), a Scotchman, postmaster 
of Boston, and son of Duncan Camp- 
bell the organizer of the postal-system 
of America ; printed by Bartholomew 
Green, a famous printer in his day, 
whose printing-office was in Newbury 
(now Washington) Street, near the 
corner of Avon Street ; and it was sold 
by " Nicholas Boone at his shop near 
the old Meeting House." It was a 
small folio sheet, foolscap size, and 
was issued weekly. This was the pros- 
pectus : " This News-Letter is to be 
continued Weekly ; and all Persons 
who have any Houses, Lands, Tene- 
ments, Farms, Ships, Vessels, Goods, 
Wares, or Merchandises &c, to be 
Sold or Let ; or Servants Run-away, 
or Goods Stole or Lost ; may have the 
same inserted at a Reasonable Rate 
from Twelve Pence to Five Shillings, 
and not to exceed : Who may agree 
with John Campbel, Post-master at 
Boston. All, Persons in Town and 
Country may have said News-letter 
every Week, Yearly, upon reasonable 
terms, agreeing with John Campbel, 
Post-master for the same." The first 
number contained news taken from 
London papers, and a small amount 
of domestic news. Campbell contin- 
ued the course of the paper for 18 
years. Then Bartholomew Green con- 
tinued it alone until his death in 1733. 
Green's son-in-law, John Draper, then 
took the helm, and directed the en- 
terprise until his death in 1762. His 
son, Richard Draper, succeeded him, 
changing the name of the paper to 
the " Boston Weekly News-letter, and 
New England Chronicle." Later the 
name was again changed to the " Mas- 
sachusetts Gazette and Boston News- 
letter; "and then, in 1768, the paper 
was united with the " Boston Post- 
Boy," started in 1734, and the fifth 
newspaper established in the town. 
This union continued only a year, the 
two papers being published under the 
title of the " Massachusetts Gazette ; " 
and then the " News-Letter " was con- 
tinued by Draper under the original 



name. In 1774 Draper died; and the 
paper was carried on by his widow, 
Margaret Draper, with John Boyle for 
a while as partner, and afterward with 
John Howe. It was a fierce Tory pa- 
per, and was the only paper published 
in Boston during the siege. With the 
evacuation by the British its life ended. 
A complete file of the " News-Letter " 
is in the possession of the New-York 
Historical Society, and a copy of the 
first number issued is in the library of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
[See Historical Society, the Massachu- 
setts.] 

First Resident in Boston. — See 
Blackstone. 

First Tavern, in Boston. — See 
Hotels. 

First Theatre in Boston. — See 
Drama in Boston. 

Fish Bureau (The Boston). — No. 

176 Atlantic Avenue, at the head of T 
Wharf. This is a fish-dealers' ex- 
change. It is open daily on business 
days, and is regularly frequented by 
the most active men in the business, 
which continues to be one of the most 
important interests in Eastern New 
England. The president of the Ex- 
change is Barna S. Snow, and the 
secretary William A. Wilcox. 

Fitchburg Railroad Station and 
Line. — See Boston and Fitchburg 
Passenger Station and Line. 

Flower and Fruit Missions. — The 
Boston Flower and Fruit Mission, es- 
tablished 1869, having its headquarters 
in Hollis-street Chapel ; and the Shaw- 
mut Universalist Flower-mission, es- 
tablished 1870, with headquarters in 
the Shawmut Universalist Church, 
Shawmut Avenue, near Brookline 
Street, — do an extensive and a beauti- 
ful work throughout the city in the flow- 
er and fruit season. Flowers, plants, 
slips, fruits, and vegetables are dis- 
tributed systematically among the sick 
and infirm poor at their homes; also 
in the hospitals, dispensaries, diet- 



FORT HILL 



188 



FORT INDEPENDENCE 



kitchens, work-rooms, and schools, in 
the quarters of the poorer classes. 
The Boston mission is under the di- 
rection of a committee of 12 ladies. 
Its rooms are open from 8 to 12 Mon- 
days and Thursdays, from May to Oc- 
tober; and the Shawmut Universalist 
Mission is open from 9 to 12 Mondays, 
during the same months. 

Fort Hill, a name familiar in the 
earlier days of the city's history, is 
among the things that were. Only a 
dozen or fifteen years ago a sharp as- 
cent from Milk Street, or Broad Street, 
or High Street, led the traveller to the 
summit of the hill ; the centre of which 
was laid out and fenced in as a green 
lawn, around which stood a circle of 
most respectable mansions that had 
"seen better days." Ten years before, 
and many of the best families of Bos- 
ton still lingered in this secluded 
though sightly neighborhood, which a 
few years before that time had been 
fashionable, — a " court end," as the 
North End had been at an earlier 
period. But the fine old-fashioned 
nouses, whose rooms still showed 
traces in their construction of their 
former elegance, in time became crowd- 
ed and ill -kept tenement -houses, 
against which on every side pressed the 
great warehouses demanded by mod- 
ern commerce. So the pick and 
shovel attacked the historical Fort 
Hill, the second of the three great 
hills of " Treamount ; " and in its place 
is now a level plain, occupied by busi- 
ness blocks and new street-ways, with 
a circular grass-plat where its green 
park stood, only perhaps 100 feet lower. 
The earth of the hill was used for 
grading Atlantic Avenue, and for fill- 
ing the Church-street region, which 
rose up from the mud into which it 
had sunk in proportion as the hill dis- 
appeared ; thus completing another of 
the odd metamorphoses which the out- 
line of Boston has undergone within 
the past 30 years. In the early days 
of the town, Fort Hill was crowned 
with fortifications ; the first erected by 



the colonists, whence it took its name. 
Within the fort, in 1689, Sir Edmund 
Andros sought shelter : this he was 
forced to surrender, with himself, to 
the incensed colonists, whose rights he 
had usurped ; and he was sent home 
to England on the accession of Wil- 
liam and Mary. The hill was chiefly 
used for military purposes until the 
close of the Revolution. The work of 
removing it was begun in 1869, and 
was carried forward rapidly until its 
completion. 

Fort Independence is built upon 
what was formerly known as Castle 
Island, two and a half miles distant 
from Long W^harf, and almost opposite 
South-Boston Point. One of the first 
things undertaken by Gov. Winthrop 
and the early settlers of Boston was 
to fortify this spot. In 1634 works 
were erected there in a rude fashion, 
upon which, and its subsequent en- 
largement, the neighboring towns as 
well as Boston were required to labor. 
Later it was strengthened to keep out 
the Dutch ; and especially in 1665, 
when there existed great apprehension 
from the fleet of De Ruyter, then in 
the West Indies. " Yet God, by con- 
trary winds, kept him out, so he went 
to Newfoundland and did great spoils 
there," wrote Capt. Roger Clap, who 
commanded the fort from this time to 
1686, a period of 21 years. The first 
castle was built with mud walls, which 
stood " divers years ; " then it was re- 
built with pine-trees and earth; then 
with brick w r alls, having three rooms 
in it, — "a dwelling-room below, a 
lodging-room over it, the gun-room 
over that, wherein stood six very good 
Saker guns, and over it upon the top 
three lesser guns." When the Dutch 
scare of 1665 came, the battery was re- 
paired and strengthened. In July of 
that same year "God was pleased to 
send a grievous storm of thunder and 
lightening, which did some hurt in Bos- 
ton, and struck dead here at the Castle 
Island that worthy renowned Captain, 
Richard Davenport," the commander 



FORT WARREN 



189 



FORT WINTHROP 



whom Capt. Clap succeeded. In 1673 
the little fort took fire and burned 
down. Again rebuilt, it was in 1701 
demolished, and a new brick fort, 
Castle William, was erected ; and this 
stood until 1776, when it was burned 
down when the British abandoned 
Boston. The Provincial forces then 
took possession of the fort and re- 
paired it. In 1797 its name was form- 
ally changed to Fort Independence, 
President John Adams being present 
on the occasion ; and the next year the 
island was ceded to the general gov- 
ernment. For some time after, until 
1805, when the State Prison at Charles- 
town was built, the Castle was used as 
a place of confinement for criminals at 
hard labor ; this use of it having been 
begun by Act of the General Court in 
1785. The island was also a place 
where duels were fought ; and there is 
a memorial-stone of such an event, 
which relates that " near this spot, on 
the 25th Deer., 1817, fell Lieut. Robert 
F. Massie, aged 21," and bears these 
lines : 

" Here Honour comes, a Pilgrim gray, 
To deck the turf, that wraps his clay." 

The present Fort Independence was 
built by the United States. A small 
portion of the wall of the old Castle 
remains in the rear part of the fortifi- 
cation. 

Fort "Warren, on George's Island, 
7 miles from the city, was begun by 
the government in 1833, and com- 
pleted in 1850. It is partly of granite 
and partly of earthworks. It is strong 
by its position, and can mount a large 
number of guns. During the War of 
the Rebellion it was strongly garri- 
soned, and was eventually well pro- 
vided with guns, although during the 
early part of the war there was not a 
gun mounted which could be fired. 
Many Massachusetts regiments were 
stationed here while in process of or- 
ganization ; and many rebel prisoners, 
among them Mason and Slidell, the 
Confederate commissioners to Eng- 



land, captured onboard the "Trent " by 
Commodore Wilkes, and the late Alex- 
ander H. Stephens, the Confederate 
" vice-president," were confined here at 
different times. In the 1 atter year of the 
war a battalion of heavy artillery was 
authorized by the war-department, and 
raised for the special object of occu- 
pying this and the other forts in the 
harbor. At the present time two com- 
panies of United-States troops are sta- 
tioned here. A previous attempt to 
fortify this island was made in 1778, 
when earthworks were constructed on 
the eastern side to protect vessels pass- 
ing into the harbor from English men- 
of-war, then cruising off the coast. 
The island passed into the possession 
of the city in 1825, and from the city it 
was purchased by the General Govern- 
ment. 

Fort Winthrop, on Governor's Isl- 
and, opposite Fort Independence, is 
an incomplete structure, work upon 
which was suspended while Jefferson 
Davis was secretary of war, before the 
breaking-out of the Southern Rebel- 
lion. It is the strongest earthwork in 
the State. The building of the pres- 
ent fortress was begun under the direc- 
tion of Gen. Sylvanus Thayer ; and 
in 1861 it had received no armament, 
and had not been occupied as a mili- 
tary post : but, as Mr. Sweetser chroni- 
cles in " King's Handbook of Boston 
Harbor," "when Gen. Schouler in- 
spected the defences here in 1863, he 
found at Fort Winthrop 25 large 
Rodman guns, and 1 1 pieces of other 
calibers and forms." Mr. Sweetser 
describes the fort as follows: "There 
is little of the delusive symmetry of 
masonry to be seen ; for vast mounds 
of well-turfed earth cover the entire 
hill, with ponderous outworks on the 
bluff to the eastward, mountainous 
magazines, and skilfully contrived 
traverses. Here and there long under- 
ground passages, arched with mason- 
ry, lead from one battery to another, 
or enter the main stronghold. At 
the crest of the hill is the citadel, a 



FORT WINTHROP 



190 



FRANKLIN MEDALS 



massive granite structure, so well 
curtained by impenetrable earthworks 
that only its top is visible from the 
harbor, and entered by a light wooden 
bridge high above the ground. The 
lower story, with its roof hung with 
small stalactites, contains the cistern ; 
the second story is the barracks of the 
garrison, with rooms opening on an 
interior court ; the third story contains 
the officers' quarters; and above, on 
the top, covered by a temporary roof 
to protect them from the weather, are 
the immense Parrott rifled guns, which 
look down on the harbor. On the 
south of the hill a long stone stairway, 
so built that it cannot be raked, or 
carried by a rush, leads to a battery 
at the water's edge. Among these 
heavy mounds, lurk scores of power- 
ful 10 and 15 inch guns, well mounted, 
and peering grimly out on the chan- 
nel, as if hoping, with a dogged iron 
patience, that some time their hour 
may come." The low battery on the 
southern part of the island was built 
several years before the war of 181 2 ; 
and in 1803, when the island came into 
the possession of the government, its 
summit w r as occupied by an enclosed 
star-fort of stone and brick, which was 
called Fort Warren. During the war 
of 18 1 2 this fort was fully garrisoned. 
When the present fort was begun, the 
name of Warren was transferred to the 
fort on George's Island, and Winthrop 
given to the new structure, in honor 
of the Puritan governor. Governor's 
Island was granted by the colony to 
John Winthrop, in 1632 ; and it was 
long known as the " Governor's Gar- 
den." It was first fortified in 1696; 
and 50 years later new and more for- 
midable fortifications were begun here 
by Richard Gridley, whom Sweetser 
describes as " the chief bombardier in 
the siege of Louisburg, colonel of the 
First Massachusetts Regiment, Provin- 
cial Grand Master of Masons in Amer- 
ica, a Harvard man, editor, lawyer (' the 
Webster of his day '), mathematician, 
and military engineer." During the 
ownership by the Winthrops, the island 



was famous for its hospitality; and the 
Massachusetts Historical Society oc- 
casionally had its meetings here. 

Fountains. — Boston is favored 
with a number of fountains, more or 
less graceful in their design, but of 
which the most noticeable feature is the 
absence of water. The fountain in the 
Frog Pond on the Common has a vari- 
ety of beautiful forms, and can throw a 
magnificent jet of about 100 feet when 
it is allowed to; which it should be 
said is more generally the case on 
pleasant days in summer, not excluding 
Sundays, than used to be. On the 
Common,, also, is the beautiful bronze 
Brewer Fountain [see Brewer Foun- 
tain} ; in the State-house grounds are 
two iron basins from which water some- 
times trickles; in the Public Garden, 
there is a small jet in the pond, and 
in another basin near the Common- 
wealth-avenue entrance the marble 
Venus, popularly known as "the Maid 
of the Mist, " is sometimes veiled by a 
delicate spray [see Public Garden\ ; 
and in Blackstone and Franklin 
Squares, at the South End, are two 
iron fountains like those in the State- 
house grounds. On the Common are 
several drinking - fountains ; but very 
few are to be found elsewhere in the 
city, either for man or beast. This is 
one particular in wdiich the city is 
poorly furnished. 

Franklin Medals. — These rewards 
for the most deserving pupils in the 
public schools originated in the follow- 
ing clause of the will of Dr. Franklin : 
" I was born in Boston, New England, 
and owe my first instructions in litera- 
ture to the free grammar-schools es- 
tablished there. I therefore give one 
hundred pounds sterling to my execu- 
tors, to be by them, the survivors or 
survivor of them, paid over to the man- 
agers or directors of the free schools 
in my native town of Boston, to be by 
them, or those person or persons who 
shall have the superintendence and 
management of said schools, put out 
to interest, and so continued at inter- 



FRANKLIN MEDALS 



I 9 I 



FRANKLIN STATUE 



est forever, which interest, annually, 
shall be laid out in silver medals, and 
given as honorary rewards annually by 
the directors of the said free schools, 
for the encouragement of scholarship 
in the said schools belonging to the 
said town, in such manner as to the 
discretion of the selectmen of the said 
town shall seem meet." The gift be- 
came available in 1792, a little more 
than two years after the death of 
Franklin, which occurred April 17, 
1790; and a committee consisting of 
William Tudor, Rev. Mr. Clarke of 
King's Chapel, and Charles Bulfinch, 
was appointed by the town to ascer- 
tain the expense of procuring medals 
to carry Dr. Franklin's intention into 
effect ; the fund itself, without addition, 
being too small to accomplish any 
practical result. The committee rec- 
ommended that 21 medals be awarded, 
— three to the Latin, three to each of 
the grammar, and three to each of the 
" writing schools " then in existence ; 
and this report has been the basis of 
the apportionment from that time. 
The fund proper amounts to $1,000, 
vested in five-per-cent city stock ; and 
the city meets the balance of the ex- 
pense. The original medal of silver 
shows on one side an open book, sup- 
ported by two pens crossed, and en- 
circled by the words, " The Gift of 
Franklin ; " and on the other the name 
of the pupil receiving it, and the date. 
In June, 1795, ^ was determined that 
the device on those designed for the 
Latin School should be " a pile of 
books, the words defoir digniori in- 
scribed on the same side ; " and on the 
reverse side, " Franklin's donation ad- 
judged by the school committee of the 
town of Boston to " — the name of the 
recipient. In 1821 the school commit- 
tee voted to give an equal number of 
medals to the most deserving girls in 
the schools, these to be called " City 
Medals." John Collins Warren, after- 
wards the famous physician, was the 
first Franklin-medal scholar in the 
Latin School. The Franklin medals 
are now distributed, at the annual ex- 



amination, among the most deserving 
boys of the English High and Latin 
Schools only. 

Franklin Square, at the South 
End, on the east side of Washington 
Street, opposite Blackstone Square 
[see this], and bounded by East-Brook- 
line, James, and East-Newton Streets, 
is a pleasant small park, containing 
105,205 square feet, with well-grown 
trees affording a refreshing shade in 
summer, a fountain in the centre of 
the grounds, and broad, winding paths. 
Formerly the square was enclosed by 
an iron fence ; but this is now removed, 
and the whole is thrown open to the 
sidewalks surrounding it. This, with 
Blackstone Square, was laid out and 
named in February, 1849. Before 
that, for many years, the two had been 
one public square, a large round grass- 
plat, under the name of " Columbia 
Square," with Washington Street run- 
ning" through it. This was in* accord- 
ance with the plan for laying out 
the " Neck- Lands " arranged by the 
selectmen of the town in 1S01. They 
provided that a " large circular place " 
should be left open, to be ornamented 
with trees, " to introduce variety, . . . 
add to the beauty of the town at large, 
and be particularly advantageous to 
the inhabitants of this part." [See 
Neck, also Parks and Squares?^ 

Franklin Statue. — The bronze 
statue of Benjamin Franklin, standing 
in one of the spaces in front of the 
City Hall, to the left of the path lead- 
ing to the entrance, was the first of the 
out-door statues erected in the city. It 
is the work of Richard S. Greenough, a 
Boston artist, and was erected in 1856, 
from funds raised by subscription. It 
is esteemed an excellent portrait of 
the great Boston-born philosopher, and 
stands, very appropriately, directly op- 
posite the site of the old Latin School 
where he received his early education. 
It is a large statue, eight feet high, 
standing on a granite pedestal capped 
with a block of verd-antique marble. 
The four bas-reliefs represent as many 



FRANKLIN TYPOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 



192 



FROG POND 



periods of Franklin's career. It was 
cast by the Ames Manufacturing Com- 
pany of Chicopee, Mass. It was pub- 
licly dedicated on the 17th of Septem- 
ber, 1856. It first stood in front of the 
old City Hall, on the site of the present 
building, and was removed to the posi- 
tion it now occupies on July 7, 1865. 
This statue has been a favorite target 
for the critics; but the sculptor Bart- 
lett, in his papers on " Civic Monu- 
ments in New England," calls it " the 
most pleasing statue in the city." He 
asserts that " the pose is happy, human, 
and effective ; " and that " the costume 
appeals to the respect and admira- 
tion." " The statue," he adds, " looks 
like a fine, full-bodied old gentleman of 
another time. If it does not show the 
nerve, freedom of treatment, and knowl- 
edge of the human form that are found 
in famous statues, it neither shocks by 
vulgar pretence, careless workmanship, 
or want of study." 

Franklin Typographical Society 
(The). — This is the representative 
society of printers, a mutual-benefit 
society of long standing and most 
honorable record. It was instituted in 
January, 1824, and was incorporated 
in February the year following. Its 
earlier meetings were held in the " Corn- 
hill Coffee-house," the unpretentious 
house of good cheer which used to 
stand in place of the older part of 
Young's Hotel [see Young's Hotef\. 
The society as first organized was called 
the "Boston Typographical Society;" 
but the name of " Franklin " was soon 
substituted for that of " Boston," and 
the anniversary of Franklin's birth was 
thereafter regularly celebrated as the 
annual-meeting day of the organization. 
The society was instituted "for mutual 
aid, in promoting the enlargement of 
the social affections, and mitigating the 
sufferings attendant upon sickness and 
misfortune." By the provisions of the 
constitution, "any printer, pressman, 
stereotyper, or electrotyper, or any oth- 
er person in any way connected with the 
printing business, between the ages of 



21 and 45 years, and known to be in 
good health," may be admitted to mem- 
bership. Three-fourths of the ballots 
cast for a candidate for admittance 
elect. Honorary members are also 
elected by a three-fourths vote. These 
are required to pay $10 into the treasury 
on election. They are exempt from 
assessments, but they are not entitled 
to sick-benefits. The initiation-fee for 
active members is from $5 to $10, ac- 
cording to age ; and quarterly assess- 
ments of $1.25 are laid. The initiation- 
fees, quarterly dues, donations, and in- 
come from the standing funds (which 
amount to about $7,000), constitute the 
relief and general-expense fund. Each 
member not owing two quarterly as- 
sessments is entitled to $5 a week in case 
of sickness or disability not caused by 
proper or immoral conduct, — the ben- 
efit beginning on the eighth day of 
sickness. The death-benefit is $75. 
The Society, in conjunction with the 
Boston Typographical Union, a trade 
association of printers, maintains a bur- 
ial-lot in Mount-Hope Cemetery, in 
which any printer can be buried, wheth- 
er belonging to the societies or not. 
This was dedicated on July 28, i860, on 
which occasion the late Charles H. 
Woodwell, then president of the 
Franklin Typographical Society, de- 
livered the address. The society cel- 
ebrated its semi-centennial anniver- 
sary on the evening of Jan. 17, 1874, 
with a festival in the Odd Fellows' 
Hall, Berkeley, corner of Tremont 
Street. A custom of the society, long- 
observed, is to invite the lady relatives 
and friends of the members to its oc- 
casional public celebrations. The so- 
ciety possesses a good library. Its 
meeting and library rooms are at 176 
Tremont Street. 

Frog Pond. — The little sheet of 
water on the Common, which has 
borne its homely and uncityfied name 
for many long years, in spite of all 
efforts to re-christen it with a more 
ambitious and dignified appellation, 
was originally a marshy bog. It is an 



FREE CHURCH ASSOCIATION 



l 93 



FREE SOCIETY 



artificial pond entirely, and it is a 
question if frogs ever dwelt within its 
narrow borders. Certain it is, that, 
since its elevation to the dignity of a 
pond, no frog has tenanted it ; and the 
wags of the town were wont to say 
that it was called " Frog Pond " be- 
cause, when it became a pond, the 
frogs retired. When it was first trans- 
formed from a bog into a pond, is not 
recorded. Its name does not appear 
on any of the earlier maps. The first 
stone edging was placed around it in 
1826, and 20 years later a new curbing 
was set in place. When it was first 
curbed, the first effort was made to 
change its name : it was desired to 
call it " Quincy Lake." The new name, 
however, did not come natural to the 
Bostonians of that day, and they re- 
fused to recognize it. Then, some 
years after, it was proposed to call it 
" Crescent Pond ; " and again, after 
the demonstration here on the occasion 
of the opening of the Cochituate water- 
works, on Oct. 25, 1848 [see Water- 
Works], there were those who strongly 
favored calling it " Fountain Pond." 
But, as stated above, all these and 
other efforts failed ; and plain Frog 
Pond it has steadfastly remained. It 
has often been suggested that its foun- 
tain should be adorned with a bright 
bronze frog, in commemoration of the 
unknown giver of the name which has 
so long clung to it. Though a small 
sheet of water, it is so shaped that it 
makes quite a show ; and it adds to 
the quaint picturesqueness of this 
bright green spot in the heart of the 
busy city. [See Common.] 

Free Church. Association, Mas- 
sachusetts Branch. Incorporated in 
1882. This organization of persons 
connected with the Episcopal Church 
has for its objects : " to maintain, as a 
principle, the freedom of all seats in 
churches ; to promote the abandon- 
ment of the sale and rental of pews 
and sittings, and the adoption instead 
of the principles of systematic free-will 
offerings by all the worshippers in the 



churches according to their ability ; 
and to promote the recognition of the 
offertory as an act of Christian wor- 
ship, and as a scriptural means of 
raising money for pious and charitable 
uses." It pursues these objects by 
means of the printing and dissemina- 
tion of tracts and papers, the holding 
of public meetings, the preaching of 
sermons, discussion in the public press, 
the promotion of needful legislation, 
and the creation of a fund to assist 
parishes wishing to adopt the free- 
church system. It is claimed that 
fully one-third of the clergy of the 
Episcopal Church in Massachusetts, 
and many influential laymen, favor 
the free-church system. Within the 
limits of Boston, of the .22 Episcopal 
churches or chapels, 12 are already 
free, namely ; Advent (2), All Saints, 
Evangelists, Good Shepherd, Grace, 
Messiah, St. Anne's, St. John's (Rox- 
bury), St. Margaret's, St. Mary's 
(North End), and St. John's (East 
Boston). The methods urged by the 
association for supporting a church 
without pew-rent are one or all of the 
following : the offertory or collections ; 
subscriptions ; and " the envelope 
system," the last being money in an 
envelope pledged, and placed weekly 
on the plate. The association is called 
" The Massachusetts Branch," because 
there is a parent association in Phila- 
delphia with which it is connected. 
It plans and executes its diocesan 
work, however, in a measure as an 
independent organization. The presi- 
dent is Dr. George C. Shattuck, and 
the secretary Rev. William C. Win- 
slow. 

"Free Society" (The) in the Dor- 
chester district, formed in 1881, was 
organized mainly through the personal 
efforts of Mrs. Clara M. Bisbee, who 
was ordained as its pastor February, 
1882 ; Mrs. E. M. Bi-uce of Maplewood 
in Maiden, another woman preacher, 
taking part in the exercises ; Rev. 
Charles C. Everett, D.D., of Cam- 
bridge, preaching the ordination-ser- 



FURNITURE EXCHANGE 



I 9 4 



FURNITURE EXCHANGE 



mon ; Rev. William G. Babcock, pas- 
tor of the Warrenton-street Chapel, 
the father of Mrs. Bisbee, making the 
prayer ; Rev. James Freeman Clarke 
delivering the charge ; Rev. Christo- 
pher R. Eliot extending the right hand 
of fellowship ; and Rev. William P. 
Tilden making the address to the 
people. The society holds its services 
in Lyceum Hall. It is Unitarian in 
its sympathies, though not formally 
classed in that denomination. Mrs. 
Bisbee is the widow of a Unitarian 
clergyman, Rev. Herman Bisbee, for- 
merly pastor of the Hawes-place Soci- 
ety of South Boston. She has pursued 
the regular course of study at the Har- 
vard Divinity School, though not rec- 
ognized as a graduate, as the university 
does not grant degrees to women. 

Furniture Exchange (the New- 
England), No. 182 Hanover Street. 
An organization of manufacturers and 
furniture-dealers for mutual protection 
and assistance. It is in direct commu- 
nication with the furniture-exchanges 



of other leading cities, which are com- 
bined for the purpose of keeping in- 
formed of the financial standing of 
furniture firms and traders in all parts 
of the country. In this combination 
the Boston Exchange manages what is 
called the " Boston section," which 
embraces a quite extensive territory, 
— all of Massachusetts, Maine, Ver- 
mont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, 
Connecticut east of the Connecticut 
River, and the Provinces of New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Quebec. 
In exchange for information received 
from other exchanges, the Boston Ex- 
change gives information of the trade 
in its large section which it " covers " 
with thoroughness ; and its " record of 
credits " is of much value. The ex- 
change does not attempt to control 
prices ; but it fixes the rate of cash 
discounts, and to a considerable extent 
regulates the length and condition of 
credits. It ' has a large membership, 
embracing the leading men in the trade. 
The admission-fee for members is $25, 
and the assessments are $6 per quarter. 



GALLOP'S ISLAND 



*95 



G. 



Gallop's Island lies between Nix's 
Mate and Fort Warren [see these]. 
It was in 1650 the property of an old 
pilot, Capt. John Gallop ; hence its 
name. It was formerly a fertile, pleas- 
ant island, much resorted to by pleas- 
ure-parties. The city bought it in i860 ; 
and during the war it was taken by 
the Government as a rendezvous for 
enlisted men, and constantly occupied 
while the war lasted ; after which, in 
1866, the city resumed possession, and 
made use of it as a part of the quar- 
antine arrangements. Like the other 
islands in the harbor, it has been con- 
siderably washed away by the sea ; a 
process now checked, however, by the 
building by the General Government 
of massive sea-walls for its protection. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, Statue 
of. — In May, 1879, a ^ ew days a f ter the 
death of the great anti-slavery agitator, 
a movement to procure a statue of 
him, to be placed in one of the public 
squares of the city, was started. The 
matter was placed in the hands of a 
committee, of which ex-Mayor Cobb 
is chairman ; and sufficient funds were 
easily raised. Four sculptors were in- 
vited to submit sketches (all of which 
were paid for) ; and in January, 1883, 
the commission was awarded to Olin 
L. Warner, a New-York sculptor. The 
statue will be of bronze, and colossal 
size. It will represent Mr. Garrison 
sitting naturally in a large arm-chair, 
holding in his right hand, resting on 
his knee, a roll of manuscript. The 
head is turned slightly towards the 
right. It is not yet determined where 
the statue shall be placed. 

Gas was introduced in Boston in 
1822, and the first gas-works were 



erected on Copp's Hill [see Copfts 
Hill']. This city was the second in 
the country to introduce the new light, 
Baltimore being the first. There was 
naturally much prejudice against it, 
and it came slowly into general or 
common use. It was not used to illu- 
minate the streets of the city till 1834. 
At first, consumers were charged a 
specified sum for each of the various 
classes of burners, to be used from 
sunset to a given hour ; but the modern 
method was early adopted. The Bos- 
ton Gas-light Company was the first 
company chartered in the State. It 
has, since its organization, alone sup- 
plied the city proper. Gas was intro- 
duced in the city of Roxbury (now the 
Roxbury district) in 1850, when the 
Roxbury Gas-light Company was char- 
tered. That district continues to be 
supplied by the Roxbury Company. 
There are local companies in the other 
districts of the city. That in the 
Charlestown district is the Charles- 
town Gas-light Company, whose office 
is in Thompson Square ; in the Dor- 
chester district, the Dorchester Gas- 
light Company, corner of Commercial 
Street and Dorchester Avenue ; in 
South Boston, the South-Boston Gas- 
light Company, 366 Broadway; in East 
Boston, the East-Boston Gas Com- 
pany, Central Square ; and in the West- 
Roxbury district, the Jamaica-Plain 
Gas-light Company, Elson Building, 
Jamaica Plain. The price per thou- 
sand cubic feet to consumers in the 
city proper is $2. The city street-lamps 
are lighted at a cost of $1.50 per thou- 
sand cubic feet, in the city proper; 
$1.87^ in the Charlestown and Rox- 
bury districts; $2 in South and East 
Boston; and $2.25 in the Dorchester, 



196 



GAZETTE 



West-Roxbury, and Brighton districts. 
The entire city is lighted by 10,427 gas- 
lamps, 2,469 oil-lamps (the latter in out- 
lying districts), and by electric lights. 
The total cost to the city for the gas 
lighting has of late years averaged 
about 3420,000 per annum. The men 
who clean and light the street gas-lamps 
are paid at the rate of iji cents per 
lamp per night, and have an average of 
96 lamps each; except those in the 
Roxbury, Dorchester, West-Roxbury, 
and Brighton districts, who receive 
$1.60 per day. All the street-lights 
are kept burning all night, throughout 
the year. [See Electric Lights 

Gazette, The Saturday Evening, 

is one of the oldest of the existing 
journals of the city. It was established 
by William W. Clapp, the first pub- 
lisher of the " Advertiser " [see Adver- 
tiser, The Boston Daily'], which was 
the third daily paper started in Boston, 
and the first successful one. The 
"Gazette" dates from 1813, and it was 
the first weekly journal to publish a 
Sunday edition. It has been for years 
a most profitable enterprise. It has 
published literature of the lighter or- 
der, with the news of the day, and 
comment on passing events presented 
in an inviting way. The first pub- 
lisher and editor early made a reputa- 
tion in its conduct. He was succeeded 
by his son Col. W. W. Clapp, the 
present manager of the " Daily Jour- 
nal " [see Journal, The Boston], who 
conducted it with equal ability for 17 
years. When he disposed of the prop- 
erty, and became connected with the 
" Journal," he was at first succeeded, 
as editor of the " Gazette," by the late 
George B. Woods, one of the most 
brilliant of young Boston journalists, 
who had been a leading ^member of the 
editorial staff of the " Advertiser," and 
whose career was cut short by his death 
when scarcely 30 years of age. He 
was succeeded by the late Warren L. 
Brigham, also at one time a member 
of the " Advertiser's " staff, and, after 
his retirement from the " Gazette," the 



editor of the " Courier " for some years 
[see Courier, The Boston], For the 
past 10 or 12 years Col. Henry G. 
Parker has been the editor and chief 
proprietor of the " Gazette ; " and under 
his conduct it has prospered remarka- 
bly, and to-day it is one of the most 
profitable of journals of its class in 
the country. It maintains several of 
the features which had for so many 
years made the " Gazette " a favorite 
journal, and to which Col. Parker has 
added new and successful ones. One 
of its most striking features is its de- 
partment of social news, which is 
grouped under the suggestive caption 
of " Out and About." This is main- 
tained with great perseverance ; and 
many readers invariably turn to it the 
first thing, on opening the paper Sun- 
day mornings. In the summer-season 
the paper makes a specialty, also, of 
the news of the various summer-re- 
sorts, especially those in New Eng- 
land ; and readers who desire to know 
" what is going on in society " find the 
" Gazette " an interesting chronicler of 
social and club news and society move- 
ments. Other noteworthy features are 
its dramatic and musical and art de- 
partments. It also publishes regularly 
the sermons of Rev. James Freeman 
Clarke. The paper has for years em- 
ployed some of the best and most cul- 
tivated pens. For a long time B. P. 
Shillaber, better known as " Mrs. Par- 
tington," was regularly connected with 
it ; and at the present time its regular 
staff includes George H. Monroe, who 
is widely known as " Templeton," the 
Boston correspondent of the " Hartford 
Courant," and Benjamin F. Woolf, one 
of the foremost of the dramatic and 
musical critics of the city. Its New- 
York correspondent, who writes under 
the no?7i de phi77ie of " Brunswick," is 
Miss Gilder, the accomplished editor 
of the " Critic," the best of the literary 
and critical weekly papers of New-York 
City. The " Gazette " is a large folio, 
and is published from Bromfield Street, 
corner of Washington. It is issued 
on Sunday mornings only, although it 



GENERAL HOSPITAL 



I 9 7 



GERMANS IN BOSTON 



continues its original title of the " Sat- 
urday Evening Gazette," and the early 
imprint of " Sunday Morning Edition." 

General Hospital. — See Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital. 

George's Island. — See Fort War- 
ren. 

General Theological Library, No. 
12 West Street. Instituted in April, 
i860, and incorporated in 1864, " for 
the purpose of promoting religion and 
theological learning." The association 
maintains a reading-room in connec- 
tion with the library; and its constitu- 
tion provides that " there shall be 
nothing sectarian in its character, prin- 
ciples, or operations ; but in the choice 
of officers, the purchase of books, and 
all other matters, the rights and inter- 
ests of all the denominations shall be 
respected and represented." Among 
those who took an active part in form- 
ing the institution were the late Rev. 
Dr. Charles Burroughs, the late Bish- 
op Manton Eastburn, Rev. Dr. George 
W. Blagden, the late J. Sullivan War- 
ren, Rev. Luther Farnum (the pres- 
ent librarian), Rev. Dr. Samuel K. 
Lothrop, the late Dr. Ezra S. Gannett, 
and others. The library was first 
opened at No. 5 Tremont Street. 
Then it moved to No. 41 Tremont 
Street ; and next to its present quar- 
ters, where it has been about 13 years. 
It has gained by gift and purchase 700 
volumes, on the average, each year 
since it was opened. Its estimated 
value, now numbering 13,000 volumes, 
is about $26,000. Its permanent fund 
is $20,000. The library is used by 
persons of all the religious denomina- 
tions, and much more by those residing 
in the country than by residents of 
Boston. Members and annual sub- 
scribers have the privilege of using it, 
and its hospitality is extended to stran- 
gers who are neither subscribers nor 
members. The distance to which 
books may be taken is unlimited. The 
reading-room receives about 77 differ- 
ent periodicals, representing 20 reli- 



gious denominations. By the rules 
of the institution, a person who has 
given $1,000 or upwards ranks as 
an associate founder. Any person 
approved by the board of directors 
may become a member of the corpora- 
tion by the payment of $50; a church 
or parish may become a member at 
the same rate, for the benefit of its 
pastor or other person, to whom the 
privilege of membership is granted for 
1 5 years ; and a person may also be- 
come a member by the payment of $10 
annually. Subscribers who are not 
members pay for the use of the libra- 
ry, including the privilege of taking 
out four books at a time, $5 a year. 
Two persons are regularly employed 
in the library, — the secretary, who fills 
the office of librarian, and an assistant- 
librarian. The president of the corpo- 
ration is Hon. Robert C. Winthrop ; 
the treasurer Samuel R. Payson, cor- 
ner of Milk and Congress Streets. 

Germans in Boston. — The Ger- 
mans form no inconsiderable portion 
of Boston's population ; and, as a class, 
they are conspicuous for their industry, 
thrift, and frugality. While they are 
to be found in all parts of the city, a 
majority of them have their residences 
in the Roxbury district ; owing, prob- 
ably, in part to the fact that the large 
breweries in that district furnish steady 
and lucrative employment. Brewing 
is a favorite occupation with many 
Germans here, and the amount of cap- 
ital invested by them in this one in- 
dustry is enormous. [See Beer and 
Breweries.] Many are also engaged 
in the manufacture of cigars, and there 
is scarcely a trade or occupation that 
has not Germans among its representa-, 
fives. Quite a large number of Ger- 
man-born citizens have attained promi- 
nent and influential positions among 
Boston business and professional men, 
and in the social and cultivated life of 
the city. While the average German 
readily adopts the customs of the 
country, he also retains with great te- 
nacity those of the Fatherland. In 



GERMANS IN BOSTON 



I98 



GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL 



their churches, societies, and social 
gatherings, the German language is 
almost exclusively used. In their reli- 
gious convictions they are principally 
Lutherans, Catholics, and Jews ; while 
a few are scattered among other de- 
nominations. Their most important 
organization is the " Turnverein ; " 
which numbers several hundred mem- 
bers, and has a large and convenient 
building at No. 29 Middlesex Street. 
It contains a finely equipped gymna- 
sium, which has graduated some of the 
best athletes in the city; a theatre, 
where amateur musical and dramatic 
performances are given by members of 
the society ; a hall for dancing ; parlors, 
reading and smoking room; and a room 
where refreshments are furnished to 
members at merely nominal prices. 
The society gives a fair every year, 
which is always largely attended. 
The German interest in music is pro- 
nounced, and the influence of the Ger- 
mans on musical culture in Boston has 
long been marked [see Music in Bos- 
ton}. Besides numerous small organi- 
zations, there is the Orpheus Society 
[see Orpheus Society], which includes 
in its membership some of the finest 
musical talent in the city. It is a very 
prosperous organization, and the in- 
troduction of social features gives it 
a popularity that adds largely to its 
strength and cohesiveness. It has con- 
venient rooms at No. 516 Washington 
Street, where are also the headquarters 
of the Germania Band, an accomplished 
and popular German organization. The 
Germans have a Grand-Army Post, re- 
cently organized, which meets in Turn- 
verein Hall, and attests the loyalty of 
that nationality in the cause of the 
Union. While manifesting much in- 
terest in municipal and state affairs, 
the Germans are not, as a general 
thing, active or aggressive politicians ; 
and comparatively few appear as can- 
didates for office. They make their 
influence felt at times, however, espe- 
cially when they feel that their own 
rights or privileges are liable to be 
jeopardized by legislation. 



German Aid Society (The). — 
Room No. 39, Charity Building. Incor- 
porated in 1848. A benevolent organi- 
zation of Germans, which extends a 
helping hand to German immigrants, 
aids them to employment, provides 
temporary support, and succors poor 
German residents and strangers of 
their nationality in the city. The re- 
lief furnished is of various kinds. It 
gives provisions, fuel, clothing, trans- 
portation to places where work may be 
procured, and sometimes, in extreme 
cases, money. The agent of the soci- 
ety, M. Kallman, investigates each 
case ; and the relief is extended under 
the direction of the committee on re- 
lief. Louis Weisbein, No. 3 State 
Street, is tne president of the society. 
The office in Charity Building is open 
from 10 to 12 daily. 

Girls' High School (The). — New- 
ton Street. This was originally es- 
tablished in connection with the 
Normal School for Girls [see Normal 
School for Girls], in 1855, under the 
name of the " Girls' High and Normal 
School." In 1872 the two were sepa- 
rated: the High School continuing in 
the school-building, which was com- 
pleted in 1870, and was at that time 
considered to be the largest, most con- 
venient, and costliest school-building 
of its class in the country; while the 
Normal School was re-established in 
the Rice-school building, on Dartmouth 
Street. The first attempt to establish 
a high school for girls, similar to those 
for boys, was made in 1825. It met 
with great opposition, born of the 
prejudice against the broader educa- 
tion of girls ; but it proved to be a 
most successful experiment. The op- 
position, however, was so persistent, 
that after an existence of two years it 
was abolished. Ebenezer Bailey was 
the principal, and the school was 
largely attended. The regular course 
of study in the existing school is for 
two years ; and there is an advanced 
class, covering a two-years' course, 
to which pupils who have passed 



i 9 9 



through the regular course are admit- 
ted. Candidates for admission to the 
school must be at least 14 years of 
age. The school is in charge of a 
head master, a junior master, and sev- 
eral women as assistants. A literary 
society is formed from pupils of the 
advanced class, by which acquaintance 
with good literature is promoted, and 
the art of reading aloud cultivated. 
The work of the society is incorpo- 
rated with that of the school. Vocal 
culture and calisthenic exercises form 
a part of the training in each class. 
In the large hall in the upper story of 
the school-building is a fine collection 
of casts, mostly from antique sculp- 
ture and statuary, the gift of members 
of the American Social Science Asso- 
ciation. Homer B. Sprague is the 
head master of this school. The aver- 
age number of pupils in the school, 
according to the last report, was 497. 
The average yearly cost per pupil to 
the city is $101.42. [See Public 
School's .] 

Glee-Club (The Boston). — Organ- 
ized in the autumn of 1 881, by a com- 
pany of gentlemen who had previously 
been meeting once a week during the 
season, and singing together, for the 
purpose of rendering the fine old Eng- 
lish glees in the concert-room. The 
club is formed, like the other singing- 
clubs of the city, with singing and as- 
sociate members. It met with such 
good success financially, the first sea- 
son of its organization, that it was 
determined to increase its associate 
list to 1 50, and limit it at that number. 
In so small a club there is need of 
but one officer; and Charles B. Cory 
occupies this position, directing the 
singing of the club, and acting as sec- 
retary. It sings only at its own con- 
certs in this city, tickets to which are 
not sold, but are obtained from mem- 
bers; and it takes no engagements 
elsewhere. The heartiness of the in- 
terest of the members in the club and 
its work is shown by the fact that its 
rehearsals are always well attended; 



and the baritone, W. H. Humphrey, 
a resident of New York, comes on 
regularly from that city to all rehears- 
als and concerts. 

Globe (The Boston Daily) news- 
paper. A two-cent morning and even- 
ing Democratic newspaper, with higher 
priced Sunday and weekly editions, 
published from The Globe Building, 
No. 236 and 238 Washington Street, 
extending through to Devonshire 
Street. The " Globe " was started as 
an eight-page morning newspaper, of 
metropolitan proportions and scope, in 
1872, by a company of gentlemen, 
prominent among whom was Maturin 
M. Ballou, who was its originator and 
first editor. The first number made 
its appearance on March 4 of that year, 
a large handsomely printed sheet, with 
seven columns to a page ; and the 
price was fixed at four cents a copy. 
It announced its purpose to be "an 
able and dignified journal, strictly in- 
dependent in principles and unbiased 
by association, untrammelled by any 
party support or connection whatever, 
free to commend promptly and justly 
where credit is due, and to condemn 
with equal force and truth when cen- 
sure is merited." Mr. Ballou conduct- 
ed the journal for a year, and at the 
end of that time retired from owner- 
ship and the editorship ; when he was 
succeeded for a short time by Clarence 
S. Wason, the former city editor, as 
managing-editor. Edmund H. Hud- 
son, the present Washington corre- 
spondent of the " Boston Herald," 
succeeded' Mr. Wason, resigning the 
position, however, after a few weeks' 
service ; and then the concern was re- 
organized in its several departments, 
and a new editor-in-chief was secured, 
who undertook to make the journal a 
prompt and thorough newspaper, well 
written and of good tone, in politics 
independent, with opinions to express 
on public men and measures, and cour- 
age to express them. On the retire- 
ment of Mr. Ballou from the general 
direction of the paper, Col. Charles H. 



200 



GLOBE THEATRE 



Taylor, who had been the private 
secretary of Gov. Claflin, and subse- 
quently clerk of the house of repre- 
sentatives, succeeded as publisher, as- 
suming the title of general manager. 
Through all the changes since that 
time he has remained, and is to-day, 
the head of the establishment and its 
mainspring. On Nov. 2, 1874, the 
" Globe " was reduced in size from 
seven to six columns, and the price 
reduced from four to three cents a 
copy. In making this change, and 
recognizing the demand of the time for 
retrenchment, it announced that it 
would " continue to be, as it has been 
under the present management, a 
complete wide-awake newspaper, thor- 
ough in all its departments, independ- 
ent, outspoken, and progressive." It 
had fought its way to the very front ; 
its news had been as full as, sometimes 
fuller and greater than, in other papers ; 
and it was encouraged by those best 
able to judge of their efforts to produce 
the best newspaper in this section of 
the country. It was determined to get 
the news, and meet the demands and 
tastes of the people. It was then on a 
firm financial basis, and on the high 
road to an enviable prosperity. Dur- 
ing the next few years extensive 
changes were made in the ownership 
of the paper, and its capital was con- 
siderably increased; but it continued 
under the same general management 
until the 1st of March, 1878, when the 
editor who had succeeded Mr. Hudson 
retired, the independent policy was 
abandoned, and a few days later the 
paper appeared as a two-cent morning 
and evening folio, Democratic in poli- 
tics, with Edwin C. Bailey, the former 
owner of the " Boston Herald," and 
from whom that property was pur- 
chased by Messrs. R. M. Pulsifer & Co., 
as editor. Mr. Bailey remained but a 
short time at the editorial head of the 
" Globe." He was succeeded by Ben- 
jamin P. Palmer, as managing editor, 
with Frederick E. Goodrich, formerly 
editor of the " Post," as leading edito- 
rial writer ; and upon Mr. Goodrich's 



retirement, a few years after, M. P. 
Curran, for many years connected with 
the editorial department of the paper, 
succeeded to his position, which he still 
holds, Mr. Palmer continuing as man- 
aging and responsible editor. The 
" Globe " has prospered as a Demo- 
cratic paper for the masses, and its 
conductors report steady improvement 
in its circulation and profits. Much 
new machinery has been introduced, 
including an improved press and the 
stereotyping process; and improve- 
ments in its news-gathering facilities 
have been recently announced. The 
Sunday edition, started in the winter of 
1877-78, has reached a large circu- 
lation. 

Globe Theatre (The), Washington 
Street, near the corner of Essex Street, 
is one of the most sumptuous of the 
several elegant theatres of the city. 
It is the successor of Selwyn's Thea- 
tre, which was built in 1867, the enter- 
prise of Dexter H. Follet and the 
late Arthur Cheney. Selwyn's Theatre 
was a bright little playhouse, and a 
favorite one. It was named for John 
H. Selwyn, its first manager. In 1869 
Mr. Cheney became its sole proprietor, 
Mr. Follet retiring ; and in the season 
of 1869-70 the late Thomas Barry was 
stage-manager, Mr. Selwyn continuing 
as general manager. On the opening 
of the season of 1871-72 the name of 
the theatre was changed to the present 
title, "The Globe," with the late 
Charles Fechter as manager. Mr. 
Fechter continued as manager for a few 
months only, retiring in January follow- 
ing, when on the 16th he was succeeded 
by the late W. R. Floyd, who had been 
connected with Wallack's in New York. 
Under this management the theatre 
continued until it was burned, on May 
30, 1873. The theatre was immediately 
rebuilt, on a larger scale than before, 
by Mr. Cheney, with the assistance of 
150 associate-right owners, each of 
whom by the payment of $1,000 pur- 
chased a seat in the house, and to this 
extent was a stockholder in the enter- 



GLOBE THEATRE 



20I 



GLOBE THEATRE 



prise. The new house — the present 
building — was first opened on Dec. 3, 
1874, with Mr. Cheney as proprietor, 
and D. W. Waller as manager. The 
next season Mr. Floyd again became 
the manager, continuing for a year. 
During this period the little stock- 
company of the " Globe " presented a 
succession of brilliant performances 
of old English comedies and new, 
which are very pleasantly remembered 
as charming features of those seasons. 
The company included George Honey, 
(comedian), John Cowper, the lqie 
Owen Marlow, and the late Harry 
Murdoch (who lost his life in the burn- 
ing of the Brooklyn Theatre), Miss 
Katharine Rogers, Miss Lilian Con- 
way, Mrs. Clara Fisher Maeder, and 
Miss Jennie Gourley. It was this com- 
pany which gave the famous perform- 
ance of " Our Boys," which has been 
spoken of as the best interpretation of 
that popular play on the American 
stage, and which had a long and suc- 
cessful run. The theatre as first con- 
structed was not altogether satisfactory 
to the building inspectors ; and from 
Dec. 30, 1876, to March 12, 1877, the 
building was closed while undergoing 
reconstruction to meet the require- 
ments of the inspectors. Mr. Cheney's 
control of the theatre ended during 
1877 > an d m tne autumn of that year 
it was opened by Mr. John Stetson, 
formerly of the Howard Athenaeum 
[see Hogvard Athenceuni\, who man- 
aged it for about a year. Mr. Cheney 
died in November, 1878; and in the 
autumn of 1879, tne theatre having for 
some time been closed, the lessees of 
the estate (Mr. Cheney having had a 
ground lease) took possession of the 
property. Negotiations then followed 
between Mr. Stetson and the lessees ; 
Mr. Stetson finally obtaining from all 
the lessees, with one exception, leases 
of the theatre for six months, begin- 
ning on the 1st of January, 1880. In 
October following, Mr. Stetson suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a satisfactory lease 
of the entire house, including the seats 
formerly held by right-holders, for a 



period of 10 years. The interior of the 
house was again practically recon- 
structed, and has since been freshened 
from season to season, so that it al- 
ways wears a bright and prosperous 
look. The main entrance is through 
a broad vestibule on Washington 
Street, into spacious lobbies. A 
broad stairway leads at the left of the 
entrance to the lobbies of the second 
floor, and a passage-way at the right to 
the lobbies of the main floor. The 
house has seats for 2,200 persons. The 
sittings are divided into orchestra 
chairs and orchestra circle on the first 
floor ; balcony chairs in the great over- 
hanging gallery, at the rear of which, 
overlooking the balcony, is a row of 
mezzanine boxes, each with chairs for 
four persons ; and family-circle and 
gallery above. On either side of the 
stage are large private boxes, elegantly 
upholstered and elaborately decorated. 
The space in front of the stage for the 
orchestra-players is divided from the 
audience by a metal rail ; in front of 
which are a few easy sofa-chairs, sold 
as reserved seats when the orchestra 
occupy the seats also arranged for 
them below the stage. The auditorium 
is 60 feet high ; and the stage is large, 
thoroughly provided with scenery, and 
apparatus for producing the finest of 
modern stage effects. Over the vesti- 
bule, and through a pleasant well- 
furnished loitering-room reached from 
the balcony lobbies, is a smoking-room. 
This is comfortably furnished with 
leather chairs and sofas, and every 
.convenience ; and is generally utilized 
and thoroughly enjoyed between the 
acts. At the " Globe " during Mr. 
Stetson's management, there have 
been brilliant engagements of the late 
Adelaide Neilson, Sarah Bernhardt, 
and Signor Salvini. There have also 
been successful seasons of Italian and 
English opera. No stock-company is 
maintained here, but there are during 
the season a rapid succession of at- 
tractions furnished by some of the best 
of the travelling combinations as well 
as Mr. Stetson's special ventures. 



GLOVSR STATUE 



202 



GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC 



The prices of admission with seats 
range from 75 cents to $1.50. There 
are, besides the main entrance, a spa- 
cious one on Essex Street, generally 
used by carriage-patrons ; and there is 
another on Hayward Place, which is 
not regularly used, but can be instant- 
ly made available whenever needed. 
The stage-entrance is at the rear, 
through a court running from Essex 
Street. [See Drama hi Boston^ 

Glover Statue. — The statue in 
Commonwealth Avenue, of Gen. John 
Glover, a Revolutionary general, who 
commanded a regiment raised in Essex 
County, especially in Marblehead, was 
given to the city by the late Benjamin 
T. Reed in 1875. ^ ls tne work of 
Martin Milmore. It is of bronze, of 
heroic size, and represents the sturdy 
old soldier in Continental uniform, 
with the heavy military overcoat hang- 
ing in graceful folds from his shoul- 
ders. His left leg is advanced, with 
the foot resting on a cannon ; and in 
his right hand he holds his sword, the 
point resting on the ground, while the 
empty scabbard is grasped in his left. 
The inscription tells his story as fol- 
lows : — 

JOHN GLOVER, 

OF MARBLEHEAD, 
A SOLDIER OF THE REVOLUTION. 



HE COMMANDED A REGIMENT OF 

ONE THOUSAND MEN RAISED IN THAT TOWN 

KNOWN AS THE MARINE REGIMENT, 

AND ENLISTED TO SERVE THROUGH THE WAR; 

HE JOINED THE CAMP AT CAMBRIDGE JUNE 22 

1775, 
AND RENDERED DISTINGUISHED SERVICE IN 

TRANSPORTING 
THE ARMY FROM BROOKLYN TO NEW YORK AUG. 
28 1776, 
AND ACROSS THE DELAWARE DEC. 25 I776. 
HE WAS APPOINTED BY 
THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS A BRIGADIER- 
GENERAL FEB. 21 1777. 
BY HIS COURAGE, ENERGY, MILITARY TALENTS 
AND PATRIOTISM, HE SECURED THE CONFI- 
DENCE OF WASHINGTON, 
AND THE GRATITUDE OF HIS COUNTRY. 
BORN NOVEMBER 5 1732 
DIED AT MARBLEHEAD, JANUARY 30 1797. 

The statue stands on a substantial 
granite pedestal. The sculptor Bart- 



lett's criticism of this work is, that " it 
fails to appeal to public commendation, 
because it is a fine, rich, impressive 
subject, conceived and executed with- 
out any definite consideration of the 
varied statuesque phases common to 
all generals, or to this one in particular, 
either as illustrative of any personal 
fact, or symbolization of character." 

Governor's Island. — See Fort 

Winthrop. 

Granary Burying-Ground. — See 

Old Burying-Grounds. 

Grand Army of trie Republic. — 
There are 13 posts in Boston of this 
secret semi-military and benefit organi- 
zation of veterans of the war of the 
Rebellion, and 151 in the State. The 
headquarters of the Department of 
Massachusetts, organized in 1867, are 
at No. 12 Pemberton Square, room 6. 
Each post maintains a relief-fund for 
the assistance of soldiers, sailors, and 
marines of the late war who are mem- 
bers of the organization, and their 
widows and orphans. In the Massa- 
chusetts department, over $400,000 
have been expended for relief since its 
establishment. The present (1883) 
commander of the Department of 
Massachusetts is George S. Evans of 
Cambridge. Following is a list of the 
several Boston posts, with their loca- 
tions, names of commanders, and 
times of meeting. The officers are 
elected annually at the first stated 
meeting of each post in December. 

Dahlgren, No. 2; 817 Broadway, S.B.; George 
C. Joslin, commander; meets first and third 
Wednesday in each month. 

Charles Russell Lowell, No. 7; Grand-Army 
Hall, 616 Washington Street; A. E. Perkins, 
commander; meets Friday nights. 

Abraham Lincoln, No. n; Arcanum Hall, 
Hancock Square, Charlestown district; Z. R 
Knowles, commander; second and fourth 
Tuesday in each month. 

John A. Andrew, No. 15; Alpha Hall, 18 Essex 
Street; Dennis Linehan, commander; Friday 
nights. 

Frederick Hecker, No. 21 ; Turnhalle, 26 Mid- 
dlesex Street; Theodore Leutz, commander; 
first and third Sunday in each month. 



OKAY'S NATIONAL THEATRE. 



203 



GREAT FIRE OF 1872 



Joseph Hooker, No. 23; 144 Meridian Street, 
E.B.; W. H. H. Emmons, commander; 
second Tuesday in each month. 

Thomas G. Stevenson, No. 26: Dudley Hall, 
Roxbury district; Charles H. Hovey, com- 
mander; Monday nights. 

Washington, No. 32; Mechanics' Hall, S.B.; 
A. C. Belcher, commander; first and third 
Monday in each month. 

Benjamin Stone, Jr., No. 68; G. A. R. Hall, 
Exchange Street, Harrison Square, Dorches- 
ter district; Herbert S. Cole, commander; 
first and third Tuesday in each month. 

Francis Washburn, No. 92; Market-Bank Hall, 
Brighton district; B. F. Sanborn, command- 
er; first and third Monday in each month. 

E. W. Kinsley, No. 113 ; 608 Washington Street; 
E. H. Richards, commander; second Wednes- 
day in each month. 

Robert A. Bell, No. 134; 59 Cambridge Street; 
J. D. N. R. Powell, commander; Thursday 
nights. 

Major G. L. Stearns, No. 149; G. A. R. Hall, 
550 Main Street, Charlestown district; Wil- 
liam H. Seymour, commander; Friday nights. 



Gray's National Theatre is a 
cheap variety playhouse. It is on the 
east side of Charclon Street, near the 
corner of Hawkins Street, but a few 
steps from Bowdoin Square. It was 
first opened about 1879 by Edmund 
H. Gray as " Gray's Opera House." 
During the summer of 188 1 it was 
closed for repairs, and after it had 
been enlarged and reconstructed the 
name it now bears was adopted. It 
has a small stage, and a limited amount 
of scenery. Performances of a strictly 
variety order are given afternoons and 
evenings. The price of admission is 
fixed at the democratic figure of ten 
cents, with a modest additional charge 
for a reserved seat. The seating ca- 
pacity is small. Sometimes the per- 
formances are preceded by concerts by 
the band in front of the theatre. The 
audiences are of the easy-going sort, 
but are decorous and not noisy. 

Great Fire of 1872 (The). — The 
fire which began on the night of Satur- 
day, Nov. 9, 1872, in the finest of the 
business quarters of the city, and was 
not brought under control until after 
noon of the following day, was by far 
the most disastrous of the several 
" Great Fires " from ' which Boston, 



during its history, has suffered. It 
burned over 65 acres of most valuable 
business property, a district bounded 
by Summer, Washington, Milk, and 
Broad Streets, and including long 
blocks of costly warehouses filled with 
goods ; leading establishments in the 
wool, wholesale dry-goods, leather, 
boots-and-shoes, paper, and hardware 
trade ; banks, offices, and churches. 
The number of firms burned out was 
about 960. On Summer Street, where 
the fire originated, — at the corner 
of Kingston Street, — 112 firms w T ere 
burned out ; on Pearl Street, 185 firms, 
mostly in the leather and boots-and- 
shoes trade, were burned out ; on Fed- 
eral Street, 92 ; and on Franklin, a part 
of the great dry-goods trade district, 40. 
The wholesale dry-goods business, 
representing a 'capital of $50,000,000, 
was nearly all destroyed ; nearly 300 
establishments in this trade alone 
being swept away. The total value 
of the wool destroyed was estimated 
at about $4,500,000. The principal 
church destroyed was the stone Trinity 
Church, on Summer Street. The 
total number of buildings destroyed 
was 776, of which 709 were of brick, 
granite, and other stone, and 67 of 
wood ; and the total amount of prop- 
erty destroyed was $75,000,000. The 
new Post-office building, on Milk, 
Devonshire, and Water Streets, and 
Post-office Square, narrowly escaped 
destruction, while it was somewhat 
damaged ; the marks of which it yet 
bears, to a" slight extent, particularly 
on its Milk-street side. The spread 
of the fire into State and other streets 
was only checked by blowing up build- 
ings. It raged the hottest in Milk, 
Congress, Federal Streets, Winthrop 
Square, Devonshire and Franklin 
Streets. The granite warehouses crum- 
bled in the heat, and the brick buildings 
stood the longest. During the height 
of the fire, the city was thrown into 
a panic ; but disorder was quickly 
checked. Portions of the militia 
were called out, and aided the police 
in patrolling the " burnt district," and 



GREAT FIRE OF 1872 



204 



GROVE HALL 



preventing wholesale lawlessness and 
robbery by the vicious, who are always 
quick to gather on such occasions 
for plunder. The Boston fire-depart- 
ment was re-enforced from the subur- 
ban towns and distant cities ; and 
when the first panic was over, the fire 
was fought systematically and well. 
It was difficult for the fire-engines to 
get to the scene promptly on account 
of the horse-distemper then raging, 
which had for some time rendered 
many horses useless, depriving the 
people of conveyances, preventing the 
regular trips of the street-cars, and seri- 
ously affecting the business of the city. 
To this fact is due the alarming spread 
of the fire before the engines of the 
department were available for work. 
Great and appalling as was the dis- 
aster, the city recovered from it bravely. 
Losses were adjusted as speedily as 
possible ; new quarters were promptly 
obtained by burnt-out firms; and, 
before the smoke from the ruins had 
faded away, rebuilding was begun. 
Within a year the " burnt district " 
was largely rebuilt with substantial 
structures ; and to-day it is again the 
finest and most impressive section of 
the business-quarters of the city, with 
better buildings, as a rule, than before, 
more really fireproof structures, and 
many of them presenting fine archi- 
tectural effects. Some of the good 
results of the fire were improved and 
stricter building-laws, a more com- 
plete and more thoroughly organized 
fire-department, and safer buildings 
provided with more safeguards and 
greater conveniences. Among the 
ten so-called " Great Fires " preceding 
this, that of 1760 destroyed 349 build- 
ings, among them many dwelling- 
houses, rendering a thousand people 
homeless; that of 1711 destroyed the 
Town House, the old meeting-house 
of the First Church, and 100 dwell- 
ings ; in 1702 what was a large amount 
of property for those days was burned 
in the seventh " Great Fire," and 
" three warehouses were blown up 
to hinder its spreading ; " and in 1679 



all the warehouses and many dwelling- 
houses with the vessels then in the 
dock were consumed: and Mather 
wrote of this calamity, " Ah, Boston ! 
thou hast seen the vanity of all worldly 
possessions. One fatal morning, which 
laid fourscore of thy dwelling-houses 
and seventy of thy warehouses in a 
ruinous heap, gave thee to read it in 
fiery characters." Three years before, 
in 1676, another great fire burned 46 
dwelling-houses and other buildings, 
including " a meeting-house of con- 
siderable bigness." 

Grove Hall, Roxbury district, cor- 
ner of Warren Street and Blue-hill 
Avenue, is neither a public building 
nor a public house, as strangers fre- 
quently infer from the prominent dis- 
play of the name on so many of the 
Roxbury-bound street-cars, but is a 
private charitable institution. Here 
are the Consumptives' and the Spinal 
Homes, with homes for the children 
of patients received in either of them. 
These homes are part of a " Work of 
Faith " of which Dr. Charles Cullis, the 
founder, is the mainspring. They are 
supported by voluntary offerings and 
subscriptions of friends of Dr. Cullis 
and his work, and much dependence is 
put by its managers on prayer. The 
Homes are for both sexes, and are open 
to the poor of " whatever nation, creed, 
or color, having no home or friends to 
provide for them." The Consump- 
tives' Home was established in 1864, 
and incorporated in 1870; and the 
Spinal Home was established in 1876. 
The medical treatment in each is ho- 
moeopathic [see Asylums and Homes]. 
Other "Works of" Faith" under the 
direction of Dr. Cullis include a Can- 
cer Home at Walpole ; a " Faith 
Training College," the Willard Tract 
Depository, and the Beacon-hill 
Church, No. 2 Beacon-hill Place, from 
Bowdoin to Mount- Vernon Street ; the 
Lewis-street Mission, corner of Rich- 
mond and Fulton Streets ; the Grove- 
hall Church, on the grounds of the 
Consumptives' and Spinal Homes; 



205 



GYMNASIUMS 



the Cottage-street Church, Athenaeum 
Hall, Cottage Street, Dorchester; and 
a coffee-room, corner of Lewis and 
Commercial Streets, where hot coffee 
is sold at two cents a cup. 

Guilds. — There are no merchants', 
tradesmen's, or artisans' guilds, so 
called, in Boston; but there are two 
benevolent and philanthropic organiza- 
tions which employ this good old Eng- 
lish title. These are the St. Andrew's 
Guild, connected with the Chapel of 
the Evangelists, No. 286 Charles 
Street; and the St. Paul's Guild, con- 
nected with St. Paul's Church, Tre- 
mont Street, near Temple Place [see 
Chapel of the Evangelists, and St. PaiWs 
Church]. The former maintains a free 
reading-room and amusement-room in 
the chapel, open day and evening; 
and the latter performs a charitable 
work entirely, caring systematically for 
the poor who come within its juris- 
diction. It gives food, fuel, and, in 
extreme cases, money. Cases are ex- 
amined by the visitors of the organiza- 
tion, and the help extended is furnished 
under the direction of an advisory 
board of ladies. This St. Paul's Guild 
was established in 1877. A few years 
ago an " Artists' Guild " was estab- 
lished ; but after a short career, it was 
abandoned. While it continued, how- 
ever, it was a most agreeable institution 
to those connected with it. It was 
composed of members of the profes- 
sions of art, music, literature, and 
journalism, and was designed to bring 
them together for mutual pleasure and 
profit. It had a large membership. 
Its rooms were on Tremont Street, 
opposite the Common, and were invit- 
ingly arranged and adorned. 

Gymnasiums. — The oldest of the 
existing gymnasiums in Boston is that 
connected with the Young Men's 
Christian Association [see Young 
Men's Christian Association]. It was 
established about the year 1858, by a 
Mr. Bacon, on the corner of Eliot and 
Tremont Streets ; and the apparatus 
was sold to the Association when it 



purchased this building. About the 
year 1875 Robert J. Roberts, formerly 
instructor in the late Dr. Winship's 
gymnasium, was employed as superin- 
tendent ; and under his intelligent di- 
rection a complete system of what 
was termed " body-building " was intro- 
duced; and this has been found emi- 
nently successful in enabling healthful 
persons to retain their health, and those 
in any way feeble to regain their vigor. 
This is probably one of the most com- 
plete gymnasiums in the country. It 
has ample accommodations for 70 men 
exercising at one time ; and that these 
accommodations and its equipment are 
excellent is shown by the fact that it 
has " graduated " some of the finest 
talent in " the profession," a notable 
instance of which is George Levantine. 
It has grown from a membership of 49 
to 635. It is a popular resort for the 
members of the Harvard and Union 
Athletic Club, and is the headquar- 
ters of the Dolphin Rowing Club [see 
Boating]. The fees for membership are 
$4 for three months, and $8 for a year. 
Exhibitions are given at frequent in- 
tervals during the year, both in the 
gymnasium and in public halls. The 
only gymnasium devoted exclusively to 
ladies, and children of both sexes, is 
situated on the corner of Washington 
and West Streets. It was established 
in the autumn of 1878, in a small hall 
on Essex Street, by Miss Mary E. 
Allen ; and it proved so popular that 
in October, 1880, it was removed to 
Amory Hall on the corner just named, 
where it has remained ever since. The 
light, ventilation, and heating-appli- 
ances are all that could be desired; 
and the dimensions of the hall allow 
full scope for the working of the com- 
plete list of apparatus used. The 
terms of membership are $14 a year, 
and $2.50 extra for 16 lessons. The 
system of instruction adopted is simi- 
lar to that pursued in the Young Men's 
Christian Association Gymnasium, but 
necessarily much lighter: It has re- 
ceived the approval of the best physi- 
cians, and is patronized bv the best 



GYMNASIUMS 



206 



GYMNASIUMS 



citizens. Starting with but about 25 
pupils, it now has a membership of 
nearly 500, and is growing rapidly. 
The Union Gymnasium was made a 
feature of the Young Men's Christian 
Union [see Yowig Melt's Christian 
Union] at the time that institution 
was established. It is situated on the 
ground-floor of the Union building, No. 
18 Boylston Street. The apartment is 
large, light, and cheerful in appearance. 
The list of apparatus is complete, and 
such as is found in all first-class insti- 
tutions of the kind. The gymnasium 
is open from 8 a.m. to 9.45 p.m., and is 
under the superintendence of Mr. P. F. 
Ferris, who has had long experience in 
his profession. The terms of member- 
ship are $5 and $8 a year, which in- 
cludes instruction, use of baths and 
dressing-closets. Exhibitions are given 
during the season, and prove very popu- 



lar. There are also gymnasiums main- 
tained by the German Turnverein, the 
Institute of Technology, and Boston 
College, all of which are well equipped 
with apparatus; but their privileges 
are confined to the members of the 
institutions to which they are attached. 
Many of the athletic clubs have small 
gymnasiums, the apparatus of which 
are adapted more particularly to the 
needs of the members. The most 
splendidly equipped gymnasium of this 
neighborhood is that recently com- 
pleted in Cambridge, and presented to 
Harvard College by Mr. Augustus 
Hemenway of the class of 1876, and 
called by his name. The building is 
one of the greatest ornaments of the 
college architecturally, and is fitted lav- 
ishly with all the best apparatus known. 
It can accommodate at one time 250 
men. 



HACKS, HERDIC-PHAETONS, ETC. 



207 



HACKS, HERDIC-PHAETONS, ETC. 



Hacks, Herdie-Phaetons, Crys- 
tals, and Publics. — The hackney- 
carriage and cab system of the city, 
though occasionally complained of by 
fastidious citizens, is a great improve- 
ment over that suffered in Boston for 
many years, and a decided advance 
upon systems tolerated in many other 
cities. The public carriages and cabs 
are generally clean and well-kept, the 
drivers as a rule are civil and accom- 
modating, and over-charging is seldom 
reported. They are under the control 
of the inspector of hackney-carriage 
licenses, an official connected with the 
police-department [see Police-Service] ; 
and the rates of fare are established by 
the city authorities. These vary ac- 
cording to the distance ; but there need 
never be any dispute about them, as 
they are required to be displayed when 
asked for, and they are conspicuously 
published in detail in the city directory. 
Every hackney-carriage in the city is 
licensed, and has permission to stand 
at a specified place ; and any driver 
found soliciting patronage at any other 
than his regular stand is subject to fine. 
The fare for an adult for short distances, 
from one place to another, within speci- 
fied limits in the city proper, is 50 cents ; 
no charge is to be made for one trunk, 
but 25 cents is charged for each addi- 
tional trunk. The herdic-phaetons, or 
herdics as they are universally called, 
are little cabs of recent introduction 
(in 1881), of peculiar construction, 
which roam about the city in a bustling 
and busy fashion. They are popular 
because of their briskness and the 
cheap rate of fare charged. For one 
or more passengers, from one point to 
another within the limits of the city 
proper north of Dover and Berkeley 



Streets, the fare is 25 cents each, as 
against 50 cents in hackney-carriages ; 
and for one or more passengers from 
any point within the city proper to a 
point within the city proper, south of 
the before-mentioned streets, 35 cents 
each, or three or four (which is the limit 
of a cab's seats) for $1. The cabs may 
also be hired by the hour for service 
within or without the city at the follow- 
ing rates : for one passenger, 75 cents 
per hour ; and for two, three, or four, 
$1 per hour. These little cabs stand 
at the Eastern, Boston and Maine, New- 
York and New-England, Old-Colony, 
Boston and Albany, and Boston and 
Providence Railroad stations ; in Post- 
office Square; at No. 35 Congress Street 
(the office of the Herdic-phaeton Com- 
pany) ; before the Merchants' Ex- 
change, State Street; Church Green, 
at the corner of Summer and Bedford 
Streets ; Scollay Square, and Bowdoin 
Square. They may also be ordered from 
the office, No. 35 Congress Street, in 
advance for any time, place, or service ; 
while they may be hailed anywhere on 
the street when without a passenger, for 
any desired service, though the drivers 
are not allowed to solicit patronage. 
When " roaming," on the return from 
an engagement, to the regular stand, it 
is customary for the driver to throw 
out a sign by the side of his seat with 
the suggestive legend, " Not Engaged." 
These cabs are one-horse two and four 
wheeled vehicles, the body hanging low, 
and entrance from the rear ; the seats 
for passengers being on the side, as in 
street-cars. An eight-seated-cab service 
is also operated on regular routes be- 
tween the Eastern and the Old-Colony 
Railway stations ; each passenger being 
charged 10 cents cash -fare, or four 



HACKS, HERDIC-PHAETONS, ETC. 



208 



HALLS 



tickets for 25 cents. The drivers are 
instructed not to take over 8 passengers 
at one time. During the summer of 
1882 elegant open phaetons, or wag- 
onettes, were introduced for drives in 
the suburbs ; the tariff in proportion to 
that charged for the regular and special 
service of the other herdics. For par- 
ties of eight persons, taken on special 
trips in the larger vehicles, the follow- 
ing rate is established : for a party of 
eight persons from a point within the 
limits of the city proper to South 
Boston, East Boston, Charlestown, 
Cambridge, Brighton, Brookline, Rox- 
bury, Jamaica Plain, Mount Bowdoin, 
Somerville, or Chelsea, and return to 
the city, or the reverse, $5 ; if one way 
only, $3. For a party of 8 persons from 
a point within the limits of the city 
proper to Revere, Maiden, Medford, 
Arlington, Belmont, Watertown, New- 
ton, West Roxbury, Dorchester (be- 
yond Mount Bowdoin), Hyde Park, 
Milton, or Quincy, and return to the 
city, but not the reverse, $6 ; if one way 
only, $5. These prices are meant to 
cover service which may be performed 
within 5 hours when within the limits 
of the city, or within 6 hours when 
within the suburbs named. The 
" crystals " are also two-seated cabs, 
subject to the same general rules as 
herdics. They are higher vehicles, 
something like the old-fashioned cabs ; 
and the driver's seat is high near the 
top. There are few of this class of 
cabs in the city. They stand generally 
in Scollay Square. " Publics " are one- 
horse coupes, or one-seated passenger- 
carriages, which stand on down-town 
business-streets, and are used by busi- 
ness-men for short trips. They are 
distinguished from private carriages by 
the display, when on their stands and 
disengaged, of a card upon which is 
printed the word " Public." They are 
subject to the rules and regulations 
governing other hackney-carriages, and 
their tariff is the same. Several at- 
tempts have been made to introduce 
the London hansom-cab into the city, 
but they come into general use slowly. 



One or two are about the town, and 
still attract attention from strangers on 
the street because of their novel ap- 
pearance, with the driver perched on 
his high seat over the top at the back. 

Halls. — There are nearly 1 50 public 
halls in the city, many of them quite 
large, and the great majority fully and 
finely equipped. At the head of the 
list must of course be placed Faneuil 
Hall, not the largest hall in the city, 
nor the most convenient, nor the most 
sumptuous in its fittings and comforts, 
but the most revered for its historic 
associations. The newest public halls 
are those in the fine building of the 
Charitable Mechanic Association on 
Huntington Avenue, Back-bay district. 
Among the largest halls is Music Hall, 
on Winter Street ; the Tremont Tem- 
ple, on Tremont, oppositethe Tremont 
House ; the Upper and Lower Horticul- 
tural Halls, in the building of the Hor- 
ticultural Society, on Tremont Street, 
between Bromfield Street and Mont- 
gomery Place ; the Odd- Fellows Hall, 
Tremont Street, corner of Berkeley; 
and Pilgrim Hall, Congregational 
Building, corner of Beacon and Somer- 
set Streets, which is used mainly for the 
dinners and social meetings of the Con- 
gregational Club [see Congregational 
Club\ The largest hall in the city is 
the new Mechanics Hall, in the Hun- 
tington-avenue building of the Chari- 
table Mechanic Association. This has 
a seating capacity of 8,000. The Music 
Hall seats 2,585 people ; and the Bum- 
stead Hall beneath it, arranged in am- 
phitheatre fashion, has seats for about 
500. Tremont Temple seats 2,600; 
and the Meionaon, in the same build- 
ing, 1,000. The Upper Horticultural 
Hall seats about 700, and the Lower 
about 450. Of smaller halls, one of 
the most inviting is that known as 
the " Hawthorne Rooms," No. 2 Park 
Street. This seats 250 persons. It is 
used for select literary entertainments, 
such as lectures of the higher class, and 
occasionally for concerts. Near by, 
on Bromfield Street, in the Weslevan 



209 



Building, is Wesleyan Hall, seating 
300. On Tremont Street, at No. 23, 
is " Papanti's," once a famous hall for 
dinner-parties and other festive occa- 
sions, but now used solely for dan- 
cing. Beyond West Street, on Tremont 
Street, at No. 156, is Chickering's 
Hall, principally utilized for chamber- 
concerts. At No. 176 Tremont is a 
nest of halls, favorite meeting-places 
of labor-reformers and other agitators, 
and where numerous secret societies 
hold their regular meetings : these are 
Codman, Wadman, New-Era, Preble, 
Pythian, and Shawmut Halls. A hall 
of similar class is Hospitaller Hall, No. 
751 Washington Street. On Chauncy 
Street, corner of Essex, in the build- 
ing formerly the Essex-street Church, 
is John A. Andrew Hall, used for po- 
litical and trades meetings chiefly. At 
No. 18 Essex Street, is Alpha Hall, 
used by G. A. R. and other organiza- 
tions. On Boylston Street, in the 
building of the Young Men's Christian 
Union, at No. 18, are Union and Eaton 
Halls, the former, the larger of the two, 
seating 550 ; and in the building of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, 
corner of Tremont and Eliot Streets, 
is the Christian Association Hall, with 
seats for 700. The leading German 
hall is Turnhalie, at No. 29 Middlesex 
Street. On Berkeley Street, in the 
Parker Memorial building, is the Park- 
er Memorial Hall, seating 850, and a 
smaller hall called Sumner Hall. On 
Appleton Street, near by, are Paine 
Hall, seating 800, and Investigator 
Hall, seating 600 people, both in the 
Paine Memorial building. At No. 75 
West-Concord Street, is Concord Hall. 
In the Back-bay district, besides the 
halls in the great exhibition building 
above referred to, is Huntington Hall 
in the building of the Institute of 
Technology, No. 187 Boylston Street, 
in which the Lowell-Institute lectures 
and other high-class lecture-courses are 
given [see Lowell Institute]. The So- 
ciety of Arts also has its regular meet- 
ings here [see Society of Arts]. The 
gallery of the Boston Art Club, at the 



corner of Dartmouth and Newbury 
Streets, is also used as a hall. When 
the new building of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, on Berkeley and 
Boylston Streets, is completed, addi- 
tional and commodious halls will be 
added to those in this district [see 
Young Melt's Christian Association]. 
In the outlying districts of the city, 
there are a number of noteworthy halls. 
The Charlestown district has the lar- 
gest number : these are mostly on Main 
Street. On this street are Harmony, 
at No. 2; Grand-Army and Odd-Fel- 
lows, at No. 25; Mystic, No. 70; Rey- 
nolds, No. 172 ; Ivanhoe and Stickney's, 
No. 212 ; Congress, No. 360 ; and Win- 
throp, No. 406. City Hall is in City 
Square; Armory Plall is at the corner 
of Pearl and High Streets ; Army and 
Navy Hall, No. 2iy 2 Charlestown 
Square ; Hancock, Independent, and 
Monument Halls, Hancock Square ; 
Harvard Hall, No. 5 Bow Street. In 
East Boston are Adams Hall, No. 144 
Meridian Street ; Lyceum Hall, No. 198 
Sumner Street ; Maverick and Wash- 
ington Halls, Maverick Square ; and 
Webster Hall, Webster Street. In 
South Boston are Pulaski Hall corner 
of Dorchester and Fourth Streets; and 
Decker Hall, No. 286 Dorchester Street. 
In the Roxbury district are Bacon's 
Hall, No. 2185 Washington Street; 
Guild Hall, Washington Street, corner 
of Dudley; Highland Hall, No. 191 
Warren Street ; Sherwood Hall, Wash- 
ington Street, corner of Hunneman; 
and Webster Hall, No. 2150 Washing* 
ton Street. In the Dorchester district 
the principal hall is the Town Hall, 
Washington Street, corner of Norfolk. 
There are also in this district Armory 
Hall, corner of Dorchester Avenue and 
Gibson Street; and Columbia Hall, 
Davenport Avenue, Upham's Corner. 
In Jamaica Plain, West-Roxbury dis- 
trict, is the beautiful Curtis Hall, be- 
fore annexation the Town Hall, on 
Centre Street; and Eliot Hall, on 
Eliot Street. In the Brighton district 
is Union Hall, Cambridge, corner of 
North-Beacon Street. 



HAMILTON STATUE 



2IO 



HANDEL AND HAYDN SOCIETY 



Hamilton Statue. — The statue of 
Alexander Hamilton, in the parkway 
of Commonwealth Avenue, is the first 
in the country cut from granite. It 
was designed by Dr. William Rimmer 
of Boston, and was given to the city 
by Thomas Lee in 1865. It stands on 
a high massive granite pedestal, which 
bears these inscriptions : 

" Alexander Hamilton, born in the Island of 
Nevis. West Indies, 11 January, 1757; died in 
New York, July, 1804." 

" Orator, writer, soldier, jurist, financier. 
Although his particular province was the treas- 
ury, his genius pervaded the whole adminis- 
tration of Washington." 

The sculptor Bartlett says of this 
statue, that " it is the indifferent work 
of a genius, not the consistent labor 
of talent ; " while Rimmer's previous 
work " by himself, out of himself, and 
wholly independent of public knowl- 
edge, sympathy, or interest," Bartlett 
characterizes as astounding, promising 
the possibilities of great things. The 
late George B. Woods, whose criticism 
of " Our Portrait Statues " has before 
been quoted in the paragraph on the 
Andrew statue, speaks of the Hamilton 
as " swathed like an infant or a mum- 
my." Other sculptured works of Dr. 
Rimmer, which have met with a warmer 
reception, include a colossal head of 
" St. Stephen " in granite, which won 
the hearty praise of some of the best 
critics ; and the " Falling Gladiator." 
It is said that the first marble statue 
ever erected in the United States was 
of Hamilton. This was by Ball 
Hughes, the Boston sculptor, and stood 
in the Merchants' Exchange, New 
York, until its destruction in the fire 
of 1835. [See Statues and Monuments^ 

Handel and Haydn Society. — 

This association, with a single excep- 
tion, is the oldest musical society in the 
country, — the oldest being the Stough- 
ton Musical Society, formed in 1786. 
The Handel and Haydn was established 
in 181 5, originating in a meeting held 
on the 30th of March, 181 5, to which 
were invited all who were interested in 



"the subject of cultivating and improv- 
ing a correct taste in the performance 
of sacred music." Its constitution 
was adopted on the 20th of April fol- 
lowing ; and its first oratorio was given 
in King's Chapel on Christmas Eve of 
that year, with a chorus of 100, only 10 
of them female voices, an orchestra of 
less than a dozen performers, and an 
organ-accompaniment. From that day 
to the present, the great works of the 
masters have been annually given to 
generation after generation of lovers 
of good music. No association in the 
country has done so much towards fos- 
tering a popular taste for these grand 
compositions as this society ; and dur- 
ing the years of its existence it has 
grown to large dimensions, and has at- 
tained to great perfection of perform- 
ance, so that scarcely anywhere can one 
hear the great oratorios more admirably 
rendered on a scale commensurate with 
their greatness than here in Boston. 
The " Messiah " is always given at 
Christmas-time; and the concerts of 
the society given at intervals during 
the winter-season are always sure to 
attract crowded audiences. Many of 
the original members of the society 
came from the Park-street Church 
choir, which at that time was a famous 
one. There was no organ then in the 
church ; but the singing was accompa- 
nied by a flute, bassoon, and a violon- 
cello. The first president was Thomas 
S. Webb ; and he was also the con- 
ductor, as were succeeding presidents 
until 1847. That year the system was 
changed, the society choosing a presi- 
dent and also a regular conductor. The 
first to fill the latter distinct office was 
Charles E. Horn. In 1850 the two 
offices were again united, Charles C. 
Perkins being chosen both president 
and director. After that, however, they 
were again separated, and have since 
so remained. Succeeding conductors 
were J. E. Goodson (who was chosen 
in 1851), G. J. Webb, Carl Bergmann, 
and Carl Zerrahn. Mr. Zerrahn was 
chosen conductor in 1854, and has held 
the position ever since. Among the 



HANDEL AND HAYDN SOCIETY 



HARBOR 



presidents of the society, besides those 
already mentioned, have been Benjamin 
Holt, Amasa Winchester, Robert Ro- 
gerson, Lowell Mason, Samuel Rich- 
ardson, Charles W. Lovett, Bartholdi 
Brown, George J. Webb, Charles Zeu- 
ner, and I. S. Withington. The presi- 
dent now is Charles C. Perkins ; the 
vice-president, G. P. Chickering; sec- 
retary, A. Parker Brown. The organist, 
Mr. B. J. Lang, has held the position 
since 1859. The membership of the 
society has always been confined to 
men, the women of the chorus singing 
by invitation. The original members 
numbered 46. The present member- 
ship is over 300, and the active choral 
force members about 600. The society 
has a permanent trust-fund, begun with 
the profits of the festival in May, 1865, 
which amounted to $2,000. To this 
has been added interest, bequests, gifts, 
and profits of other concerts ; so that 
the fund now amounts to over $20,000. 
The income is available at the discretion 
of the board of government. The sup- 
port of the society comes mainly from 
the returns from its concerts. It has 
published several collections of music, 
and possesses a valuable musical li- 
brary. During the 66 seasons since its 
organization the society has given over 
600 concerts, the programmes of which 
have included works by all the eminent 
composers. Since the opening of the 
Music Hall, in 1852, it has given its 
concerts in that place. Before that 
time it used, after King's Chapel, the 
Boylston Hall, and the Melodeon, — 
since a theatre. The society took part 
in the opening ceremonies at the New- 
York Crystal Palace in 1854 ; in a 
series of concerts in conjunction with 
the Thomas Orchestra in Steinway Hall 
in New York, in 1873 ; an< ^ m tne g re at 
music-festival in New York, the spring- 
season of 1882. In 1868 it gave its 
first triennial festival, which continued 
an entire week, performances being 
given both afternoons and evenings. 
In 1880 the last triennial was given. At 
these festivals the chorus and orchestra 
are greatly enlarged, and prominent 



soloists are engaged, so that the per- 
formances attract great numbers to the 
city, in the month of May, from all 
parts of the country. In the works in- 
terpreted by the society, things new 
and old are mingled in just proportion ; 
and while faithful to the old name of 
Bach, Handel, and Haydn, it devotes 
no little time to the rehearsal and per- 
formance of the later compositions of 
Mendelssohn and his successors. The 
headquarters of the society are in the 
Music Hall ; and its rehearsals are had 
in Bumstead Hall, the apartment un- 
derneath Music Hall. [See M-usic in 
Boston .] 

Harbor (The Boston). — The 
beauty of the harbor of Boston, dotted 
with its more than fifty islands and 
masses of rocks, its picturesque shores, 
with the stately city rising from it, 
topped by the glistening gilded dome 
of the State House set upon the high- 
est hill, has been the subject of many 
a brilliant pen ; while of its superior 
commercial advantages much has been 
said and written in lavish praise. " Its 
great merit," says a report of Prof. 
Henry Mitchell of the United-States 
Advisory Council for this harbor, 
quoted in the report of the harbor-com- 
missioners for 1882, "lies in a happy 
conjunction of many favorable ele- 
ments, among which . . . are the facil- 
ity and safety of its approaches, the 
ample width and depth of its entrances, 
and above all the shelter and tranquil- 
lity of its roadsteads. Perhaps there 
is no' other harbor in the world where 
the inlets of the ocean are better ad- 
justed to the amplitude of the interior 
basins, or whose excellent holding- 
grounds are so easy of access and yet 
so land-locked. . . . Her interior water- 
space is large, but is divided by chains 
of islands into basins which offer suffi- 
cient room for the heaviest ships to 
ride freely at anchor, and sufficient 
tranquillity for the frailest fishing-boat. 
. . . Her moles are promontories and 
islands rising from 20 to 100 feet above 
the sea." Her basins are so ample 



that 500 ships of the largest class may 
anchor within them. The term " inner 
harbor " is commonly applied to that 
portion lying between the bridges about 
the city, and Governor's and Castle 
Islands, on which are respectively Forts 
Winthrop and Independence ; and the 
part beyond these islands through 
Broad Sound to the sea, and the Main 
Ship Channel to the entrance from 
Massachusetts Bay, is designated as 
the outer harbor. According to this di- 
vision, the inner harbor contains about 
1,150 acres. But the harbor-commis- 
sioners regard as really the inner har- 
bor " the general area which comprises 
the water-spaces, including this upper 
basin, which are enclosed and protect- 
ed by the high grounds of East Bos- 
ton and Winthrop on the north, Deer 
Island and Long Island on the east, 
and Spectacle Island, Moon Head, and 
Squantum on the south ; a nearly land- 
locked basin, capable of an improved 
area of not less than about 6,300 acres. 
This includes President Roads, which 
itself contains nearly 1,000 acres of 
anchorage-grounds of the first order 
as to depth of water, 23 to 50 feet at 
mean low tide, ' holding-ground,' and 
shelter." The entire harbor contains 
about 75 square miles. The entrance 
from Massachusetts Bay is by the Main 
Ship Channel, lying between the pro- 
jecting promontory, in the town of 
Hull, known as Point Allerton, and the 
cluster of islands known as The Brews- 
ters. The entrance is a little over a 
mile wide, and about two miles long. 
There is a tradition that the present 
Point Allerton was first discovered by 
the Norseman Thorwald, in 1003-1004, 
and was named by him " Krossaness ; " 
but it received its present name from 
the Plymouth forefathers, in honor of 
Isaac Allerton, one of the passengers 
of the " Mayflower," who acted as 
agent for the Plymouth colony, and 
"was distinguished," says Dr. Shurtleff, 
"for great enterprise, and love of ad- 
venture." In one of the voyages of 
the Pilgrims they tarried on the way in 
this harbor, landing on this promontory 



and also on the islands on the other 
side of the harbor-entrance. The head- 
land they then named Point Allerton, 
and the islands The Brewsters in re- 
spect for the brothers and sisters of 
Allerton's wife, the children of William 
Brewster, " the good old ruling elder of 
the First Church of New Plymouth." 
At the entrance to the harbor, on the 
Little Brewster, is Boston Light. The 
Little Brewster is connected with the 
Great Brewster by a bar, which can be 
seen only at low water ; and from the 
Great Brewster a long spit extends 
about a mile and a half, also exposed 
only at low tide, at the end of which is 
the unique Bug Light [see Bug Light], 
the square light-house standing high 
up on stout iron stilts, which is one of 
the oddities of the harbor sure to catch 
the prompt attention of the stranger to 
its features. The Great Brewster was 
purchased by the city in 1848 ; and the 
following year a portion was ceded to 
the United States, and a substantial 
sea-wall was built about it for the 
protection of the harbor. The first 
Boston. Light was set up in 17 16, the 
light-house having been built in accord- 
ance with a law of the General Court 
enacted in 17 15. Before that time, as 
early as 1679, there was a rude bea- 
con here. The first light-house-keeper 
was George Worthylake, whose melan- 
choly death by drowning, with his wife 
Ann and daughter Ruth, on the way 
up to the town in November, 17 18, 
was made the subject of the ballad 
which Franklin wrote, and peddled 
about the streets [see Copp's-Hill 
Burying-Ground in the chapter on Old 
Landmarks]. This first light-house 
was seriously injured by fire in 17 51 ; 
and in 1776 it was destroyed by the 
British, after the evacuation of the 
town, on their way out of the harbor 
and to sea. The second light-house, 
and the present structure, was not 
built until 1783. It is a substantial 
structure of stone, and now stands 98 
feet above the sea-level, the old tower 
having been raised in i860. It was 
originally lighted by four lamps, each 



213 



holding a gallon of oil, and having four 
burners. In 1856 the revolving light 
was introduced. The great lantern is 
protected from the weather by windows 
of thick plate-glass. Near the light- 
house is the steam fog-horn. In clear 
weather Boston Light can be seen at 
a distance of 16 nautical miles. While 
the light-house was under control of 
the State, its expenses were defrayed 
by a duty on vessels, — a shilling a ton 
on foreign vessels, and twopence-half- 
penny on American vessels, clearance. 
This was called " light-money." The 
island was ceded to the National Gov- 
ernment in 1790. The Main Ship 
Channel, where it passes by the island 
with its light, is called Light-house 
channel. It is here deep and narrow, 
and vessels coming in and going out 
of the harbor pass quite close to the 
island. Bug Light was built in 1856 ; 
and its chief object is to warn mariners 
of the dangerous rocks called Harding's 
Ledge, off Point Atherton. George's 
Island is "the key to the harbor," and 
on it stands Fort Warren [see Fort 
Warren]. It commands the open sea, 
and the fortifications upon it afford 
ample protection to the harbor within. 
In 1825 this island became the property 
of Boston, and subsequently was ceded 
to the government. With Lovell's 
Island, it makes the boundary of the 
Narrows, with Gallop's Island and the 
great stone monument known as Nix's 
Mate [see Nix's Mate] on the other 
side ; the Narrov/s beginning at Bug 
Light, which is sometimes called " the 
Light at the Narrows." At the- east of 
Lovell's Island is Black-rock Pas- 
sage ; and Hypocrite Channel leads to 
sea between Calf and Green Islands. 
The Back Way is between Thompson's 
and Moon Islands on one side, and 
Spectacle and Long Islands on the 
other. Long Island is about a mile 
and three-quarters in length, and on 
Eastern Head stands the inner-harbor 
light-house. This is a round white tow- 
er, built in 1819. The keeper's house 
is attached to it. The light-house is 
surrounded on two sides by ramparts. 



The island is one of the most attractive 
in the harbor, and efforts have repeat- 
edly been made to convert it into a 
summer-resort of the best class ; but 
these one by one have failed. Nantas- 
ket Roads pass between Peddock's, 
Rainsford, and Long Islands, into 
President Roads (formerly in " the 
good old colony times " known as 
King's Roads) ; and Broad Sound leads 
to Nahant and the open sea. Shir- 
ley Gut is between Deer Island, on 
which are city institutions, and Point 
Shirley with its shore hotel, renowned 
for its fish and game dinners, still under 
the guidance, as it has been for more 
than a quarter of a century, of Taft, 
that rare landlord, a remnant of the 
genial tribe of the older school, now, 
alas ! rapidly passing away [see Point 
Shirley], The way to Nantasket and 
Hingham passes through the Narrows, 
between Peddock's Island and Hull, 
and thereafter by a tortuous but most 
picturesque course. Minot's Ledge, 
with its stone light-house, is outside the 
harbor. The rock is the outer of the 
Cohasset rocks, north from Cohasset, 
about 8 miles from Boston Light, and 
17 from the city. The first light-house 
here, an iron pile light-house, was com- 
pleted in 1849, and was swept away by a 
gale in April, 1851 ; and the light-house- 
keeper's two assistants perished with it. 
For some years after a light-boat was 
moored outside of the ledge, until i860, 
when the granite structure now stand- 
ing, begun in 1858, was completed. Of 
the peculiar shapes of the several isl- 
ands of the harbor as they appear on the 
map, Dr. Shurtleff gives the following 
original description ; " Noddle's Island, 
or East Boston as it is now called, very 
much resembles a great polar bear, 
with its head north and its feet east. 
Governor's Island has much the form 
of a ham, and Castle Island looks like 
a shoulder of pork, both with their 
shanks at the south. Apple Island 
was probably so named on account of 
its shape ; and Snake Island may be 
likened to a kidney; Deer Island is 
very like a whale facing Point Shirley; 



HARVARD DENTAL SCHOOL 



214 



HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 



Thompson's Island, like a very young 
unfledged chicken ; Spectacle Island, 
like a pair of spectacles ; Long Island, 
like a high-top military boot ; Rains- 
ford's Island, like a mink ; Moon Island, 
like a leg of venison ; Gallop's (not 
Galloupe's), like a leg of mutton; Lov- 
ell's, like a dried salt fish; George's, 
like a fortress, as it is ; Peddock's, like 
a young sea-monster ; and Half-Moon, 
like the new or the old moon, as you 
view it from the south or the north. 
The other small islands resemble 
pumpkins, grapes, and nuts, as much 
as any thing : hence the names of 
them." Most of these islands were 
originally well wooded, and several 
were used for grazing. But they are 
now stripped and bare. Many of the 
bluffs are protected by strong sea- 
walls, and much money has been spent 
in improving the channels, and for the 
harbor's protection. For a most thor- 
ough detailed description of the harbor 
and its features, with the attractions 
about its shores and the beaches, the 
reader would do well to provide him- 
self with " King's Handbook of Boston 
Harbor," by M. F. Sweetser. It will 
be found to be a most useful and com- 
panionable guide in a trip down the 
harbor. [See Terminal Facilities, and 
Quarantine \ 

Harvard Dental School. — See 

Harvard University. 

Harvard Medical School, for 

many years established in North-Grove 
Street, in the three-story brick building 
adjoining the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, is soon to move into the new 
building especially designed for it, 
situated in the Back-bay district. The 
new building occupies the western por- 
tion of the lot on the corner of Boylston 
and Exeter Streets, 264 by 125 feet, 
having a frontage of 123 feet on the 
former and 100 on the latter. It sets 
back 25 feet from Boylston and 15 from 
Exeter Streets. The building is of 
brick, with mouldings, lintels, etc., of 
red sandstone, and decorative panels 
of terra-cotta. It is four stories in 



height, with flat roof surrounded by a 

sky-line of stone balustrades and low 
gables. The main front, on Boylston 
Street, has three pavilions, of which 
the central is slightly recessed. There 
are facades of the two main divisions 
of the plan, which are formed by the 
cross-walls running north and south. 
The principal entrance is in the centre 
of the Boylston-street facade, by porti- 
co and steps. It opens into a great 
waiting-hall, divided into two parts by 
an arcade of five arches supported by 
polished granite columns. One of these, 
that towards the rear, is the staircase- 
hall. Both are paved with marble, and 
have moulded dados and cornices of 
fine brick-work, with plaster wall- 
panels between. The stairs, of iron, 
extend to the^top of the building; and 
the staircase-galleries, which are car- 
ried around three sides of each of six 
half-stories, are 8 feet wide, and ar- 
ranged for tiling. On the first floor, 
connected by a wide brick archway 
with the entrance-hall, are the rooms 
of the janitor; on the south-east corner 
is a large reading or study room, with a 
smoking-room adjoining, and another 
apartment for hats and outside-gar- 
ments of the students; and on the 
western side is the faculty-room, the 
library, and a lecture-room. In the sec- 
ond story is the great laboratory for 
general chemistry, 95 by 36 feet, and 
21 feet in height, capable of accommo- 
dating 2 1 2 students all working at the 
same time. The half-stories connected 
with this department, in front and rear, 
are subdivided for special laboratory 
service and studies, for store-rooms, 
professors' studies, and other purposes. 
In the north-east corner of the same 
story is the physiological laboratory, a 
smaller room, $6 by 48 feet, but of the 
same height as the general laboratory. 
It is furnished with benches, steam- 
baths, chemical hoods, etc.; and con- 
nected with it are small rooms in the 
half-stories. It also includes private 
laboratories for the professor and his 
assistants, and has direct communica- 
tion with the floor of the general lecture- 



HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 



215 



HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 



room. This occupies the south-east 
corner of the second story. It is a hall 
43 by 46, arranged with sloping ranges 
of seats to accommodate 234 students. 
The floor is furnished with an experi- 
mental table and hoods, with arrange- 
ments for illustrative charts and black- 
boards. There is a large preparation- 
room in the rear, reached by private 
stairs and by passages from apartments 
in the half-stories in the rear, for the 
use of professors. The students' en- 
trance is from the half-story above. 
The third story is occupied in front by 
the valuable and extensive Museum of 
Comparative Anatomy, of which the 
original collection, accompanied by 
$6,000 for its care and increase, was 
given by Dr. John Collins Warren. 
This hall is 80 by 34 feet in one part, 
and 48 feet in another. It has galleries 
around it, and glazed cases dividing the 
alcoves. In the south-east corner of 
this story, over the lecture-room, is the 
anatomical theatre. This occupies the 
height of two full stories. It has steep 
sloping seats for 268 students. There 
is a direct communication with the mu- 
seum ; the students reach their seats 
through galleries opening on the upper 
corridor of the staircase ; and it is ac- 
cessible from the demonstrator's room, 
and from various professors' rooms in 
the adjoining half-stories in the rear. 
The space under the seats is utilized 
by the curator of the museum for the 
preparation of specimens and for stor- 
age, and by the professor of anatomy 
for his study. The western third of 
this story is occupied by subordinate 
lecture and recitation rooms. In the 
upper story, in the north-east corner, 
is the laboratory of the pathological 
department, furnished with continu- 
ous tables provided for microscopical 
studies. Connected with this room are 
smaller rooms for special investigations 
and experiments in this department. 
On the western side is the laboratory 
for anatomical study. This has 14 
tables, lighted by a continuous arcade 
on the sides and by numerous sky- 
lights. The floor slopes slightly, and 



is waterproof. Connected with the 
southern end of this laboratory is a 
smaller theatre for anatomical demon- 
stration, capable of accommodating 80 
students ; and on the south side smaller 
rooms for preparation and for storage 
are also connected with it. The small- 
er rooms on the south side in all the 
stories are connected by an iron-service 
staircase, with an ample elevator from 
the basement, designed for the use of 
both passengers and freight. The flat 
roof of the building is conveniently de- 
signed for certain out-door experiments. 
The two main transverse partition- 
walls of brick are filled with plastered 
flues of various dimensions, connected 
with heating-chambers in the basement, 
and so arranged with valves that the 
occupants of each room may, within 
reasonable limits, adjust its tempera- 
ture and ventilation at will. After 
they have served for heating-flues, these 
become exhaust-flues, and are contin- 
ued upward above the roof, being 
furnished in their upper part with 
inducing-coils. They are also used for 
the escape of chemical fumes from the 
hoods in the various laboratories. In 
the middle of each of these transverse 
walls is a large shaft, furnished with 
inducing-coils, and communicating with 
those apartments where a special ser- 
vice of exhaust is needed. These 
inducing-coils everywhere are connect- 
ed with a supplementary boiler in the 
basement, to be used for ventilating 
purposes only. There are, besides, 
two large boilers for heating, and a 
hot-water boiler connecting with an 
abundant hot-water service throughout 
the building. In the basement are also 
extensive lavatories, and various cold 
rooms for experimental purposes, and 
also fresh-air passages of ample area 
connecting with the hot-air or plenum 
chambers, which are extended along 
the base of the two main transverse 
walls. The structure is practically 
fire-proof throughout ; all the walls 
being of brick without furring, with 
occasional minor partitions of concrete 
building-blocks. 



HARVARD JKONUMENT 



2l6 



HARVARD MUSICAL ASSOCIATION 



The Harvard Medical School began 
its work in the old Holden Chapel at 
Cambridge, in 1783. Its establishment 
was the result of a course of lectures 
delivered in Boston before the Boston 
Medical Society by Dr. John Warren, 
a brother of Gen. Joseph Warren. In 
1 8 10 the school was removed to Bos- 
ton, "to secure those advantages for 
clinical instruction, and for the study 
of practical anatomy, which are found 
only in large cities." Its first location 
in this city was at No. 49 Marlborough 
(now Washington) Street. In 1816 it 
was removed to the building on Mason 
Street, now owned by the city, and oc- 
cupied by the School Committee ; and 
in 1846 it moved to North-Grove Street, 
the building having been built for its 
use on land given by Dr. George Park- 
man. The school began with three 
professors and a handful of students, 
and now has 50 professors and an 
average of 250 students. Its standard 
was generally raised about 10 years 
ago, and it is now the highest in the 
country. The fund for the erection of 
the new building, $250,000, was raised 
by subscription from friends of the 
Medical School and the university. 
The architects are Van Brunt & 
Howe. 

Harvard Monument (The), erect- 
ed in 1828, in the old burying-ground 
in the Charlestown district, by gradu- 
ates of Harvard University, to the 
memory of John Harvard, the first 
benefactor of Harvard University, and 
for whom it was named, who came to 
Charlestown from England in 1637, 
and died there in 1638 [see Harvard 
College, also First Church in Charles- 
town']. The monument is a simple 
solid granite shaft, bearing on its east- 
ern face the name " John Harvard," 
and on a marble tablet this inscrip- 
tion : — 

" On the twenty-sixth day of September A.D. 
1828 this stone was erected by the graduates of 
the University at Cambridge in honor of its 
founder who died at Charlestown on the twenty- 
sixth day of September A.D. 1638." 



And on the western side is an in- 
scription in Latin, of which the fol- 
lowing is a free translation : — 

" That one who merits so much from our 
literary men should no longer be without a 
monument, however humble, the graduates of 
the University of Cambridge, New England, 
have erected this stone nearly two hundred 
years after his death, in pious and perpetual re- 
membrance of John Harvard." 

Mr. Harvard was buried " some- 
where about the foot of Town Hill," 
the hill rising from the square ; and 
the monument is erected, not to mark 
the spot of his grave, but in its neigh- 
borhood. When it was placed, the 
high ground on which it stood com- 
manded a view of the college-build- 
ings in Cambridge. On the occasion 
of the dedication of the monument, 
Edward Everett delivered the oration, 
and prayer was offered by President 
Walker, at that time pastor of the Sec- 
ond Unitarian Church in Charlestown. 

Harvard Musical Association 
(The). — A society organized in 1837 
to promote the progress and knowl- 
edge of the best music, which has 
played an important part in the devel- 
opment of musical culture in Boston. 
Its beginning was altogether unpre- 
tentious. It grew out of a chance 
meeting in that year, of a few Har- 
vard-college graduates who in their 
college days had been members of the 
little music-club called the " Pierian 
Sodality." In the course of a pleasant 
conversation on music-topics, the idea 
was broached of forming a union be- 
tween past and present members. The 
proposition met with favor; and on 
the following Commencement Day, 
Aug. 30, 1837, the association was 
formed. One object at the start was 
the promoting of the introduction of 
music in the regular course of college 
studies, and of establishing a musical 
professorship. It early, whenever op- 
portunity presented, used the influ- 
ence of its members, who were mostly 
professional and literary gentlemen of 
high standing, to promote all good 



HARVARD MUSICAL ASSOCIATION 



217 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



schemes for the advancement of mu- 
sical knowledge and musical education. 
In its meetings the plan of building 
the Music Hall was first considered, 
and its execution encouraged ; the 
project of procuring a great organ 
worthy of the hall, and to be classed 
with great European instruments, was 
first broached here, and the funds were 
largely subscribed among its mem- 
bers. ' To this association the estab- 
lishment of " Dwight's Journal of Mu- 
sic," which for so many years was 
the representative high-class musical 
periodical of the country, until the 
close of its career in 1881, was due ; 
and it was the first to give classical 
concerts in regular series. Under the 
auspices of this association the first 
regular course of chamber-concerts in 
Boston was given ; and these were 
succeeded by the famous Harvard 
symphony concerts, now in their 17th 
season. The greatest works of the 
great masters have been given at these 
concerts ; the standard of whose pro- 
grammes has intentionally been kept 
at the highest, with the view, in part, 
of educating the taste of the musical 
public in what is greatest and best, 
without regard to fashion or popular 
demand. The series of concerts in- 
clude 8 or 10 each winter-season, 
with the best orchestra that can be 
gathered here, under the direction of 
Carl Zerrahn. For years they were 
given in the Music Hall, on Thursday 
afternoons ; but the present year the 
custom of giving them in the Boston 
Museum was begun. During the season 
of 1881-82, strong rivals of the as- 
sociation became established in the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra and the 
Philharmonic Association [see these]. 
The Harvard Association has a valu- 
able library of music and works of 
history, theory, and general musical 
literature, open to members only. It 
numbers 2,500 volumes. The library 
it at No. 12 Pemberton Square. John 
S. Dvvight is president of the associa- 
tion, and librarian. The headquarters 
of the association were moved to Bos- 



ton early in its career, when the sphere 
of the organization was enlarged. [See 
Music in Boston .] 

Harvard University. — Though 
situated principally without the limits 
of Boston, Harvard University is inti- 
mately connected with the city and its 
history. While the seat of the uni- 
versity is in Cambridge, four of its de- 
partments — the Medical School, the 
Dental School, the Bussey Institution, 
and the Arnold Arboretum — are situ- 
ated in Boston ; and it has been built up 
and directed largely by Boston men. 
It was founded in 1638, only eight years 
after the settlement of Boston. The 
colonists, after first planting the church, 
" thought upon a college ; " and Har- 
vard was the result. In 1636 the 
General Court voted to give the sum 
of ^"400 towards the undertaking. Two 
years after the college was open, the 
Rev. John Harvard, an English non-con- 
formist who had emigrated to Charles- 
town, and had died that year, having 
bequeathed ^700, half his fortune, and 
300 volumes, constituting his entire 
library, to the college; in 1639 it was 
"ordered that the colledge agreed 
upon formerly to bee built at Cambridg 
shal bee called Harvard Colledge," in 
honor of its first benefactor; and in 
1650 the institution was chartered " for 
the education of the English and Indian 
youth of the country in knowledge and 
godlynes," and became a corporation 
with the title of the " President and 
Fellows of Harvard College." In its 
early years the college received much 
legislative aid, and was fostered in 
various ways. The income of the ferry 
between Boston and Charlestown was 
given it; Connecticut and Plymouth 
and the towns in the east " often con- 
tributed little offerings to promote its 
success ; once, at least, every family 
in each of the colonies gave to the 
college at Cambridge twelve pence or 
a peck of corn, or its value in unadul- 
terated wampumpeag." In 1647, " to 
the end that learning might not be 
buried in the grave of the fathers," it 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



2l8 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



was ordered by the General Court, 
" that every township in the jurisdiction, 
after the Lord hath increased them to 
the number of fifty householders, shall 
maintain a school, and that every town 
with a hundred families shall set up 
a grammar school, the master thereof 
being able to instruct youth so far as 
they may be fitted for the university." 
Though intimately connected with the 
Colonial and State governments, the 
university has been from the first a 
private rather than public institution, 
fostered by the State though not direct- 
ed or controlled by it, and supported in 
the main by the fees paid by its students, 
and the income from permanent funds 
from time to time given it by benevo- 
lent individuals. It is still administered 
under the original charter granted in 
1650; but radical changes have been 
made since that time in its conduct, 
and to some extent in its machinery of 
government. At the present time the 
government is vested in the corporation 
and the board of overseers. The cor- 
poration nominates the professors and 
instructors, subject to confirmation by 
the overseers. The corporation con- 
sists of the president, five fellows, and 
the treasurer of the university ; and the 
board of overseers is composed of the 
president and treasurer ex officio, and * 
30 members elected by the graduates 
of the university of five years standing, 
and holding office six years, five being 
chosen each year. Until 1865 the State 
was represented in the board of over- 
seers, its representatives being chosen 
by the legislature. At the beginning, 
the board consisted of the president 
of the college, the governor and deputy- 
governor of the colony, all the magis- 
trates in the jurisdiction, and " the 
teaching elders of the six adjoining 
towns, viz., Cambridge, Watertown, 
Charlestown, Boston, Roxbury, and 
Dorchester." By the State constitution, 
adopted in 17S0, it was provided (while 
the corporation was confirmed in all 
its powers, rights, privileges, and im- 
munities, and in the legal possession 
of all its real and personal property), 



that the overseers should consist of 
the president and treasurer of the col- 
lege ex officio, the governor, lieutenant- 
governor, council, and senate of the 
Commonwealth, and the ministers of 
the Congregational churches in the six 
adjoining towns, as named above. In 
1810 this was modified, and it was pro- 
vided that the board should consist of 
the same members ex officio, and of 15 
Congregational clergymen and 15 lay- 
men, to be elected by a majority of 
the board. Subsequently, after several 
years of agitation of the subject, cler- 
gymen of all sects were made eligible 
to membership in the board. In 1851 
the most radical change was effected, 
when the ex-officio members were re- 
stricted to the governor and lieutenant- 
governor of the State, the president of 
the senate, the speaker of the house, 
and the secretary of the board of edu- 
cation; and it was arranged that the 
30 other members should retire ten 
annually for three years, the Legislature 
filling the vacancies, and thereafter five 
members retire annually, five new mem- 
bers to be chosen by the Legislature. 
The first election after the connection of 
the university with the Commonwealth 
was entirely dissolved, and it had 
passed into the control of the alumni, 
was held on Commencement Day, 1866 ; 
and elections have thereafter been held 
annually, part of the board retiring, on 
that day. The first class graduated 
from the college in 1642, and it con- 
sisted of five persons. The first presi- 
dent was the Rev. H. Dunster. His 
successors were the following : Charles 
Chauncey, Leonard Hoar, Uriah Oakes, 
John Rogers, Increase Mather (who 
was the first to receive the honorary 
degree of D. D. from the college), 
Samuel Willard (acting president), 
John Leverett, Benjamin Wadsworth, 
Edward Holyoke, Samuel Locke, 
Samuel Langdon, Joseph Willard, 
Samuel Webber, John Thornton Kirk- 
land, Josiah Quincy, Edward Everett, 
Jared Sparks, James Walker, C. C. 
Felton, Thomas Hill, and C. W. Eliot 
the present president, whose term of 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



service began in 1868. The first brick 
building in the college-yard was built 
for the education of the Indians, and 
was called the " Indian College." 
Here the Indian Bible was printed. 
But one Indian, however, was ever 
graduated. The present Matthew Hall 
stands on the site of Indian College. 
In 1775 the Provincial Congress took 
possession of the college-buildings ; 
and later, during the winter of 1775 — 
76, they were used as barracks for the 
patriot soldiers. At the present time 
there are 40 buildings, of either brick 
or stone, used for university purposes, 
situated mostly within or near the col- 
lege-yard, though several are elsewhere 
in Cambridge, Boston, and Jamaica 
Plain in the West-Roxbury district. 
Of the buildings in or about the 
grounds, Massachusetts Hall is the 
oldest. It was built by order of 
the General Court, at the expense of 
the Province, and was completed in 
1720. The first Harvard Hall was 
burned in 1764, and with it the library 
of John Harvard. It was rebuilt in 
1766. Holden Chapel was built in 
1744; Hollis Hall, 1763; Stoughton 
Hall, 1806; Holworthy Hall, 1812; 
University Hall, 181 5 ; Gore Hall, 1841 ; 
Boylston Hall, 1858; Appleton Chapel, 
1858; Museum of Comparative Zoolo- 
gy, i860; Gray's Hall, 1863; Thayer 
Hall, 1870; Holyoke Hall, 1871 ; Mat- 
thews Hall, 1872; Weld Hall, 1872; 
Memorial Hall, 1870-74; Peabody 
Museum, 1877; Sever Hall, 1880; 
Hemenway Gymnasium, 1879-80. The 
whole number of teachers is 158, 
of whom 54 are professors. There are 
also 5 librarians, 2 curators, 9 proctors, 
6 other officers, besides the various 
officers and trustees of the museums 
connected with the university. The 
academic year begins in all depart- 
ments on the same day in September. 
Examinations for admission to the 
college and the professional schools 
are held simultaneously in Cambridge, 
Exeter, N.H., New-York City, Phila- 
delphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, and San 
Francisco. 



The university comprises the follow- 
ing departments : Harvard College, 
the Divinity School, the Law School, 
the Lawrence Scientific School, the 
Medical School, the Dental School, 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
the Bussey Institution, the Arnold 
Arboretum, the Botanic Garden, the 
Observatory, the Library, and the 
Peabody Museum of American Archae- 
ology and Ethnology. These several 
departments are briefly sketched 
below : — 

Harvard College. — The conditions of 
admission to the college are the satisfactory- 
passage of examinations : in Latin, — Caesar and 
Virgil, translation at sight, and composition ; 
Greek, — Xenophon, translation at sight, and 
composition ; ancient history and geography ; 
arithmetic, algebra, and plane geometry ; ele- 
mentary physics ; English composition and the 
correction of- bad English ; and the translation at 
sight of easy French or of easy German prose. 
Also in two of the following four groups of 
elective subjects : Latin, on Cicero and Virgil, 
and on translation at sight from these writers ; 
Greek, on the Iliad, on translation at sight from 
Herodotus, and on writing Greek ; mathemat- 
ics, on logarithms, plane trigonometry, and 
solid geometry ; and natural science, on physics, 
and on chemistry or botany. Graduates of 
other colleges in good standing are admitted 
without examination to the senior class as 
candidates for a degree ; and persons not can- 
didates for a degree are admitted without exami- 
nation as unmatriculated students, and may 
pursue such studies as they choose and are fitted 
to attend. During the freshman year all studies 
are required. After that, with the exception 
that all are required to study rhetoric and Eng- 
lish for two hours a week during one year, and 
to write themes and forensics throughout the 
college course, all studies are elective. Stu- 
dents are required to select courses amounting 
to 12 hours a week, and pursue them during 
each of the last three years. The selection is 
made from the following offered ; i course in 
Hebrew, i in Sanskrit, 2 in comparative philol- 
ogy, 10 in Greek, 8 in Latin, 7 in English, 8 in 
German, 5 in French, 3 in Italian, 3 in Spanish, 
8 in philosophy, 3 in political economy, 11 in 
history, 5 in the fine arts, 4 in music, 9 in mathe- 
matics, 5 in physics, 7 in chemistry, and 8 in 
natural history. Those who satisfactorily fill the 
requirements are recommended for the degree 
of bachelor of arts, for either the ordinary 
degree, or a degree with distinction; and hon- 
ors in special subjects are assigned to those who 
devote a specified amount of time to these 
subjects, and pass examinations in them with 
distinction. The general tuition-fee is $150 a 
year ; for unmatriculated students, at the rate 
of $15 for one hour a week of instruction dur- 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



ing the year ; and for a laboratory course, $150. 
Scholarships to the number of 117 have been 
established, varying in annual income from $40 
to $350 ; and these are assigned each year to 
deserving students needing aid. There are 
other sources of pecuniary aid in the loan-fund, 
various beneficiary funds, monitorships, etc. 

Divinity School. — Established in 1S15, 
" for the serious, impartial, and unbiased investi- 
gation of Christian truth." No assent to the 
peculiar dogmas or practices of any denomina- 
tion of Christians is required of instructors or 
students. Graduates of colleges are admitted 
without examination; and all others are required 
to pass examination in some of the Latin classi- 
cal authors, and in the Greek text of the Gos- 
pels. The full course covers three years. 
Instruction is given in theology, ecclesiastical 
history, New-Testament criticism and interpre- 
tation, Hebrew, and biblical literature. Devo- 
tional exercises are held daily in the chapel, 
and students in their second and third years 
preach in turn in the chapel. There is a library 
connected with the school, and the students 
have access to the college library. The fee for 
instruction is $50 a year. There are ten schol- 
arships, of an annual value of $125 to $175 each, 
and other sources of pecuniary aid. The degree 
of bachelor of divinity is the regular degree 
here conferred. 

Law School. — Established in 1817. It is 
designed to afford a practical training in the 
fundamental principles of English and Ameri- 
can law. Graduates of colleges are admitted 
without examination on producing their diplo- 
mas : others are required to pass written exami- 
nations in Blackstone's Commentaries, and in 
the translation of passages from Csesar, Cicero, 
and Virgil; proficiency in French, or other mod- 
ern language, however, representing an amount 
of preparatory work equivalent to that required 
to pass examinations in Latin is accepted in 
place of the latter language. Persons not can- 
didates for a degree are admitted as special stu- 
duents without examination, and may pursue 
such studies as they see fit. The full course of 
study covers three years. The degree of bache- 
lor of laws is here conferred. Those who have 
been in the school at least two years, and who 
satisfactorily pass examinations in the full course, 
are entitled to it as well as those who go through 
the full course satisfactorily. Special students 
receive certificates on the studies in which they 
satisfactorily pass the regular examinations. 
The tuition-fee is $150 a year. There are 8 
scholarships. The law-library connected with 
the school is extensive and valuable. 

Lawrence Scientific School. — Founded 
in 1847, by a gift of $50,000 from Abbott Law- 
rence, which was subsequently increased. Four 
courses, each extending through four years, are 
offered here : one in civil and topographical 
engineering ; another in chemistry ; a third in 
natural history ; and the fourth in mathematics, 
physics, and astronomy. Conditions of admis- 
sion for regular students are successful exami- 
nations in English, French, or German, arith- 



metic, algebra, and geometry ; on four books 
of Caesar, four books of Virgil, and the Latin 
grammar ; and on plane and analytic trigonom- 
etry, on elementary descriptive chemistry, on 
elementary physics, and on modern geography. 
Special students, not candidates for the degree, 
are admitted without examination, to pursue 
such studies as they see fit; receiving certifi- 
cates of proficiency on the work done by them. 
Those students who satisfactorily pursue the 
first of the four regular courses receive the 
degree of civil engineer ; and those pursuing 
the other courses, that of bachelor of science. 
Special facilities for persons preparing to teach 
are offered at this school, and also opportunity 
for advanced study, experiment, and original 
research. The tuition-fee is $150 a year. 
There are four scholarships of an annual value 
of $150 each. 

Medical School. — Established in 1782. 
Instruction is given by lectures, recitations, 
ciinical teaching, etc., on a thorough and elabo- 
rate scale. The full course covers four years ; 
but on the completion of three years' study, and 
satisfactory examinations, the degree of doctor 
of medicine is conferred. Candidates for admis- 
sion other than graduates of colleges and scien- 
tific schools, graduates in medicine, and those 
who have passed the examinations for admis- 
sion to Harvard College (all of whom are admit- 
ted without further examination), are required 
to pass examinations in writing, English com- 
position, translation of easy Latin prose, ele- 
mentary physics, and in one of the following 
subjects: French, German, the elements of 
algebra, or the elements of plane geometry. 
Students not candidates for a degree are admit- 
ted without examination, receiving certificates 
of their period of connection with the school. 
Examinations are held in writing at the end of 
each year, in the studies pursued during the 
year. Twenty or more students are selected 
annually for house-officers of the various hos- 
pitals in Boston ; and these, with the Marine 
Hospital in Chelsea, offer ample opportunities 
for clinical instruction, and for the study of 
practical anatomy. A post-graduate course is 
established for those who are already graduates 
in medicine. Those pursuing special studies in 
this course are exempt from examinations if 
they desire to be, and are given a certificate of 
attendance on the studies pursued. Graduates 
of other medical schools may obtain the degree 
of doctor of medicine after a year's study in the 
graduates' course, upon passing satisfactory 
examinations. Fee for matriculation in the 
Medical School is $5 ; for instruction, $200 for 
a year, $120 for a half-year alone, and $30 for 
graduation. In the post-graduate course, the 
fees vary with the instruction given. There 
are scholarships of an annual income of $200 
each. The school-building is situated in Bos- 
Ion. [See Harvard Medical School. .] 

Dental School. — Established in 1868, to 
furnish a complete course of instruction in the 
theory and practice of dentistry. The course 
extends over three years, the first year identical 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



221 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



with that of the first year In the Medical School ; 
the instruction during that period being given 
with the medical students from the instructors 
in the Medical School. At the close of the first 
year the students pass to the Dental School un- 
der the instruction of its professors. Practice in 
the various operations performed by the dentist 
is afforded. In the infirmary, which is a depart- 
ment of the Massachusetts General Hospital, 
an instructor and a demonstrator are in attend- 
ance daily throughout the academic year. Stu- 
dents have access to the hospitals of the city, 
and to the museum, library, and dissecting- 
rooms of the Medical School. The degree of 
doctor of dental medicine is conferred on those 
who have studied medicine and dentistry three 
full years, spent at least one continuous year in 
the school, passed the several examinations, 
and presented a satisfactory thesis. Graduates 
of recognized dental schools are admitted to the 
courses in operative and mechanical dentistry, 
paying $50 for each course. The fee for the re- 
gular instruction of the school is $200 for the 
first year, $150 for the second, and $50 for any 
subsequent year. There are no fees for matricu- 
lation or for graduation. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology.— Estab- 
lished in 1859 by a grant from the State, and 
generous gifts of private citizens, through the 
influence of the late Louis Agassiz, who was 
its director until his death. It contains the natu- 
ral-history collections of the university, with 
the exception of the mineralogical collections 
and those of the herbarium. In its laboratories 
the university courses on geology, biology, em- 
bryology, and entomology are given. Special 
students are received by the instructors and 
assistants in their respective departments in the 
museum. 

Peabody Museum of American Archae- 
ology and Ethnology. — Founded in 1866, 
on the gift of $150,000 by the late George 
Peabody. This contains collections from the 
mounds of North America and the ancient 
and modern pueblos of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, 
and New Mexico; from the ancient tribes of 
Central America and Mexico ; from ancient and 
present tribes of the Indians of Peru, Brazil, the 
Pacific Islands, Eastern Asia, and Egypt; and 
from other parts of the world. The collection 
is very extensive, and is admirably arranged. 
It is in part open to the public, and on stated 
days public exhibitions are given, with explana- 
tions by the curator. 

Bussey Institution (The). — A school of 
agriculture and horticulture, established in 1870, 
under trusts created by the will of Benjamin 
Bussey of Roxbury, and situated on his for- 
mer estate in Jamaica Plain. The Arnold Ar- 
boretum is connected with it [see Bussey 
Institution and Arnold Arboretu;n~\. The 
instruction comprises the theory of farming, 
agricultural chemistry, applied zoology, horti- 
culture, botany, entomology, and quantitative 
chemical analysis. Candidates for the degrees 
given of bachelor of agricultural, horticultural, 
or veterinary science, must take a preliminary 



course of one year in the Lawrence Scientific 
School, or show by examination that they pos- 
sess an equivalent amount of knowledge, and, 
after completing the regular courses in the Bus- 
sey Institution, must pass a year in advanced 
study here. Students not candidates for a de- 
gree may join the school at any time without 
examination, and pursue such courses as they 
are fitted to follow. The fee for the academic 
year is $150; for half a year or less, $75; and 
for a single course, $40 a year. 

Graduate Department. — Over 40 courses 
of instruction in this department, as well as the 
elective courses offered to undergraduates of 
Harvard College, are open without examination 
to bachelors of arts, science, or philosophy. 
The degree of master of arts is conferred on 
bachelors of arts of Harvard College, and on 
holders of equivalent degrees who pursue a 
course of liberal study at the university for at 
least a year, and pass an examination on that 
course. The same degree is conferred on those 
who, after taking the degree of bachelor of laws, 
bachelor of divinity, or doctor of medicine, pur- 
sue a course of study in law, theology, or medi- 
cine for a year, and pass examination on such 
course. The degree of doctor of philosophy 
is conferred on bachelors of arts who pursue a 
course of study for at least two years, pass an 
examination in that course, and present a thesis 
showing an original treatment of the subject, 
or giving evidence of independent research. 
The degree of doctor of science is conferred 
on bachelors of science who pursue a course of 
scientific study in at least two subjects for three 
years, and make some contribution to science 
embodied in a thesis. The tuition-fee is com- 
puted at a rate of $15 for one hour a week of 
instruction through the year, no case less than 
$30 nor more than $150. The fee for the ex- 
amination of Ph.D. is $60; for any laboratory 
course, $150. 

University Library. — This contains more 
than 250,000 volumes, with as many pamphlets. 
Of these volumes the larger number are in the 
college library, the remainder in the libraries of 
the several departments. The college library is 
for the use of the entire university. Students 
may take out three books at a time for four 
weeks ; and the privilege of borrowing books is 
also granted to persons not connected with the 
university, under special regulations and on 
payment of an annual fee. 

Examinations for women were es- 
tablished in 1874. These are of two 
grades : the first, a general or prelim- 
inary examination in English, French, 
physical geography, elementary bot- 
any or elementary physics, arithmetic, 
algebra through quadratic equations, 
plane geometry, history, and German, 
Latin, or Greek ; and the second, in 
one or more of these departments, Ian- 



HAYMARKET SQUARE 



222 



HEALTH OF BOSTON 



guages, natural science, mathematics, 
history, and philosophy. The first 
grade is for young women not less 
than 17 years of age; and the second, 
for those not less than 18, and who 
have passed the first grade of exami- 
nations. Those who pass the exami- 
nations satisfactorily are given certifi- 
cates. The fee for the first grade is 
#15; for the second, $10. The sepa- 
rate trust-funds in the hands of the 
treasurer in 1883 amounted to $686,- 
515.84. Other funds of the college, 
which are invested as a whole, amount- 
ed to $4,511,861.59. The income from 
this general capital was $233,352.88. 
The whole number of students in 
1883 is about 1,400. 

Haymarket Square marks the ter- 
mination of Union, Washington, Sud- 
bury, Merrimack, Canal, Haverhill, 
Charlestown, and Blackstone Streets. 
The Boston and Maine Railroad sta- 
tion is situated upon it. It is a spa- 
cious square, but at the present time 
without any ornamentation or note- 
worthy feature to distinguish it from 
any other open space in the streets of 
the city. In former years a fountain 
stood in its centre, which was erected 
in 1851, when several squares were 
laid out in different sections of the 
city, and ornamented with fountains 
and trees. For several years Hay- 
market Square was the terminus of 
the Middlesex-street Railway and its 
branches, which extended through the 
Charlestown district and portions of 
the neighboring towns of Chelsea and 
Somerville. At the beginning of the 
present century the Mill Cove, or Mill 
Pond, covered the space now occupied 
by this square. The Old Canal, or 
Mill Creek, used to run through the 
square ; and after Boston became a 
city, one of the bridges across the 
canal was here. 

Health of Boston. — The death-rate 
in Boston for the year, closing with the 
report of the board of health in 1882, 
was 22.67 P er thousand of the estimat- 
ed population, which is placed by the 



board at 397,628 ; while the rate for 
the previous year was 23.53 P er thou- 
sand, the population of that year being 
estimated at 362,628. The average 
death-rate of the city from all causes 
for the past 17 years, from 1865 to 
1881 inclusive, was 23.88 per thou- 
sand. The proportion of deaths from 
preventable causes, to the whole num- 
ber of deaths, shows a correspond- 
ing decrease : in 1880 the percentage 
of deaths of this class was 27.20, and, in 
1881, 26.87 j an d the average percent- 
age for 10 years, from 1872 to 1881 in- 
clusive, was 28.40. The percentage 
of deaths of children under five years 
of age for 1881 was 36.75, against 39.25 
in 1880; and the average percentage 
of deaths of this class for the past 10 
years was 40.75. The records show 
that there has been a gradual diminu- 
tion in the percentage of such deaths 
from 42.17 in 1872 to 36.75 in 1881. 
Thus it is shown, that, while the total 
mortality has increased with the grow- 
ing population from 8,090 deaths in 
1872 to 9,016 in 1881, the deaths of 
children under five years have abso- 
lutely decreased from 3,414 in 1872 to 
3,314 in 1881 ; an increase of the total 
mortality of nearly 1,000, and a de- 
crease of mortality among children of 
100. During the same period the 
births recorded in the city increased 
from 9,321 in 1872 to 10,541 in 1S81. 
As the board of health is repeatedly 
pointing out in its reports, the city is 
by no means without many and serious 
shortcomings in its sanitary appliances ; 
but, notwithstanding, its statistics show 
to advantage by the side of those of 
many other cities. In New York, in 
1 88 1, for instance, the death-rate was 
31.08 per 1,000 population; Brooklyn, 
24.83; Chicago, 25.61 ; Savannah, Ga., 
30.16; and, of European cities, Liver- 
pool, 26.6; Vienna, 29.48 ; Paris, 25.50. 
The cities showing a decrease include 
St. Louis, 22.7 ; Baltimore, 22.37 ; Cin- 
cinnati, 21.7;, San Francisco, 18.25. 
The death-rate of London in 1881 was 
21.2; Montreal, 27.18; Ottawa, 28.4; 
and Toronto, 19.5. In 1881, for in- 



HEALTH OF BOSTON 



223 



HEALTH OF BOSTON 



stance, while the mortality-tables of 
nearly all the principal cities through- 
out the country showed a marked in- 
crease in their respective death-rates, 
from one cause or another, and the year 
was generally regarded as having been 
less healthful than usual, the death-rate 
of Boston, as shown by the figures 
'above, was lower than the year before, 
and lower than the average rate for sev- 
eral years' past. While in many sections 
of the country, small-pox was allowed to 
gain a considerable foot-hold, and in 
many cities and towns this disease 
contributed largely to the death-rate, 
there was nothing approaching an ep- 
idemic here ; while there was, as has 
been seen, a notable falling-off in the 
percentage of deaths arising from pre- 
ventable causes. This gratifying con- 
dition of the health of the city is due 
largely to its general cleanliness, the 
rigid and well-executed health-laws, 
the system of inspection of meats, vege- 
tables, etc., as well as sanitary condi- 
tion of the city, and the constant care 
of the board of health and the differ- 
ent branches of the health-department. 
When the new sewerage-system is com- 
pleted [see Sewerage System], probably 
some time during 1884, the health of 
the city cannot but be greatly improved. 
At the present time the sewage of 
the whole city is discharged at 82 
sewer-outlets, settling on the shoals 
and polluting the air ; and during the 
summer-months especially, it is neces- 
sary to exercise the greatest care to 
prevent the spread of disease. The 
agents of the board of health, called 
inspectors, inspect and report upon 
nuisances ; and the board secure their 
abatement as far as able to do so. 
The city-physician, port-physician, and 
superintendent of health are connected 
with the health-department. There 
are employed in cleaning and sweep- 
ing the streets, under the direction of 
the superintendent of health, 157 men, 
29 carts, 9 sweeping-machines, and 6 
water-carts. There are 76 men em- 
ployed 9 months in the year sweeping. 
The principal streets are cleaned daily, 



and others twice in each week. The 
remaining three months, the teams are 
employed in removing house-dirt, and 
the men in sweeping crossings and 
removing snow from sidewalks of pub- 
lic buildings. The number of miles of 
streets cleaned, 185 per week. The 
cost of labor for doing this work for 
the year ending April 21, 1882, was 
$76,399.36. In removing house-offal 
95 men and 43 wagons are employed. 
The offal is removed from dwelling- 
houses three times a week during the 
summer months, and twice a week 
during the winter ; from hotels, mar- 
kets, and restaurants, it is removed 
daily. There are 43 districts, and each 
team is assigned a route. The men 
employed in collecting offal are re- 
quired to enter the premises, collect 
the offal, and empty the same in wag- 
ons ; when filled, to drive to one of the 
offal-depots owned by the city. It is 
there sold to farmers from adjoining 
towns within a radius of 20 miles, who 
come with their carts to the depot for 
it. The cost of labor for this work, 
ending April 21, 1882, was $57,705.55. 
There are employed in removing 
house-dirt and ashes, 58 teams and 123 
men, with two men to each team. 
This material is removed from hotels, 
tenement-houses, and stores, twice in 
each week, and from dwellings once a 
week. There are 58 routes, one team 
being assigned to each route. The 
ordinances require that house-dirt and 
ashes shall be kept in some convenient 
place for collection. The men are re- 
quired to enter the premises, and 
place such vessels as contain ashes 
upon the sidewalk or in passage-ways 
in rear ; the teams follow, and are 
loaded ; the empty vessels are returned 
by the men to their original position. 
The carts, when filled, proceed to the 
dump, and discharge their load. The 
cost of this work during the same 
period was $97,390.10. The health- 
department of the city has been under 
the direction of the board of health 
since 1873, tne ordinance for its estab- 
lishment having been passed by the 



HEBREWS IN BOSTON 



224 



HEBREWS IN BOSTON 



city council in December of the pre- 
ceding year. Before that time the 
board of aldermen constituted the 
board of health, and the chief executive 
officer of the department was elected 
annually by the city council. In times 
of emergency the board of aldermen 
were assisted by a board of consulting 
physicians, elected by the city council 
and serving without pay. Long before 
the establishment of a regular health- 
board, the city had outgrown the ar- 
rangement by which the whole board of 
aldermen acted as a board of health ; 
and the establishment of an independ- 
ent organization, which had been for a 
long time agitated, was hastened by the 
spread of small-pox in 1872, with 
which the aldermen as a health-board 
were unable to cope. The board of 
health for 1883 consists of Samuel H. 
Durgin chairman, George F. Babbitt, 
and James M. Keith. The city-physi- 
cian is John H. McCullom ; port-phy- 
sician, A. B. Heath; and superintend- 
ent of health, George W. Forristall. 
The latter officers are appointed by the 
board, subject to the approval of the 
mayor. The health-office is at No. 32 
Pemberton Square. 

Hebrews in Boston. — Thirty-five 
years ago a Hebrew was an unusual 
sight in Boston ; but since that period 
Hebrews have increased so rapidly that 
now they number not less than 6,000. 
They are to be found in all parts of 
the city, busily engaged in trade and 
traffic, and are, as a class, industrious 
and thrifty. There is no distinctively 
Hebrew quarter, although many live 
on Salem Street, and in that immediate 
neighborhood. Some are quite wealthy, 
nearly all are in comfortable circum- 
stances ; none are wanting in shrewd- 
ness, and capacity for driving a good 
bargain, and many are educated and 
cultured. They are not wanting in po- 
litical aspirations ; several having filled 
municipal offices of honor and trust, 
and others having attained higher pub- 
lic positions. The more wealthy and 
enterprising are engaged in the cloth- 



ing-trade ; many are jewellers and to- 
bacconists, and a large number are 
pawnbrokers. In the matter of religion 
they may be classified as Orthodox and 
Reform. The former cling to the old 
customs, traditions, and ideas ; while 
the latter advocate the cause of pro- 
gressive Judaism. There are seven 
congregations, the largest of which is 
the Ohabei Sholom, which has a syna- 
gogue on Warrenton Street. The wor- 
ship is conducted in moderate reform 
style, families sitting together, and a 
choir and organ assisting in the ser- 
vices. The congregation numbers 150 
members ; and there is a sabbath-school 
of about the same size, in which the 
children receive instruction in the prin- 
ciples of the Jewish religion, Israel's 
history, and in the Hebrew language. 
The second prominent congregation is 
the Temple Adath Israel, which wor- 
ships on Pleasant Street. It has about 
60 members, and is ultra-reform. There 
is also a sabbath-school with a mem- 
bership of about 80. The other con- 
gregations are the Mishkan Israel, 
synagogue on Ash Street, with 60 
members, who are strictly Orthodox; 
the Shaare Tefiloh, worshipping on 
Church Street, with 65 members ; the 
Beth Abraham, worshipping on Han- 
over Street, 40 members, strictly Or- 
thodox ; the Har Moriah, Shawmut 
Avenue, Roxbury ; and the Shomre 
Shabbos, which has 40 members, who 
strictly observe their sabbath-day. All 
these have sabbath-schools similar to 
those before mentioned. The Jews 
also have 5 B'nai B'rith lodges, known 
as Yegar Sahadutha, Boston, Amos, 
Pinchas, and Mosenthal. The order 
Kesher Shel Barsel has two lodges, 
the Gal Ed and Pinchas. The order 
Free Sons of Israel is represented by 2 
lodges- the Bay-State and Moses Men- 
delssohn. The order Treue Schwes- 
tern is represented by Naomi Lodge. 
There are several Chewras connected 
with the congregations, and ladies' so- 
cieties devoted entirely to benevolent 
purposes. The Hebrew Benevolent 
Society numbers 230 members, and the 



HERALD 



Ladies' Sewing-circle has a member- 
ship of about 175 ladies. There are 
also a Young Men's Hebrew Associa- 
tion, and the Elysium Club, — the lat- 
ter a social organization, with spacious 
and quite elegant rooms on Concord 
Street. 

Herald (The Boston), newspaper, 
the great popular journal of the city, 
published from "the Herald Building." 
No. 255 Washington Street. Begun 
in 1S46, as an evening newspaper, a 
small sheet, four pages of five columns 
each, and sold for a penny, the "Her- 
ald " has become a great establishment, 
with several morning and evening edi- 
tions, reaching an average daily circu- 
lation of over 117,000, and a Sunday 
edition of over 90,000. The first num- 
ber of the paper was published Aug. 
31, 1846, by the proprietors of a penny 
paper known by the patriotic title of 
"The American Eagle," which was 
soon after absorbed by it. Its first 
editor was William O. Eaton, who 
afterwards became well known as a 
"newspaper man." It started out as 
an independent paper, " pledged to no 
religious sect or political party, always 
ready to rebuke both spiritual and 
political wickedness in high places, 
and call the servants of the public to 
an account whenever they abuse the 
trust committed to their care." And 
so it is conducted to-day. In less than 
a year it was enlarged, and appeared 
as a morning as well as evening news- 
paper, with a weekly edition. The 
gathering of news became, early in 
its career, its chief aim ; and this poli- 
cy, continued and greatly developed 
under the present management, has 
abundantly proved a "paying one." 
Mr. Eaton retired from the editor- 
ship in 1847, and was succeeded by 
George W. Tyler, who had edited 
"The Eagle." During the next few 
years there were many changes in the 
conduct and' ownership of the paper. 
At length, in 1855, Edwin C. Bailey 
became one of the proprietors, and 
the following year sole proprietor. 



Increased facilities were established 
for obtaining news, a working-force of 
editors and reporters was secured, and 
the concern moved forward prosper- 
ously. During all the changes preced- 
ing Mr. Bailey's ownership, however, 
the circulation of the paper had ap- 
parently steadily increased, and it was 
a promising venture. In 1867 the 
weekly edition was discontinued, and 
soon after the Sunday edition was 
started. In April, 1857, the "Times," 
a rival of the " Herald," was purchased 
by Mr. Bailey, and its publication dis- 
continued. During his ownership of 
the " Herald," Mr. Bailey was for some 
years postmaster of Boston. In April, 
1869, he sold out his entire interest in 
his paper to Royal M. Pulsifer, Edwin 

B. Haskell, Justin Andrews, Charles 
H. Andrews, and George G. Bailey, 
taking their notes for a large amount 
of the price paid. These were all 
employes of the "Herald;" Mr. Pul- 
sifer being at the head of the business- 
department, Mr. Haskell in charge of 
the Sunday edition, the two Andrewses 
in charge of the daily, and Mr. Bailey 
in the composition-room. The notes 
were all met at maturity, and each of 
the purchasers has since attained a for- 
tune out of the undertaking. George 

C. Bailey sold out his interest to his 
associates, Oct. 1, 1871; and Justin 
Andrews disposed of his to the re- 
maining associates on the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1873. The proprietors therefore 
now consist of Messrs. Pulsifer, Has- 
kell, and Charles H. Andrews. The 
" Herald " was long established at No. 
103 (now numbered 241) Washington 
Street, with its editorial, composition, 
press, and mailing rooms in the rear 
on Williams Court. In 1877-78 its 
present building was erected out of the 
profits of the paper, and in February, 
1878, was moved into. It has the reputa- 
tion of being the finest newspaper-office 
in the world, and one of the very best 
equipped. It was especially planned 
for the convenience of all departments 
of the office, and after the examination 
of many of the most approved modern 



226 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



newspaper-offices of other cities; and 
it is provided with every modern con- 
venience for facilitating the work of its 
large force of employes. It consists 
of a main building, with an ornamental 
granite front in the French Renaissance 
style, on Washington Street, and a 
large L fronting on Williams Court. 
The total ground-surface covered is 
about 6,200 square feet. The main 
building has a frontage of 31 feet 9 
inches, and a length of 179 feet; and 
the L, a frontage of 24J4 feet, and a 
length of 40 feet. The entire building 
has six stories and a high basement. 
The press-room is in the basement, 
and mail and delivery rooms on Wil- 
liams Court, as heretofore. There are 
four Bullock presses in the press-room, 
capable of printing 86,000 papers an 
hour. There is a machine-shop here, 
so that repairs to the machinery are 
made on the premises ; and there is a 
double equipment of all the machinery, 
every precaution being taken to avoid 
delay in the publication of any of the 
editions by reason of accident of any 
sort. The proprietors are now (1883) 
engaged in building a large addition to 
the L of their building, having already 
outgrown it; and it is proposed still 
further to enlarge their facilities and 
increase their business. The " Herald " 
is one of the most profitable of the 
newspapers of the country. This is 
due to excellent management in every 
department, and to the constant devo- 
tion to the first object for which a 
newspaper is run, — and which is too 
often lost sight of by newspaper con- 
ductors, — the thorough gathering and 
the prompt presentation of the news. 
Every thing in the " Herald " is sub- 
ordinate to this, and the result is suc- 
cess which is called " phenomenal," 
but which is simply natural. The 
" Herald " has a very large force of 
editors, writers, correspondents, and 
reporters, and one of the most com- 
pletely organized systems of news- 
gathering. John H. Holmes, one of 
the ablest journalists in the country, is 
the managing-editor. 



Herdics. — See Hacks, Herdic 
Phaetons, Crystals, and Publics. 

Highlands. — See Roxbury District. 

Historical Society (The Massa- 
chusettsj, No. 30 Tremont Street, in 
the building adjoining the Boston Mu- 
seum. This is the oldest historical so- 
ciety in the country, and its roll of 
members includes many of the names 
best known in American literature. 
Its library contains over 25,000 bound 
volumes, besides many volumes of rare 
and curious manuscripts relating to 
early New-England history. The 
printed collections and proceedings 
of the society in 34 volumes contain 
valuable papers by its members. The 
library bequeathed to the society by 
the late Thomas Dowse of Cambridge, 
in 1856, fills the lower room, in which 
the meetings of the society are held; 
and consists of 5,000 volumes in five 
editions, and costly and elegant vol- 
umes. The museum includes ancient 
and valuable portraits of old New- 
England worthies of much interest, 
and many valuable and curious relics 
and antiquities. Here are to be found 
King Philip's samp-bowl ; a gun used 
at the capture of Gov. Andros by the 
Bostonians in 1689; a silk flag' pre- 
sented by Gov. Hancock to a colored 
company called the " Bucks of Amer- 
ica ; " the swords of Miles Standish, 
Gov. Carver, Gov. Brooks, Col. 
Church, Sir William Pepperell, Capt. 
Linzee, and Col. Prescott ; an oak 
chair, said to have been made in Lon- 
don in 1 614, and brought over in the 
" Mayflower " by Edward Winslow. 
Among the portraits are those of 
Govs. Endicott, Winslow, Pownall, 
Dummer, Belcher, Winthrop, Hutch- 
inson, Strong, Gore, etc. That of Win- 
slow is believed to be a Vandyke. 
The society possesses also the diary 
of Judge Sewell, who presided at the 
witchcraft-trials in 1692 ; and the earli- 
est issues of the first American news- 
paper. The society was founded in 
1 791, by a few gentlemen who were 
interested in American history, with 



HOLLIS-STREET CHURCH 



227 



HOLLIS-STREET CHURCH 



the object of preserving for reference 
all books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and 
other materials containing historical 
facts. For several years after its or- 
ganization, it met in the attic of Fan- 
euil Hall. Afterwards rooms were oc- 
cupied in Hamilton Place, then in 
Franklin Street ; and in 1833 removal 
was made to the present quarters. 
Within a few years the building has 
been entirely rebuilt in a most sub- 
stantial manner, and made thoroughly 
fireproof. The membership of the so- 
ciety is limited to 100, but the library 
may be used for reference by any one. 
It is particularly rich in local histories, 
and has a valuable collection of his- 
tories of the civil war. The affairs 
of the society are directed by a coun- 
cil of the officers and an executive com- 
mittee of five. The president is Robert 
C. Winthrop, who has held that office 
for more than 26 consecutive years. 
The librarian is Dr. Samuel A. Green, 
mayor of Boston in 1882. There are 
also two assistant-librarians. 

Hollis-street Church (Congrega- 
tional Unitarian), Hollis Street, be- 
tween Washington and Tremont. This 
is one of the many Boston churches 
with a most interesting history. In 
1730 "His Excellency Jonathan Bel- 
cher, esq., chaplain-general and gov- 
ernor-in-chief in and over His Majes- 
ty's province of the Massachusetts Bay, 
made a motion unto William Pain, esq., 
that if he, with a covenant member, 
would associate themselves together 
and build a house for the public wor- 
ship of God on a piece of land belong- 
ing to His Excellency in Hollis Street 
(at the south part of Boston), he would 
make them a present of said land for 
that use." In accordance with this, 
William Pain and sundry others met 
together, subscribed the sum of ;£ 1,030, 
and appointed a building-committee, 
who proceeded to erect a wooden 
structure 60 feet in length, and 40 in 
width, with a steeple at the north end 
11 feet square. In this first Hollis- 
street meeting-house there were 40 



pews on the lower floor and 9 in the 
gallery. The whole cost of the build- 
ing was ^2,057, y. 3<r/. The pews were 
valued for sale at £ 2,257, and pew No. 
1 was presented to the governor. The 
house was dedicated June 17, 1752, by 
Rev. Dr. Sewall. The first minister 
settled was Rev. Mather Byles, "a 
Tory, wit, and scholar." His salary 
began at £2, 10s. per week. In 1741 
land was purchased, and a parsonage- 
house built near the church. The 
minister's salary was increased from 
year to year, until in 1757 it reached 
;£n per week. Dr. Byles's course 
after a while brought him into disfavor 
with his people, and in 1776 his pas- 
torate was brought to a close by his 
dismissal. This entry appears on the 
records : " The standing committee 
proceeded to consider various reports 
concerning the conduct of Rev. Dr. 
Mather Byles since the commencement 
of hostilities by the British troops, and 
the following articles (among others) 
were voted to be just matters of com- 
plaint against him : (1) His associating 
and spending a considerable portion of 
his time with the officers of the British 
army, having them frequently at his 
house, and lending them his glasses for 
the purpose of viewing the works erect- 
ing for our defence ; (2) That he treated 
the public calamity with lightness ; (3) 
Meeting before and after service with 
a number of Our inveterate enemies at 
a certain place in King Street called 
Tory Hall ; (4) That he prayed in pub- 
lic that America might submit to grate 
Britain." The Tory doctor was dis- 
missed Aug. 14, 1776, and subsequently 
he was obliged to flee the town. During 
the siege of Boston the church was used 
as a barrack by the British. The sec- 
ond minister was settled in 1777, — 
Rev. Ebenezer Wight, at a salary of 
^10 a week and his board. In 1787 
the meeting-house was burned down ; 
and until 1788, when it was rebuilt, the 
society worshipped in the Old South. 
In 1788 also Mr. Wight resigned. The 
second meeting-house was also a wood- 
en structure, built at a cost of ,£ 1,800. 



HOLLIS-BTREET CHURCH 



228 



HOLTON PROTESTANT PAUPER-FUND 



It stood until 1809, when it was pulled 
down ; and a third meeting-house — the 
present structure — was built in 1810. 
After the removal of the old building, 
and until the completion of the new, 
the society again worshipped in the 
Old South. Towards the close of the 
last century, the society, in common 
with so many others in the town, be- 
came Unitarian. Rev. Samuel West 
succeeded Mr. Wight as pastor in 1789, 
and he was the first of the long line of 
Unitarian clergymen who have since 
occupied the pulpit. Mr. West died 
in 1808, and was succeeded the follow- 
ing year by Rev. Horace Holley, who 
continued pastor until 1818, when he 
was in turn succeeded by the famous 
Rev. John Pierpont, a man of brilliant 
intellect, strong opinions, which he ex- 
pressed with freedom and courage, re- 
gardless of the opposition they encoun- 
tered, and tenacious in maintaining 
whatever position he took. The first 
15 years of his pastorate passed tran- 
quilly, but thereafter his career was 
stormy ; a portion of his society bit- 
terly opposing his position and course, 
especially on the question of anti-slave- 
ry. In 1838 a succession of meetings 
were occupied in discussing his course, 
and the church was sharply divided. 
In 1832 a majority of two carried a 
formal request that he should resign. 
This he declined to do. A sharp cor- 
respondence ensued between Mr. Pier- 
pont and the standing committee of 
the church. The matter was then re- 
ferred to an ecclesiastical council, 
which heard the various charges, and 
dismissed them, exonerating the pas- 
tor : meanwhile his salary was with- 
held, and he sued the society for it; 
and finally, when he had obtained 
judgment in the Supreme Court, and 
payment of his claim secured, he vol- 
untarily resigned, and the warfare end- 
ed. Rev. Dr. Fosdick was the next 
pastor, installed in May, 1846. He 
resigned the following year, as the so- 
ciety, then heavily in debt, could not 
pay his salary. Towards the close of 
1848 Rev. Thomas Starr King was set- 



tled as the pastor, with a salary of 
$3,000 a year ; and under his ministry 
the society shook off its load of debt 
and greatly prospered. He was an 
eloquent and earnest preacher, and in 
other respects a most brilliant man. 
In i860, his health failing, he went to 
California for a rest and vacation; and 
towards the close of 1861 he wrote to 
the Holiis-street people, that he be- 
lieved it his duty to stay there, and do 
what he could for the cause of the 
North in the struggle then so fierce 
between the free and the slavery 
States. So he remained in California; 
and by his patriotic work and his elo- 
quent speech he did much towards 
preventing that State from ranging it- 
self on the side of the South. On Oct. 
5, 1862, Rev. George L. Chaney was in- 
stalled as pastor of the Holiis-street 
Church. He resigned in 1878 ; and 
after the pulpit had been vacant for 
some time, the present pastor, Rev. H. 
Bernard Carpenter, was engaged. The 
society voted, in the winter of 1882, to 
dispose of its historic old church- 
building, and rebuild in the Back-bay 
district. [See Unitarianism and Uni- 
tarian (Congregational) Churches] 

Holton Protestant Pauper-fund. 

— A bequest of James Holton "to the 
inhabitants of the town of Brighton," 

— who also gave the Holton library 
[see Brighton District], — " to be an- 
nually expended forever in purchasing 
and distributing provisions among poor 
and indigent Protestant families, in 
said town of Brighton, on Thanksgiv- 
ing or other holidays, or just previous 
to such holidays, to the end that such 
poor Protestant families may have the 
means, in some degree, of enjoying 
such holidays in common with their 
fellow-citizens ; and I specially direct, 
that, in such periodical distributions, 
unmarried Protestant females, who are 
poor or needy, shall receive a liberal 
share of provisions, and also other 
articles of comfort, such as said dis- 
tributors shall deem to be most con- 
ducive to the comfort and happiness 



HOMES 



229 



HOME FOR INTEMPERATE WOMEN 



of that lone class of citizens." Since 
annexation this fund has been adminis- 
tered by the overseers of the poor [see 
Ova- seers of the Poor]. The income 
annually for this trust is $1,500. 

Homes. — See Asylums and Homes. 

Home for Destitute Catholic Chil- 
dren, on Harrison Avenue, East-Con- 
cord, and Stoughton Streets. This is 
maintained by the " Association for the 
protection of destitute Catholic chil- 
dren," organized in 1864; its domestic 
affairs being in charge of the Sisters of 
Charity [see Sisters of Charity, under 
Catholic Religious Orders'], The Home 
and the work of the association grew 
out of the Eliot Charity School, for 
some time conducted at No. 9 High 
Street. Soon after the Sisters of Char- 
ity assumed the direction of the institu- 
tion, which was in 1866, the Home was 
removed to No. 10 Common Street; 
and the next move was to the present 
location, the building being erected in 
1870. The existing Home-building is 
well arranged for its purpose. It is 
175 feet in length, 50 feet in depth, and 
three stories high, with a French roof. 
It has school-rooms, play-rooms, dor- 
mitories, infirmaries, bath-rooms, and 
dining-rooms, affording ample accom- 
modation for more than 200 children. 
The total number of children received 
and cared for during 1882 was about 
600 ; and the total number since its es- 
tablishment, about 5,000. Children of 
any creed, color, or nativity, are admit- 
ted ; it is a home for the destitute or 
friendless little ones of all kinds. Here 
they are instructed and cared for by 
the Sisters of Charity until returned 
to their friends, placed in situations, 
or provided with good Catholic homes. 
Care is exercised in all cases where 
any are sought for adoption ; and per- 
son desiring to adopt are required to 
bring recommendations from their par- 
ish-priest. The Home is supported 
altogether by voluntary subscriptions, 
and an annual charity-ball is given for 
its benefit. About $13,000 are spent 



yearly in maintaining the Home, and 
the cost of each child averages $1.33 
per week. 

Home for Intemperate "Women 
(The Massachusetts), at No. 41 
Worcester Street. Incorporated in 
March, 188 1. This is a refuge for those 
who desire to reform, or who it is be- 
lieved can be reformed. The plan on 
which it is managed corresponds with 
that of the Washingtonian Home for 
men [see Washingtonian Home]. It is 
in charge of a matron, Mrs. Charpiot ; 
medical attendance is furnished, the 
theory being that intemperance is to 
some extent a disease ; and there are 
paid superintendents of the different 
departments. The institution has been 
full since its opening. Up to the close 
of 1882, there had been 262 inmates in 
all, of whom 63 were natives of Mas- 
sachusetts, 35 of other States, and 164 
from other nations. There were 47 
who did general housework, 39 house- 
keepers, and other occupations were 
represented in much smaller propor- 
tions; 138 were single, 51 married, and 
73 were widows. Between the ages of 
15 and 20, there were 22 inmates; 21 
to 30 years, 88 ; 31 to 40, 83 ; 41 to 50, 54 ; 
51 to '60, 10; 61 to 70, 1 ; 82, 1. There 
have been 124 provided with situations ; 
returned to their homes, 57 ; sent to 
hospitals and asylums, 39 ; discharged 
as hopeless, 46; died, 1. It is the 
custom of the matron to visit the Mu- 
nicipal Court regularly, and through 
the probation-officer obtain permission 
to take to the Home such women as 
look as if they could be reformed. 
Then baths and medicine are given 
them ; they are given work, and so 
make return for what is done for them. 
Situations are found for them, — their 
employers being always acquainted 
with their history ; and when their en- 
gagements expire, and they return to 
the city, Mrs. Charpiot always looks 
out for them, and helps to keep them 
from falling back into intemperance. 
Religious worship is always observed 
in the family. The building in which 



HOMEOPATHIC HOSPITAL 

the Home is located is the property of 
the association. 

Homoeopathic Hospital (The 
Massachusetts). — East-Concorcl 
Street. Chartered in 1855, this insti- 
tution came within a single vote in 
the State senate of receiving generous 
State aid. Had this been given, the 
hospital would have entered upon its 
work at once ; but failing of this, it re- 
mained inactive until 1870. A small 
house was then hired, at No. 14 Bur- 
roughs Place; and, fitted up with 14 
beds, it was opened as a hospital in 
January, 187 1. In November of the 
same year 8 of the prominent homoeo- 
pathic physicians in the city were sum- 
moned for trial, and expulsion from 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, for 
" conduct unbecoming and unworthy 
an honorable man and a member of 
the society." Although not so ex- 
pressed, this was aimed at members 
believing in and practising homoeop- 
athy. An injunction from the Supreme 
Court prevented a summary expulsion 
of members for this cause, and the sub- 
ject was warmly discussed in the pub- 
lic journals. The great interest thus 
excited by this attempted action of the 
society toward the homoeopaths re- 
sulted in a public fair in aid of the 
hospital, which realized more than $80,- 
000 for its funds. Land was secured 
on East-Concord Street, near the City 
Hospital, and a fine and commodious 
building was erected, containing 40 
beds. This was opened for patients 
in May, 1876. In 1881 an additional 
tract of land was conveyed to the hos- 
pital by the city, which will be sufficient 
for the extensions already needed and 
contemplated. Upwards of 200 patients 
were treated in 1882, and more than 
1,700 since the hospital was opened. 
Col. Charles R. Codman is the presi- 
dent, and Miss Ellen Frothingham sec- 
retary. 

Homoeopathic Medical Dispens- 
ary (The). — No. 14 Burroughs Place; 
Charity Building, Chardon Street ; and 
the Medical-college building, East- 



23O HOMEOPATHIC MEDICAL SOCIETY 

Concord Street. Chartered in 1856, 
and opened to the public in 1857. At 
first it was supported by private sub- 
scriptions ; but in March, 1859, a fair 
was held in Music Hall, which in five 
days netted the sum of $13,100. The 
income of this, with occasional dona- 
tions, has since sustained the dispens- 
ary. It has three branches, as stated 
above. In 1882, 13,000 patients were 
treated ; and since its organization the 
whole number has been about 140,000, 
who have received over 300,000 pre- 
scriptions gratuitously. Every depart- 
ment is free to the poor. The West- 
End branch, in the Charity Building 
[see Charity Building\, Chardon Street, 
is open daily from 10 to 12, and, in 
addition to the general department, 
has one under the care of women 
physicians, for the diseases of their sex. 
There are connected with the dis- 
pensary 36 physicians, all of whom do 
their work without pay. Otis Clapp 
is the president of the corporation, Dr. 
I. T. Talbot secretary, and Dr. J. W. 
Clapp treasurer. 

Homoeopathic Medical Society 
(The Massachusetts). — The princi- 
ple in medicine expressed by the phrase 
Similia similibus curantur was known 
to the earliest writers in medicine; but 
it was first considered as a basis for all 
curative-drug action in 1790, by Sam- 
uel Hahnemann, who, from that time 
till his death in 1844, devoted himself 
to the development of the system which 
he called homoeopathy. In 1S25 Plans 
Christian Gram, a native of Boston 
though educated in the University of 
Copenhagen, first introduced this sys- 
tem into America. In 1833 Dr. Con- 
stantine Hening, one of its strongest 
supporters, came to this country, and 
practised in Philadelphia until his death 
in 1881. In 1835 a medical college was 
established in Allentown, Penn., to 
teach this system. In 1838 Dr. Samuel 
Gregg of Medford became a convert to 
homoeopathy. Soon after, Dr. Josiah 
Flagg of Boston, Dr. Charles Wild of 
Brookline, and Dr. C. M. Weld of 



HORACE MANN STATUE 



231 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Jamaica Plain, adopted its principles ; 
and in 1840 they, with others, formed a 
medical society known as the " Homoe- 
opathic Fraternity," which met at the 
houses of its members in turn on the 
" Monday evening next preceding the 
full of the moon." At these meetings 
the knowledge gained of this new and 
strange system of medicine was mutu- 
ally imparted by i,ts members. In 1856 
the membership had increased to nearly 
70 members, who were incorporated 
by the State as the Massachusetts 
Homoeopathic Medical Society. It 
holds its meetings semi-annually, in 
April and October, and has a member- 
ship of 230. It also publishes each 
year a volume of reports of its trans- 
actions. There is also a Boston Ho- 
moeopathic Medical Society, which 
holds its meetings in the Medical Col- 
lege of the Boston University, East- 
Concord Street [see Boston Univer- 
sity}, on the second Thursday of each 
month. It has 100 members. 

Horace Mann Statue. — See Mann, 
Horace, Statue of. 

Horse-Cars. — See Street-Railways. 

Horticultural Society (The Mas- 
sachusetts). — Headquarters in Hor- 
ticultural Hall building, on Tremont 
Street, between Brcmfield Street and 
Montgomery Place. Organized March 
17, 1829, and incorporated the follow- 
ing month, this is the oldest horticul- 
tural society, with a single exception, 
— the Pennsylvania Society, — in the 
country. It has always maintained a 
foremost position among American so- 
cieties of its class, and has done more 
than any other for the intelligent de- 
velopment of horticulture over a large 
field. It has also lent its influence 
to forward several educational enter- 
prises and public improvements ; its 
chief work in the latter direction be- 
ing the establishment of the beautiful 
cemetery of Mount Auburn. It began 
with a membership of 140 during its 
first year, including many of the lead- 
ing citizens of that day ; and its total 



membership has been about 3,000, in- 
cluding a large number of honorary 
and corresponding members. Gen. 
Henry A. S. Dearborn of Roxbury 
was the first president of the society, 
Cheever Newhall of Boston the first 
treasurer, Dr. Jacob Bigelow of Bos- 
ton the first corresponding secretary, 
and Robert L. Emmons of Boston the 
first recording secretary. The society 
was organized with these officers and 
38 councillors. The first annual exhi- 
bition was held in September of its 
first year ; and the custom of weekly 
exhibitions through all but the mid- 
winter months was that year begun, 
and it has since been continued with- 
out break. Diplomas and liberal pre- 
miums are offered for the best exhibits 
of plants, flowers, and fruits, at these 
weekly and annual exhibitions. The 
movement for the establishment of 
Mount-Auburn Cemetery was begun 
before the formation of this society, 
but nothing practical was accomplished 
until it took hold of the matter. The 
first plan embraced an experimental 
garden, as well as a cemetery ; and it 
was this project that the society 
adopted. The first suggestion came 
from Dr. Jacob Bigelow, and was pro- 
posed to a number of gentlemen, whom 
he invited to meet him, in the winter 
of 1825, at his house, then in Summer 
Street. At this time the idea of a sub- 
urban cemetery was new to this coun- 
try, nothing of the kind being then in 
existence. Mount Auburn was then 
known as " Stone's Woods," and was 
much frequented on account of its 
rural attractions, and the scenery about 
it, by students of Harvard as well as 
others. The name of " Sweet Auburn " 
was given it by a couple of Harvard 
men, and after it became the cemetery 
the name of Auburn was formally at- 
tached to it. The Horticultural Soci- 
ety indorsed the project for the Experi- 
mental Garden and Cemetery here in 
1 83 1 ; purchasing the property from 
Charles W. Brimmer, jun., who had in- 
tended to make a country-seat of it. 
The purchase was perfected after sub- 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



232 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



scribers to 100 lots of 300 feet square, 
at the rate of $60 each, had been ob- 
tained. The Act of the Legislature 
authorizing the society to hold land 
for a rural cemetery, and to lay it out 
and dedicate it for that purpose, was 
obtained in June of the same year ; and 
in September following the place was 
formally dedicated, Judge Story de- 
livering the address, Rev. Dr. Ware 
making the prayer, and a hymn written 
by Rev. Dr. Pierpont being a feature 
of the occasion. Forest-trees, plants, 
and flower-beds were set out, and av- 
enues, paths, and walks constructed; 
and at subsequent exhibitions of the 
society noteworthy exhibits from the 
Experimental Garden and rural ceme- 
tery were made. The first interment 
in the cemetery was of a child, in 1832 ; 
and the first monument erected was to 
the memory of Hannah Adams of Med- 
field, who achieved some distinction as 
a writer of historical works, and who 
was one of the earliest female writers 
in the country. The first gateway was 
designed by Dr. Bigelow, and stood un- 
til 1842, when the present stone gates 
of similar design replaced it. The 
first receiving-tomb, of granite, was 
set up in 1832. In 1835 Mount Au- 
burn was sold by the society to the 
proprietors of the lots within it, and the 
Proprietors of Mount-Auburn Ceme- 
tery were then incorporated. This 
change was not effected without some 
friction between the two organizations ; 
but all differences were in time adjust- 
ed through indentures entered into, 
the first in 1858, and the second in 1869. 
The first Horticultural Hall established 
by the society was at No. 52 North-Mar- 
ket Street. In 1831 the society removed 
to Joy's Building, — succeeded by the 
present Rogers Building on Washing- 
ton Street, opposite the head of State 
Street,— next to No. 81 Cornhill, then 
to No. 23 Tremont Row, next into the 
old Latin-school building on School 
Street, and in 1845 into its own building 
on the site of the old Latin-school 
building, which is now occupied by the 
Parker House. This first building of 



the Horticultural Society was the first 
ever erected by such a society. It was 
a granite-front building, and was after 
the prevailing style of architecture in 
town at the time. In front of the first 
story were huge Doric piers ; and, of 
that above, fluted Corinthian pilasters 
surmounted by entablature and pedi- 
ment. On the ground-floor was a seed- 
store, and the large hall of the society 
was on the floor above. This, also after 
the prevailing style, which was carried 
to such extremes [see Architecture], was 
decorated with Corinthian pilasters. 
This building was dedicated on May 
15, 1845. The orator of the occasion 
was Hon. George Lunt; and Mar- 
shall P. Wilder, then the president of 
the society, delivered an address. This 
building early proved insufficient for 
the needs of the society, and before 
many years a movement was begun to 
secure larger quarters. In 1859 the 
School-street building was sold to 
Harvey D. Parker, of the Parker 
House, who thereupon removed it, 
and built in its place the wing of his 
hotel now occupied on the first floor 
by the ladies' dining-room ; and rooms 
were secured for the society on the 
corner of Washington and West 
Streets. In 1863 the present estate 
was purchased (then known as the 
Montgomery House) ; and on Aug. 18, 
1864, the corner-stone of the present 
building was laid. In September of 
the following year the building was 
completed, and was dedicated on the 
1 6th of that month. On that occasion 
Rev. Dr. Frederick D. Huntington 
offered the prayer; and Charles M. 
Hovey, the president of the society, 
delivered the dedicatory address. The 
building is of Concord white granite ; 
and the front is highly ornamented, 
the central division decorated with an 
order of coupled columns repeated in 
pilasters behind, Doric in the first story, 
Ionic in the second, and Corinthian in 
the third. Surmounting the central 
division of the facade is a granite statue 
of Ceres ; and on the north and south 
buttresses of the second story in the 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



2 33 



HOSPITALS 



front of the building are other statues 
cut in granite, — one of Flora, and the 
other of Pomona. These statues were 
modelled by Martin Milmore. On the 
street-floor of the building are stores ; 
and on the second and third respec- 
tively the public halls of the society, 
reached from the street by a flight of 
broad marble steps. The first is called 
the Lower Hall. It is ornamented with 
portraits and busts of a number of the 
founders of the society, benefactors, 
and prominent members. The second, 
or Upper Hall, is reached by stairways 
on either side of the building. This is, 
like the other hall, large, well lighted, 
attractively decorated, and adorned with 
portraits. "The latterinclude portraits of 
the presidents of the society, and a full- 
length portrait of Dr. Jacob Bigelow, 
the projector of Mount Auburn. The 
Lower Hall is used for the weekly 
shows of the society, and both for the 
annual shows. Both are also frequent- 
ly let as public halls for various classes 
of entertainments. [See Halls7[ The 
library-room is the front of the second 
story. The society has here a large 
and valuable library, and its collection 
was begun very soon after the establish- 
ment of the organization. It now 
numbers about 4,000 volumes. The 
president of the society now is Francis 
B, Hayes. The following is the list of 
its founders : Enoch Bartlett of Rox- 
bury, Andrews Breed of Lynn, Henry 
A. Breed of Lynn, Zebedee Cook, jun., 
of Dorchester, H. A. S. Dearborn of 
Roxbury, Samuel Downer of Roxbury, 
Robert L. Emmons of Boston, Benja- 
min V. French of Boston, John M. 
Ives of Salem, William Kenrick of 
Newton, John Lowell of Roxbury, 
Robert Manning of Salem, Cheever 
Newhall of Dorchester, John B. Rus- 
sell of Boston, William H. Sumner of 
Dorchester, and Jonathan Winship of 
Brighton. The admission-fee was at 
first $5, annual assessment $2, and 
cost of life-membership $30. The ad- 
mission-fee at the present time is $10, 
with assessments and cost of life- 
membership as before. 



Hospitals. — Following is a list of 
the various hospitals within the city 
limits, each of which will be found 
described in detail in separate para- 
graphs elsewhere in this book. With 
the exception of the City Hospital, the 
funds by which these are supported 
are largely, and in many cases wholly, 
accumulated from private subscrip- 
tions of the benevolent. 

Adams Nervine Asylum. For persons of 
both sexes affected with nervous diseases. 
West-Roxbu'-y district, Centre Street. 

Boston City Hospital. For both sexes. City 
institution. Out-patients treated medically and 
surgically. Harrison Avenue, opposite Worces- 
ter Square. 

Boston Lying-in Hospital. No. 24 McLean 
Street. 

Carney Hospital. General Hospital for both 
sexes. South Boston, Old-Harbor Street. 

Channing Home. For women and children, 
chiefly incurables. No. 30 McLean Street. 

Children's Hospital. Medical and surgical 
treatment to children from 2 to 12. Depart- 
ment for out-patients. Huntington Avenue, 
Back-bay district. 

Consumptives' Home. For both sexes. 
Homoeopathic treatment. Roxbury district, 
corner of Warren Street and Blue-hill Avenue. 

Free Hospital for Women. For treatment of 
diseases of Women No. 60 East-Springfield 
Street. 

House of the Good Samaritan. For treat- 
ment of women and children, especially incura- 
bles. No 6 McLean Street. 

Massachusetts General Hospital. For both 
sexes. Out-patients treated. Dental infirmary 
and training-school for nurses connected with 
hospital. Blossom Street, at west end of 
McLean Street. 

Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital. For 
both sexes. Homoeopathic treatment. East- 
Concord Street, between Harrison Avenue and 
Albany Street. 

New- England Hospital for Women and Chil- 
dren. Under the charge of women. Offers 
young women studying medicine opportunities 
for clinical study which other hospitals afford to 
young men. Codman Avenue, between Wash- 
ington and Amory Streets. 

Small-pox Hospital. Near rear entrance of 
Forest-hills Cemetery, Canterbury Street. 

Spinal Home. For both sexes afflicted with 
spinal diseases. Homoeopathic treatment. 
Roxbury district, corner Warren Street and 
Blue-hill Avenue. 

St. Elizabeth's Hospital. For women. No. 
78 Waltham Street.. 

St. Joseph's Home for Sick and Destitute 
Servant-girls. For incurables especially. No. 
41 to 45 East-Brookline Street. 

St. Mary's Lying-in Hospital (and Infant- 
Asylum) Dorchester district, Bowdoin Street. 



HOSPITAL NEWSPAPER SOCIETY 



234 



The United-States Naval Hospital 
connected with the Charlestown Navy- 
yard is situated in Chelsea. The 
United-States Marine-hospital service 
is also situated here ; its Boston office 
is at the Custom House. 

Hospital Newspaper Society. — 
A very worthy organization, whose 
aim is to supply the inmates of hos- 
pitals, insane-asylums, and the State 
penal institutions, with good reading- 
matter. Boxes are placed in the rail- 
way-stations for the collection of 
newspapers, magazines, and books, 
which are promptly distributed among 
these institutions. Reading-matter for 
this purpose is also received at No. 
113 Revere Street. In the course of 
a year many thousand newspapers and 
magazines, and large numbers of 
books, are collected and distributed in 
this way. Of late years Christmas 
and Easter cards have also been re- 
ceived in large numbers, and put to 
this good service. 

Hotels. — The number of hotels of 
all classes in the city is not large. Ex- 
clusive of the many which are classed 
as family hotels [see Apartment 
Houses], there are but 70. Of this 
number, however, a large proportion 
are of the first or second class ; and 
the third-class are, many of them, 
superior to the second-class hotels in 
some other American cities. Among 
the first-class, are many houses which 
have a wide reputation. Of those of 
this class now in existence, the oldest 
are the United-States Hotel, the Tre- 
mont, American, and Revere Houses. 
One of the older houses is also the 
comfortable old Quincy House; and 
the old Adams House, recently demol- 
ished to make way for the newer 
Adams House, was of venerable age, 
and succeeded one of the famous tav- 
erns of the earlier clays. Of later 
date than any of the above, but them- 
selves full of years, are the Parker 
House and Young's Hotel ; and of 
comparatively recent date are the Hotel 
Brunswick and the Hotel Vendome, 



elegant hotels in the Back-bay district, 
modern in their build, and sumptuous 
in their interior decorations, fittings, 
and furnishings, well entitled to be 
called, as they are, grand and palatial. 
These several hotels are described, 
with sketches of their history, in 
separate paragraphs in this book. The 
present modern hotels of the city have 
entirely superseded the old-time inns, 
as they themselves superseded the tav- 
erns of still earlier times. The pres- 
ent are stately structures, with every 
modern convenience, every comfort, 
and every luxury ; but they of neces- 
sity lack the good cheer and homely 
hospitality of the old-fashioned inn, 
whose ruddy-faced landlord (it is a 
tradition that the old-time landlord in- 
variably was ruddy-faced, with a gener- 
ous girth and comfortable proportions, 
indicating familiar acquaintance with 
his own good cheer) himself came to 
the inn-door, and welcomed his guests 
as they stepped out of the great lum- 
bering stage-coaches at their journey's 
end. Now it is the elegant and impos- 
ing hotel-clerk, behind the impressive 
office-counter, who receives the guest : 
the old-time landlord has passed away, 
with the sanded tavern-floor, the 
"tap-room," and all the mellowing 
though rude comforts of those dead 
and gone times. — The first tavern in 
Boston was kept by one Samuel Cole, 
in the neighborhood of what is now 
Merchants' Row. It was opened as 
early as 1634, and called an " Ordi- 
naire." Then after a time came the 
Ship Tavern, the Blue Bell and Indian 
Queen, the Elephant Tavern, the Red 
Lion, the Blue Sun, the Castle, the 
King's Head, the Green Dragon, and 
the Bunch of Grapes. Famous were 
some of these taverns in their day. 
The Ship stood on North Street. 
When it was kept by John Vyal, and 
long after, it was known also as the 
Noah's Ark. During Vyal's proprie- 
torship this tavern, says Drake, " was 
a favorite resort of the king's commis- 
sioners, who were sent over by Charles 
II. after the restoration, with instruc- 



235 



tions to visit the New-England colo- 
nies, and adjust all matters of dispute." 
The old Ship was at one time the prop- 
erty of the father of Gov. Hutchinson, 
and was given by him to his daughter 
Hannah, who married Rev. Samuel 
Mather. It stood until 1866. The 
Red-Lion Inn stood also on North 
Street, at the corner of Richmond. 
It was once kept by Nicholas Upshall, 
a man of substance, an owner of con- 
siderable property, and one of the first 
members of the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery. He was a Quaker, 
and, says Drake, "was one of the 
first to feel the rigor of the perse- 
cution of the Quakers. He was ban- 
ished, imprisoned, and at length in 
his old age died a martyr to the 
faith which, amid all his sufferings 
and hardships, he seems stoutly to 
have upheld. . . . His first banish- 
ment was for an attempt to bribe the 
keeper of Boston jail to give food to 
two starving Quaker women in his 
charge." Upshall was buried in 
Copp's-hill burying-ground. The ori- 
ginal Sun Tavern stood on Dock 
Square, and the last of several which 
bore this name was on Batterymarch 
Street. The King's Head stood at 
the corner of North and Fleet Streets. 
The Green Dragon, the most famous 
of all the earlier taverns, which came 
to be the secret headquarters of the 
Sons of Liberty, the patriots who 
planned the Revolution, stood on 
Union Street ; and its site is now 
marked by a tablet on the front of 
the modern building standing in its 
place, which bears a reproduction of 
the Green Dragon, which hung from 
the iron crane in front of the old 
tavern as its sign [see Old Land- 
marks}. The Star Inn stood nearer 
the present Hanover Street, on Union, 
and began its career in 1646. The 
Blue Bell and Indian Queen used to 
stand on what" is now Washington 
Street, nearly opposite the Province 
House [see Old Laitdmarks]. It stood 
from as early as 1673 to 1820, when 
the Washington Coffee-house was built 



in its place. This also long ago disap- 
peared. It used to be the starting- 
place of the old Roxbury hourlies. 
The Blue Anchor Tavern used to 
stand near the site of the present 
" Globe " newspaper building. It 
dated from as early as 1691. The 
Bite Tavern, whose original name was 
the Bight of Logan, stood on Dock 
Square, and in its later days was a 
famous inn for marketmen. Of taverns 
of a later date, the St. George's, or 
George, the British Coffee-house, the 
Royal Exchange, the Lion, the Lamb, 
and the White Horse taverns were 
among the most famous. The George 
stood at the Neck, on what is now 
Tremont Street extending to the Rox- 
bury line. It commanded a pleasant 
view of the town and the harbor, and 
must have been a cheery and inviting 
place. Here the royal governor Burnet 
was received on his arrival. Here in 
1721 the General Court met for a while, 
" perhaps on account of the prevalence 
of the small-pox in Boston in that 
year, when it raged with frightful vio- 
lence," says Drake; and in 1730 the 
Probate Court was held here. In 1769 
its name was changed to the King's 
Arms. In 1775 it was the American 
advanced post, and in that year was 
burned by the British. Several years 
before, there was a King's Arms tavern 
on what is now Exchange Street. 
The British Coffee-house and the 
Bunch of Grapes stood on State Street. 
The repeal of the Stamp Act was cele- 
brated in these taverns. From the 
Bunch of Grapes some early historians 
contend that the party disguised as In- 
dians, who threw the tea overboard, 
started [see Tea Party]. The Royal 
Exchange tavern stood on the corner 
of Exchange and State Streets. After 
the burning of the Town House in 
1747, the General Court was held here 
for a few days. The quarrel between 
Henry Phillips and Benjamin Wood- 
bridge, which ended in the duel on the 
Common [see Common], began here. 
At a later period the Exchange was 
the regular stopping-place of the Prov- 



236 



HOTEL BRUNSWICK 



idence stages. The Roebuck Coffee- 
house stood near Faneuil Market - 
house. It was evidently a rough place. 
Shurtleff speaks of " poor Henry 
Phillips (Stonehewer Davis), [who] 
was so uselessly hung on the 13th of 
March, 1817, for killing Gaspard Den- 
negri " at this tavern. The Lion, 
Lamb, and White Horse taverns stood 
near together, on what is now Wash- 
ington Street, between West and Boyl- 
ston Streets. The Lion stood on the 
site of the new Bijou Theatre [see 
Bijou, Theatre] ; the Lamb, on the site 
of the new Adams House ; and the 
White Horse, nearly opposite what is 
now Hayward Place. The Lion dis- 
played a swinging sign, with a rampant 
British lion painted on it. From the 
Lamb the first stage-coach of the 
Providence and Boston line started in 
1767. The White Horse displayed 
a large sign, with a spirited white 
charger as its most conspicuous feature. 
At the close of the last century Hatch's 
tavern stood on Tremont Street, at 
the corner of Mason. The great 
Exchange Coffee-house, on State and 
Congress Streets, which was built 
early in the present century, was in- 
tended to eclipse any thing ever before 
attempted in public houses. Charles 
Bulfinch was the architect. It was 
seven stories in height ; its front 
on Congress Street, 132 feet long, 
was ornamented with marble Ionic 
pilasters, crowned with a Corinthian 
pediment, and on top was a dome. 
It contained within, a large hall for 
merchants' gatherings, a ball-room, a 
Masonic hall, a great dining-room cap- 
able of seating 300, and 210 rooms 
for guests. It was two years in build- 
ing, cost half a million dollars, and 
did not pay. It was a speculation 
ahead of the times, in which many 
lost. Its career, though short, was 
eventful. Opened in 1808, in 1818 it 
was destroyed by fire. The great per- 
sonages who had visited the city during 
that time had been among its guests, 
and in the great dining-room there had 
been many noteworthy gatherings. 



Capt. Hull made his headquarters 
here when at this port during the war 
of 18 1 2 ; the news of the treaty of 
peace was celebrated by a great 
dinner here, at which Harrison Gray 
Otis presided, on Feb. 22, 1815 ; and 
President Monroe, on the occasion of 
his visit to Boston in 1817, stopped at 
the Exchange, and on the Fourth he 
was entertained here at a banquet at 
which a most distinguished company 
was present. During its existence it 
was the central gathering-place, and the 
business headquarters with many of 
the townspeople. Most of the stages 
made it either a starting-place or 
stopping-place, and it was the town's 
general news-centre. After it was 
burned, a new but less pretentious 
coffee-house was built in its stead ; and 
this was continued as a tavern until 
1853. Among other taverns or inns 
contemporaneous with or succeed- 
ing these, were the Bromfield House, 
on Bromfield Street, which suc- 
ceeded the second Indian Queen ; 
the Pearl-street House, on Pearl 
Street. Wilde's, Doolittle's, and the 
Elm-street House, on Elm Street and 
Brattle Square, with their court-yards 
paved with cobble-stones, were, when 
the stage-lines were in their prime, 
before the advent of the railroad, the 
favorite taverns with stage-travellers, as 
the stage-headquarters were generally 
in this quarter of the town. For many 
years, however, the Portland and other 
eastward stages used to bring up at 
the, Eastern Stage House in Centre 
Street, at the North End, with an en- 
trance from North Street under a 
spacious arch. The Marlborough 
House long stood on Washington 
Street, between Bromfield and Winter 
Streets. Here, in 1825, Gen. Lafayette 
was entertained at a banquet at which 
a distinguished company was present. 
It for years flourished as a temperance 
hotel. 

Hotel Brunswick, Boylston Street, 
corner of Clarendon Street, Back-bay 
district. Situated in the midst of the 



HOTEL BRUNSWICK 



237 



HOTEL VENDOME 



elegant buildings and residences of this 
fine section of the city, the Brunswick 
is adorned and furnished accordingly, 
and is itself one of the conspicuous 
buildings of the neighborhood. The 
building covers more than half an acre 
of ground, is 224 x 125 feet, and six 
stories high with basement. Built of 
brick, with heavy sandstone trimmings, 
the front of its lower stories highly or- 
namented, its exterior is most attrac- 
tive. Of the interior the principal 
finish of the first two stories is black- 
walnut. On the right of the principal 
entrance are two parlors for the use of 
ladies, and on the left the gentlemen's 
parlor. The large dining-room is on 
the right of the ladies' entrance ; and 
there is another on the easterly side of 
the house, which was dedicated by the 
" Whittier dinner," which was given on 
the 70th anniversary of the poet's birth 
in 1877, by the proprietors of the "At- 
lantic Monthly," and at which there 
was a quite distinguished literary gath- 
ering. Both these dining-halls have 
marble-tile floors, the walls Pompeian 
red, and the ceiling frescoed to corre- 
spond. The five stories above this 
floor are divided into suites and single 
rooms, each conveniently arranged, and 
provided with every modern improve- 
ment and convenience, including open 
fire-places, beside steam-heating appa- 
ratus ; every chamber has hot and cold 
water, and every suite a bath-room. 
There are 350 rooms in all ; and the 
house has one of the most luxurious of 
the Whittier elevators. The cost of 
the building was nearly a million dol- 
lars. It was built in 1874, and enlarged 
in 1876. It was designed by Peabody 
& Stearns, and is essentially fire-proof. 
It is sumptuously furnished through- 
out, ana the main rooms and suites are 
generally extensively decorated. The 
house is a favorite one with the best 
classes ; and it always has a large num- 
ber of permanent guests in the winter 
season, including many prominent Bos- 
tonians. Many distinguished visitors to 
the city have been guests at the house. 
The proprietors are Amos Barnes and 



John W. Dunklee, both men of long 
experience in the hotel business ; and 
they have made it one of the most 
famous of Boston hotels. The hotel is 
conducted on the American plan, and 
the ordinary terms are $4.50 per day. 
Its exterior is nightly illuminated by the 
electric light. 

Hotel Vendome (The). — Com- 
monwealth Avenue, corner of Dart- 
mouth Street, Back-bay district. This 
is the newest hotel in the city, one of 
the most impressive in its outward ap- 
pearance, and one of the most sumptu- 
ous in its interior decorations, finish, 
furnishings, and appointments. It well 
deserves the appellation of " palatial." 
Its fronts are of white Tuckahoe and 
Italian marble, with elaborately carved 
windows and doors. The roof and 
towers are of wrought iron, covered 
with slate. The floors are laid upon 
iron beams and brick arches, and all 
the interior partitions are of incombus- 
tible material. The Commonwealth- 
avenue front extends 240 feet, and that 
on Dartmouth Street 125 feet; and the 
building, with its basement story and 
mansard roof, is eight stories in height. 
On the first floor is the rotunda and 
the various public rooms. The rotunda 
is paved with English encaustic tiles, 
in colors and patterns harmonizing 
with the furnishings; and it is fin- 
ished in hard woods, cathedral glass, 
and fresco-work. There are five great 
dining-rooms, an elegant banquet-hall 
30 by no feet, and several grand par- 
lors. These are all reached, not only by 
the main entrance, but by private en- 
trance on Commonwealth Avenue; so 
that clubs and parties can be enter- 
tained and served without interference 
with the regular business of the hotel. 
There is also a ladies' entrance on 
Dartmouth Street. The great dining- 
hall is richly adorned with mirrors, 
carved mahogany and cherry wood, 
frescos, and a handsome frieze. It seats 
320 persons. Each of the six upper 
stories contains 70 rooms, arranged so 
as to be used sinerlv or in suites. Everv 



HOUSE OF THE ANGEL GUARDIAN 



2 3 8 



HOWARD ATHENAEUM 



apartment has access to a spacious 
bath-room, which, as well as every gas- 
fixture, has independent ventilating- 
tubes. There are no open basins in 
the chambers, all being shut off in 
closets adjoining. Every room is pro- 
vided with an open fireplace, although 
the entire building is heated by steam. 
The registers serve a double purpose, 
supplying either ventilation or warmth, 
each obtained by simply turning a knob 
to the right or left. Two Whittier pas- 
senger-elevators, one for baggage, and 
several smaller elevators for special 
purposes, provide ample facilities for 
transit up or down. The house, in 
every part, is most luxuriously fur- 
nished ; and the parlors are decorated 
and adorned in a tasteful and elegant 
style. The Vendome is conducted on 
the American plan. The charge is $5 
a day. It is patronized by the best 
classes, and many people of distinction 
are at all seasons of the year among its 
guests. It is one of the favorite hotels 
for elegant banquets. It was built by 
Charles Whitney, at a cost of a million 
dollars, for Col. J. W. Wolcott, a land- 
lord of long experience and success, 
who has in the several hotels that have 
been under his management entertained 
large numbers of eminent personages. 

House of the Angel Guardian. — 

Established in 1851, incorporated 1853. 
No. 85 Vernon Street, Roxbury district, 
An institution for the relief, education, 
and reformation of orphan and desert- 
ed children, especially wayward boys. 
Graded schools are maintained, open 
daily forenoon and afternoon ; and 
religious instruction is given by the 
Catholic Brothers of Charity, who con- 
duct it. Places are ultimately obtained 
for the boys, where they may learn 
trades or methods of business, or with 
farmers. Visitors are admitted daily, 
from 5 to 9. About 200 is the average 
number of boys in the House. [See 
Catholic Religious Orders?^ 

House of the Good Samaritan. — 

Incorporated in i860, No. 6 McLean 
Street. An institution affording free 



hospital care and treatment to women 
and children. It has 27 beds, 10 of 
them for children. Boys only under 
six are received. Though established 
especially for chronic cases and incur- 
ables, others are occasionally received. 
Connected with the institution is a 
" clothing-club," which gives out work 
to poor women : thus they are helped, 
and garments are provided for the 
house. The institution is unsectarian 
so far as admittance of patients is con- 
cerned, they being received irrespective 
of creed or nationality ; but Episcopal 
services are regularly held. Visitors 
to patients are admitted at stated hours 
on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fri- 
days. It is directed by a board of 
lady managers. The secretary resides 
at the house, and superintends it. 

House of the Good Shepherd. — 
Established in 1867, incorporated in 
1870. Tremont Street, opposite Park- 
er-hill Avenue, Roxbury district. Its 
object is to shelter and reclaim unfor- 
tunate and abandoned women and girls, 
and to protect women and girls who 
are exposed to danger. It gives, beside 
shelter, food and employment, and in- 
struction in religion, good morals, read- 
ing, and writing. It maintains a " class 
of preservation " made up of wayward 
and insubordinate girls. It is managed 
by the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, a 
Catholic order; but its benefits and 
shelter are extended to women of all 
creeds and denominations. Since the 
opening of the house, in 1865, 2,520 
persons have been received. Of these, 
only 75 have been dismissed as incor- 
rigible ; and the large number of 1,952 
have been provided with situations or 
returned to their families. The aver- 
age number in the house is 150. A suc- 
cessful effort was made during 1882 to 
lift its debt, and increase its useful- 
ness by enlarging its dormitories. [See 
Catholic Religious Orders.] 

Howard Athenaeum. — Howard 

Street. Since 1868 a variety-theatre, 
the leading and most successful' play- 
house of its class, the Howard has 



HOWARD ATHENiETJM 



239 



HOWARD ATHENAEUM 



a history of unusual interest. In its 
palmy days, it was the representative 
theatre of the city; a favorite with 
the patrons of " the legitimate ; " and 
its stock-companies embraced many 
of the foremost actors and actresses 
of their time. It was first opened as a 
theatre, on the evening of Oct. 13, 1845, 
under the management of Thomas 
Ford. It had previously been a large, 
ill-shaped wooden structure, known as 
" Miller's Tabernacle," occupied by the 
" Millerites," or " Latter-day Saints," 
who flourished most extensively in the 
years 1843-44 [see Adventists\. The 
opening address was written by Fred- 
erick S. Hill, and was delivered by 
Mrs. H. Cramer, a London actress, 
who was a favorite at that time in 
American cities. She made her Ameri- 
can debut in 1837, at the St. Charles, 
New Orleans, as Lady Teazle, and for 
many years after was a leading actress 
on the New-York and Philadelphia 
boards. The plays on this opening 
night were " The School for Scandal " 
and " The Day after the Wedding." 
During the following winter, Feb. 25, 
the theatre was burned. It was imme- 
diately rebuilt ; and the new building, 
the present structure, was opened on 
the evening of Oct. 25, 1846, under the 
management of James H. Hackett & 
Co. The opening address on this oc- 
casion was delivered by George Van- 
denhoff ; and the plays were " The 
Rivals " and " A Chaste Salute." Wil- 
liam Warren, the famous comedian, 
who has contributed so much to the 
fame of the stage of Boston, then made 
his first appearance in Boston, as Sir 
Lucius (y Trigger. During the years 
following and preceding its opening as 
a variety- theatre, the Howard was 
managed by Thomas Ford again, Wil- 
liam F. Johnson, William L. Ayling, 
Sands, Lent, & Co., Charles R. Thorne, 
Baker and English, Wyzeman Mar- 
shall, Henry Willard, and Isaac B. 
Rich. Among the actors and actresses 
who, during this period, from time to 
time appeared on its stage, were James 
W. Wallack, jun. ; Mrs. Warner, the 



English tragedienne; Anderson, "the 
Wizard of the North ; " Lola Montez, 
Matilda Heron, the Sontag opera- 
troupe, Fannie Marsh, Edwin Adams, 
Maggie Mitchell, Helen Western, Jo- 
seph Proctor, and E. L. Davenport. A 
play by Miss Louisa M. Alcott, a lively 
farce, was once produced here in the 
early days. The last season of its 
management as a theatre for the pres- 
entation of the " legitimate," the mem- 
bers of the stock-company comprised 
the following : Harry G. Clarke, Harry 
Crisp, F. L. Keller, C. F. Nichols, 
William Scallan, J. W. Norris, Mrs. 
M. A. Farren, Miss Fannie Marsh, 
Lillie Marden, Adele Clarke. The 
stars included Cecile Rush; the Wor- 
rell Sisters, in " Under the Gas-light," 
which was first performed in Boston, 
Oct. 7, 1867 ; John Brougham, who per- 
formed " Jerry the Swell," in his five- 
act New-York local piece, " The Lot- 
tery of Life ; " Marie Zoe, Mrs. D. P. 
Bowers, Joseph Proctor, Maggie Mitch- 
ell, John E. Owens, John Brougham (a 
second engagement), and Kate Fisher. 
Dr. J. S. Jones's play of " Captain 
Lascar, the pilot of Brest," and Bouci- 
cault's " The Long Strike," had suc- 
cessful runs this season. With such a 
round of star performances, the change 
to the regular variety performance was 
by all means abrupt. The Howard 
was opened as a variety-theatre at the 
beginning of the season of 1868, under 
the management of Rich & Trowbridge. 
During the season of 1869-70, its mana- 
gers were Rich, Hart, & Trowbridge ; 
1870-71, Rich, Stetson, & Trowbridge ; 
the next season, and until 1878, Rich & 
Stetson ; during the season of 1878-79, 
B. F. Tryon, who elevated the standard 
of performances somewhat; in 1880-81, 
William Harris ; in 1881-82, William 
Harris and Isaac B. Rich; in 1882-83, 
William Harris. The Howard seats 
1,500 people, and the prices range from 
$1.00 to 35 cents. It is the favorite 
theatre with the " gallery-gods," and is 
a profitable institution. Even since it 
became a variety-theatre, the "legiti- 
mate " has occasionally returned to its 



HOWARD BENEVOLENT SOCIETY 



24O 



"HUB OF THE UNIVERSE' 



stage with signal success ; notably in 
the engagements of the Vokes family, 
which attracted most fashionable audi- 



Howard Benevolent Society 
(The). — Organized in 1812, and in- 
corporated in 1818, for the purpose of 
relieving the sick and destitute of the 
city proper, and East and South Bos- 
ton, who do not seek or receive public 
aid. At the time of its formation it 
was, with a single exception, the only 
alms-giving society in the town ; and it 
is claimed to be the pioneer in the 
field of systematic benevolence. It 
disburses about $6,000 a year in its 
charitable work. This is done without 
expense for office-rent, salaries, or paid 
visitors. Its help to its beneficiaries 
is of various kinds. It gives fuel, gro- 
ceries, and other necessities and com- 
forts, but rarely money. It has twelve 
distributers, who represent as many 
districts. The distributers and bound- 
aries of the districts are as follows : — 

District i. — East Boston. M. B. Leonard, 
M.D., 7 Meridian Street. 

District 2. — From Chelsea Ferry, through 
Hanover, Portland, and Causeway Streets, to 
Warren Bridge. Dexter W. Wiswell, 222 Han- 
over Street. 

District 3. — From Chelsea Ferry, through 
Hanover, Court, School, and Milk Streets, to 
Central Wharf. William B. Storer, 58 India 
Square. 

District 4. — From Causeway, through 
Portland, Hanover, Court, Green, and Allen 
Streets, to the water. Luther L. Jenkins, 119 
Leverett Street. 

District 5. — Through Beacon, Park, Tre- 
mont, Court, Green, and Allen Streets, to the 
water. Andrew Cushing, Room 19, Congrega- 
tional House. 

District 6. — West Street, through Tremont, 
Boylston, Berkeley, Tremont, Warrenton, and 
Washington Streets, to West Street. George 
F. Bigelow, M.D., 334 Shawmut Avenue. 

District 7. — From Central Wharf, through 
Milk, Washington, School, Tremont, West, 
Bedford, and Summer Streets, to the water. 
Charles F. Wyman, 58 India Square. 

District 8. — From the water, through 
Summer, Bedford, Washington, and Dover 
Streets, to Dover-street Bridge. Israel S. Traf- 
ton, 65 Hudson Street. 

District 9. — From Washington, through 
Dover, Tremont, Warrenton, and Washington 
Streets. Edmund T. Eastman, M.D., 293 
Shawmut Avenue. 



District 10. — Between Dover and Berke- 
ley Streets, and the old Boston and Roxbury 
line. Samuel B. Cruft, 433 Shawmut Avenue. 

District ii. — South Boston, north-west of 
C Street. Alvan Simonds, 115 Dorchester 
Avenue, South Boston. 

. District 12. — South Boston, south-east of 
C Street. Francis James, 439% Broadway, 
South Boston. 

Samuel B. Cruft, No. 433 Shawmut 
Avenue, is the president of the society ; 
and Dr. George F. Bigelow, No. 334 
Shawmut Avenue, is the secretary. 
The corporation has a seal, on which 
is inscribed, " Howard Benevolent So- 
ciety, incorporated 1818," encircled by 
the words, " Blessed is he that coii- 
sidereth the poor." 

"Hub of the Universe." — This 

other name for Boston, employed by 
good-humored critics of the "outside 
world," and by complacent Bostonians 
as well, grew out of an expression 
used by the genial " Autocrat of the 
Breakfast Table," — Dr. Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes, — in one of his famous 
" Autocrat " papers. The term origi- 
nally was, " Boston State House is the 
hub of the solar system ; " and it has 
come to be contracted and condensed 
as above. This is the bright and breezy 
passage in which the " happy thought " 
is introduced • — 

" A jaunty-looking person, who had come in 
with the young fellow they called John, — evi- 
dently a stranger, — said that there was one 
more wise man's saying that he had heard ; it 
was about our place, but he didn't know who 
said it. — A civil curiosity was manifested by 
the company to hear the fourth wise saying. I 
heard him distinctly whispering to the young 
fellow who brought him to dinner, Shall I tell 
it? to which the answer was, Go ahead! Well, 
— he said, — this was what I heard : — 

" ' Boston State House is the hub of the so- 
lar system. You couldn't pry that out of a 
Boston man if you had the tire of all creation 
straightened out for a crowbar.' 

"Sir, — said I, — I am gratified with your 
remark. It expresses with pleasing vivacity 
that which I have sometimes heard uttered with 
malignant dulness. The satire of the remark 
is essentially true of Boston, and of all other 
considerable — and inconsiderable — places with 
which I have had the privilege of being ac- 
quainted. Cockneys think London is the only 
place in the world. Frenchmen — you remem- 
ber the line about Paris, the Court, the World, 



HUMANE SOCIETY 



241 



HUNTSMEN'S CLUB 



etc. — I recollect well, by the way, a sign in that 
city which ran thus: ' Hotel de I'Univers et des 
Etats Unis; ' and as Paris is the universe to a 
Frenchman, of course the United States are 
outside of it. ' See Naples, and then die.' — It 
is quite as bad with smaller places. I have been 
about, lecturing, you know, and have found the 
following propositions to hold true of all of 
them. 

" First, The axes of the earth stick out visibly 
through the centre of each and every town or 
city. 

" Second, If more than fifty years have passed 
since its foundation, it is affectionately styled by 

the inhabitants the ' good old town of 

(whatever its name may happen to be). 

"Third, Every collection of its inhabitants 
that comes together to listen to a stranger is 
invariably declared to be a ' remarkably intelli- 
gent audience.' 

" Fourth, The climate of the place is particu- 
larly favorable to longevity. 

" Fifth, It contains several persons of vast 
talent little known to the world (one or two of 
them you may, perhaps, chance to remember, 
sent short pieces to the ' Pactolian ' some time 
since, which were ' respectfully declined'). 

" Boston is just like other places of its size; 
only perhaps, considering its excellent fish-mar- 
ket, paid fire-department, superior monthly 
publications, and correct habit of spelling the 
English language, it has some right to look 
down on the mob of cities. I'll tell you, though, 
if you want to know it, what is the real offence 
of Boston. It drains a large water-shed of its 
intellect, and will not itself be drained. If it 
would only send away its first-rate men instead 
of its second-rate ones (no offence to the well- 
known exceptions, of which we are always 
proud), we should be spared such epigrammatic 
remarks as that which the gentleman has quoted. 
There can never be a real metropolis in this 
country until the biggest centre can drain the 
lesser ones of their talent and wealth. — I have 
observed, by the way, that the people who really 
live in two great cities are by no means so jeal- 
ous of each other as are those of smaller cities 
situated within the intellectual basin, or suction- 
range, of one large one, of the pretensions of 
any other. Don't you see why? Because their 
promising young author and rising lawyer and 
large capitalist have been drained off to the 
neighboring big city; their prettiest girl has 
been exported to the same market; all their 
ambition points there, and all their thin gilding 
of glory comes from there. I hate little toad- 
eating cities." 

Humane Society of Massachu- 
setts.— No. 52 State Street. This is 
the oldest of the societies organized 
for the saving of life and the preven- 
tion or relief of suffering. It was or- 
ganized in 1786, and incorporated in 
1791, for the " recovery of persons who 



meet with such accidents as produce 
in them the appearance of death," and 
the promotion of the cause of humanity 
by " pursuing such means, from time 
to time, as shall have for their object 
the preservation of human life and the 
alleviation of its miseries." Its earliest 
efforts were particularly directed to- 
wards the saving of life on the sea- 
coast. It established huts of refuge 
along the shore, and maintained an or- 
ganization of life-boatmen, years before 
the establishment of the government 
life-service ; and its record of ship- 
wrecked mariners assisted and life 
saved is a noble one. The national 
service was first begun in 1847, and 
regularly organized in 1848. Until that 
time the society, entirely supported by 
voluntary contributions, pursued its 
work unaided by the government, In 
1872 it was re-organized and consider- 
ably extended. The Massachusetts 
Society gives rewards of merit, not ex- 
ceeding $20, to any citizen of the State 
who, "by signal exertion in peril, saves 
or attempts to save human life, or to 
any person who does the same for the 
life of a citizen of the Commonwealth." 
Thomas Motley is chairman of the 
standing committee who administer the 
affairs of the society. Application for 
information or for the benefits of the 
society is to be made to Mr. Motley. 
H. H. Hunnewell, No. 87 Milk Street, 
is the treasurer of the corporation, and 
H. A. Whitney the secretary. 

Huntington Hall. — Institute of 
Technology Building, Boylston Street, 
Back-bay district. The public hall of 
the institute, in which the Lowell-insti- 
tute and other noteworthy courses of 
lectures are given, and in which scien- 
tific bodies occasionally meet. It is 
one of the largest halls, admirably ar- 
ranged, and well equipped. It was 
named for one of the benefactors of 
the institute. [See Halls, Institute of 
Technology and Lowell Institute^ 

Huntsmen's Club. — A movement 
to organize a huntsmen's club in the 



HUNTSMEN'S CLUB 



242 



HUNTSMEN'S CLUB 



city was made early in 1882, by a num- 
ber of young men who had taken part 
in the cross-country riding at Newport, 
R.I., during previous summers, under 
the auspices of the so-called " Queen's- 
county Hunt." Sixty gentlemen signi- 
fied their intention to become patrons ; 
and 25 at least agreed to follow the 
hounds, in the English fashion and 
the English costume of scarlet coats, 
hunting-caps, etc., at the regular rid- 
ings. The headquarters of the club 
are at the Clyde-park Club-house, in 
the vicinity of which extensive kennels 



on the English plan have been erected; 
and a pack of hounds, to be selected 
from the Cheshire Hunt of England, 
are to be imported from that country, 
accompanied by a professional Eng- 
lish huntsman. Hugh Allan, son of 
Sir Hugh Allan of the Allan Steam- 
ship Line, is master of the hunt ; and 
among the members are a number of 
young Bostonians of means and a 
plenty of leisure. It is proposed to 
hunt through September, October, and 
November. 



ICE-TRADE 



243 



IMMIGRATION 



Ice-Trade. — The export-trade in 
ice was begun in 1805-6, by Frederick 
Tudor ; and the first cargo was shipped 
to Martinique. Subsequently cargoes 
were shipped to Jamaica and other 
West-India Islands, and later to South- 
ern ports in the United States. For 
many yea/s Mr. Tudor had a monopoly 
of the business, and amassed a large 
fortune in it. In time the trade was 
greatly extended, and was found at 
times to be exceedingly profitable. As 
early as 1850 several companies were 
engaged in the business in and about 
Boston, and the use of ice on city 
tables was as early begun. The state- 
ment of the clearances at the custom- 
house during the year 1882 shows the 
present nature and extent of the ex- 
port business. To Cayenne, 594 tons ; 
Rio Janeiro, 3,200 ; Martinique and 
Guadaloupe, 3,365; Demerara, 5,194; 
Barbadoes, 1,893 '■> Jamaica, 295 ; Kings- 
ton, Ja., 3,631 ; Hayti, 2 ; St. Thomas, 
2,776 ; Havana, 1 1,653 '■> Matanzas, 773 ; 
Cienfuegos, 605 ; Port Spain, 3,947 ; 
Aspinwall, 2,601 ; coastwise ports, 22,- 
721 ; total, 1 88 1, 63,249. The total 
the year previous was 42,873 ; while 
in 1873 it was 81,266; in 1865, 131,- 
275; and in i860, 142,463 tons, the 
highest point reached. The principal 
ice-companies at present delivering in 
the city include the Boston Ice Com- 
pany, office No. 76 State Street ; the 
People's Ice Company, No. 194 Tre- 
mont Street ; and the Boston Driver's 
Union Ice Company, with three offices, 
No. 92 State Street, No. 50 Orleans 
Street (East Boston), and No. 202 
Rutherford Avenue in the Charles- 
town district. The Edmands Ice Com- 
pany, Adams near Gibson Street, Dor- 
chester district, delivers in that section 



of the city ; J. R. Downing, Kendrick 
Street, in the Brighton district; and 
the South-Boston Ice Company, No. 
251 Dorchester Avenue, in South Bos- 
ton. Others in the ice-trade are Gage, 
Addison, & Co., No. 126 State Street, 
whose ice-houses are at Arlington Lake, 
Arlington; T. S. Hittinger, No. 103 
State Street; Jamaica-pond Ice Com- 
pany, No. 2,389 Washington Street ; 
the Union Ice Company, No. 20 Com- 
mercial Street ; and the Wenham-lake 
Ice Company, No. 92 State Street. 

Immaculate Conception, Church 
of the. — See Church of the Immacu- 
late Conception. 

Immigration, and Transportation 
of Immigrants. — Of the Atlantic 
ports, New York receives by far the 
largest number of immigrants ; and 
Boston stands second in the list. Dur- 
ing the year ending June 30, 1882, the 
total number arriving at all the ports 
in the country was 789,003, an increase 
over the previous year of 119,572. Of 
this number, there arrived at New York 
502,171, an increase over the year pre- 
vious of 101,300; at Boston, 58,188, an 
increase of 17,166; at Philadelphia, 
36, 284 ; and at Baltimore, 41, 739. The 
largest number of all the arrivals of the 
year at all the ports were from Ger- 
many, — 249,505, an increase over the 
same period in 1880-81 of 39,020. From 
England and Wales came 85,176, an in- 
crease of 18,971 ; from Ireland, 76,432, 
an increase of 4,090 ; from Sweden, 64,- 
607, an increase of 14,847 ; and from 
China, 39,579, an increase of 27,687. 
During the first seven months of 1882, 
27,107 Chinese arrived; and the last 
instalment to arrive at San Francisco 
before the restriction-law went into 



INDUSTRIAL AID SOCIETY 



244 



INDUSTRIAL HOME 



effect, was 1,182, in one steamship. 
The arrangements for receiving Euro- 
pean immigrants at this port (Boston), 
and promptly despatching them to their 
various destinations in the West, are 
very complete. On their arrival they 
are transferred directly from the in- 
coming steamships at the docks at 
East Boston, to West-bound cars, on 
the Grand Junction Railroad; and thus 
their passage through the city, and 
detention at the port, are entirely 
avoided. 

Industrial Aid Society. — Estab- 
lished 1S35, incorporated 1847. Head- 
quarters, rooms Nos. 24 and 28 Central 
Charity Building, Chardon Street. It 
aims primarily to prevent pauperism 
by helping men and women to employ- 
ment ; but of later years it has extended 
its work in assisting the industrial train- 
ing of poor children and adults as well, 
to improve their condition and make 
them better and self-supporting work- 
ing-people. Through the general office 
in the Charity Building, which is in 
charge of the general agent of the so- 
ciety, work is found for men in town, 
in the country on farms and gardens, 
or in factories, or on out-going vessels ; 
and for women, in domestic service or 
as seamstresses, day-workers, factory- 
hands, and so on. In the winter-sea- 
sons the society maintains an organiza- 
tion for the employment of men in 
cleaning ice and snow from railroads ; 
and in the summer-time light work, 
such as gathering fruit or vegetables 
in country orchards or gardens, etc., 
is obtained for children. The society 
assisted in establishing the North-end 
branch of the Boston Cooking-school 
[see Cooking-schoot\. In the course of 
the year a large number of persons, 
averaging 1,700, are assisted to tran- 
sient or permanent work by this so- 
ciety, at an average yearly expenditure 
of $4,000. [ See Charitable and Benev- 
olent Societies^ 

Industrial Home (The), No. 39 
North-Bennet Street, North End. Es- 
tablished in 1880. This is one of the 



most practical charities of the city, 
which has developed with marvellous 
rapidity. Its motto is, that " the truest 
charity trains the poor to help them- 
selves;" and to furnish such training 
in the best possible way, is the con- 
stant study of its earnest and enthu- 
siastic managers. It comprises 16 
departments : the laundry, circulating- 
library and reading-room, coffee-room, 
amusement-room, cafe, employment 
department, printing-office, little house- 
keepers' class, widows' (home-work) 
class, mothers' sewing-class, girls' 
sewing-school, cooking-school, day- 
nursery, kindergarten, carpenter's shop, 
and boot-and-shoe shop. Besides these, 
there are fortnightly "five-cent enter- 
tainments," a weekly class in elocution, 
and a temperance union. The laundry 
provides instruction and facilities for 
laundry-work, and is open daily from 9 
a.m. to 5 p.m. Members of the Home 
are entitled to its use, including soap, 
starch, etc., by payment of twenty 
cents on every dollar earned ; and, for 
their own washing, five cents per hour. 
Special instruction is given to servants 
at twelve and a half cents an hour. 
The circulating - library and reading- 
room are open to women and children 
from 3 to 5 p. m., and to men and 
boys from 7 to 9 p. m., when the read- 
ing-room is invariably crowded. The 
coffee-room is open Monday, Wednes- 
day, and Friday evenings. An admis- 
sion of five cents is charged, which 
entitles the purchaser to a lunch, with 
hot coffee, and the enjoyment of news- 
papers and magazines, games and 
music. The amusement-room is open 
to boys on Tuesday evenings, and girls 
on Thursday evenings. It is furnished 
with a variety of games, and its use is 
a reward of merit to those who obtain 
a certificate of improvement from the 
teachers of the various classes in the 
Home. In the cafe, meals are furnished 
to those connected with the Home, at 
moderate prices ; and also to visitors, 
teachers of the public schools, and 
others who choose to patronize it. The 
employment department secures situa- 



INDUSTRIAL HOME 



245 



INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS 



tions for the members of the Home- 
classes who are prepared to fill them ; 
and also opens a way of communication 
between ladies who apply for servants, 
and girls desiring situations. In the 
printing-office, instruction is given to 
young women on Monday and Tuesday 
evenings, and on Thursday and Friday 
evenings to young men who wish to 
learn the trade. The little housekeep- 
ers' class is a kitchen-garden. Girls 
from ten to fifteen years of age are 
here instructed in household-work by 
means of toys and music ; and special 
lessons are given in bed-making, sweep- 
ing and dusting, dish-washing, table- 
setting, washing clothes, etc. The 
sewing-room includes three separate 
departments : first, a class of women, 
widows, wives with sick husbands, and 
deserted women, each of whom receives 
50 cents' worth of work a week, and is 
paid in groceries, coal, or garments; 
second, a class of women, who, under 
supervision, cut and make a limited 
number of garments from material fur- 
nished them, which, when completed, 
become their own property (as a partial 
equivalent, these women sew for the 
institution alternate afternoons) ; third, 
a girls' sewing-school in 14 classes, 
where they are taught to cut, make, 
and mend. The cooking-school is open 
on Friday afternoons for girls, and on 
Tuesday evenings for women. These 
classes are taught how to obtain and 
prepare a nutritious and palatable meal, 
with the least possible expense. The 
day-nursery includes children from 18 
months to 5 years of age, whose parents 
are at work or sick, or whose older 
brothers or sisters would be kept from 
school to care for them if left at their 
homes. The kindergarten is for chil- 
dren from 3 to 5 years of age, and is 
open from 9 to 12 a. m. daily. The 
carpenter-shop is for boys from 12 to 
1 5 years of age, and they are instructed 
in the use of tools by a skilled work- 
man. Each boy who is himself able to 
fill an order receives half the profits 
from the sale, the remainder being re- 
tained to replace material. Members 



of that class who have completed a 
prescribed list of 12 articles are per- 
mitted to take lessons on the turning- 
lathe. In the boot-and-shoe depart- 
ment, boys of a suitable age are instruct- 
ed in practical boot-and-shoe making. 
The five-cent entertainment is provided 
upon the first and third Monday even- 
ings of each month by individuals, and 
also by various literary and musical 
societies connected with the churches 
of the city. These entertainments fur- 
nish amusement to the people in and 
about the Home, as well as those in its 
various departments and classes. The 
temperance union numbers 150 boys 
and girls who promise to work to- 
gether in the cause of temperance by 
precept and example. There are at 
present 102 volunteer helpers in the 
benevolent and practical work of the 
Home, who are organized in the va- 
rious committees. Forty are teachers 
in the girls' school ; several read or 
sing to the sewing-classes ; a commit- 
tee furnish delicacies to the sick ; and 
another provides temporary loans of 
garments, bedding, etc., for the sick. 
There is also an Industrial Home bank 
connected with the institution, which 
is now paying monthly interest to the 
amount of one cent on every ten. 
When sums have been deposited to 
the amount of $10, the account is 
transferred to a savings-bank. The 
managers of the Home are Mrs. L. E. 
Caswell and Miss V. C. Wright. 

Industrial Schools. — There are 
several large and well-conducted in- 
dustrial schools in the city, — one, an 
industrial school for girls, in the Dor- 
chester district ; others for women and 
girls, connected with the North-end 
Mission, on North Street [see Boston 
North-end Mission] ; and still others 
connected with the Industrial Home at 
the North End [see Industrial Home]. 
The former was first opened in 1853, 
when it was incorporated, and was then 
situated in the town of Winchester. 
Its present location is on Centre Street, 
Dorchester district. It was incorporat- 



INDUSTRIAL TEMPORARY HOME 



246 .. 



INFANT ASYLUM 



ed " for the purpose of training to good 
conduct, and instructing in household 
labor, destitute or neglected girls." The 
girls admitted are taught housework, 
sewing, and the common branches of 
education. Order, neatness, and clean- 
liness are enforced; but the discipline is 
not rigid, and the girls are made to feel 
that they are in a pleasant home, rather 
than a strictly ruled institution. As 
soon as they are able, the girls are sent 
out to earn their own living ; each one, 
on leaving, — unless returned to her 
relatives, — being placed under the 
guardianship of one of the managers 
of the institution, until she reaches the 
age of 21. Girls from 6 to 10 years of 
age only are admitted, unless by spe- 
cial vote of the managers. Whenever 
the relatives of a girl are able to pay, 
a small sum is required for her board. 
The class of girls admitted are those 
whose relatives or friends are unable 
or unfit to care for them. The school 
is under the direction of a board of 14 
managers, and is supported by volun- 
tary contributions. The president of 
the organization (1883) is Miss Annette 
P. Rogers, and the matron of the insti- 
tution Miss H. R. Burns. Application 
in the city proper should be made to 
Miss E. C. Putnam, No. 63 Marlbor- 
ough Street, and Miss Sever, No. 94 
Chestnut Street. Visitors are admitted 
to the school on the last Wednesday 
of every month, from 2 to 5 in the 
afternoon. The schools of the North- 
end Mission, one for women and the 
other for girls, teach sewing : that for 
women, on Friday afternoons from Oc- 
tober to April ; and that for girls, on 
Saturday mornings. Garments made 
in the woman's school are sold to 
them for 5 or 10 cents each, or for 
housework done in the Mission build- 
ing. For girls, pupils in the school for 
girls, employment is often obtained. 
[See Charitable and Benevolent Socie- 
ties^ 

Industrial Temporary Home. — 

See Boston Industrial Temporary 
Home. 



Inebriate Asylums. — See Home 
for Intemperate Women, and Wash- 
ingtonian Home. 

Infant Asylum (The Massachu- 
setts). — Incorporated in 1867. Princi- 
pal Home, on Curtin Street, Jamaica 
Plain, near the Boylston station, Bos- 
ton and Providence Railroad; with a 
house of reception of children at No. 
37 Lawrence Street, and a branch at 
West Medford, where 30 to 35 children 
are supported, whose extreme youth 
or weakness demands special atten- 
tion either from physicians or trained 
nurses. The aim of the institution is 
to preserve infant life by assisting and 
providing for deserted and destitute 
infants. The infants are of three 
classes : First, those sent by the State 
superintendent of out-door poor, for 
whom the State pays the board in 
whole or in greater part. This class 
formerly went to Tewksbury ; but the 
State authorities no longer send moth- 
erless babes to the almshouse, being 
convinced that no institution under 
public officials can command the same 
skill and care as those under private 
management. The second class is of 
infants admitted by the admission-com- 
mittee. These are the children of needy 
and deserving parents. Every case is 
carefully investigated as to all its ante- 
cedents, and whenever possible some- 
thing towards the support of the child 
is exacted. Third. class : infants whose 
mothers are received into the asylum 
as wet-nurses, and are thera brought 
under good influences, which draw 
them closer to their children, and 
strengthen them to lead useful lives. 
The largest number of children cared 
for during the first year of the asylum 
was 22 : now the average number con- 
stantly under its care is 115, and the 
average number cared for per year is 
225. Since its establishment, 1,065 
infants have been cared for, with an 
annual average mortality of less than 
20 per cent. The care of the asylum 
does not cease when the infants arrive 
at the age of childhood. If not taken 



INFANT SCHOOL AND CHILDREN'S HOME 



247 



INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 



by their parents, they are provided 
with good homes, on reaching the age 
of 2 years. All adoptions are confi- 
dential, except registration at the Pro- 
bate Office for mutual protection. 
Many of the infants, who are in good 
health, and are old enough to be sent 
out, are boarded in respectable fami- 
lies in various country towns within 15 
miles of the city, where they are 
visited at regular intervals by one of 
the directors of the asylum, or by 
benevolent women in the neighbor- 
hood, who report to the boarding com- 
mittee. The institution is supported by 
invested funds, and subscriptions. Dr. 
Samuel Cabot is president (1S83); 
Thomas C. Amory and N. P. Hallo- 
well, vice-presidents; Lewis W. Tap- 
pan, No. 97 State Street, secretary; 
Edward S. Philbrook, Brookline, treas- 
urer; and there is a large board of 
directors, mainly composed of ladies. 

Infant School and Children's 
Home. — Established in 1833, incorpo- 
rated 1869. Charlestown district, No. 
36 Austin Street. A temporary home 
for destitute children of both sexes, 
and providing care for children during 
the day-time while their parents are 
out at work. It also receives children 
for adoption. Others are returned to 
their friends when able to care for 
them. A light charge for board is 
made upon those whose means will 
allow such payment. Children of 
sufficient age attend the public schools 
and Sunday school. The Home cares 
for about 30 children yearly, at an 
average annual expense of $1,500. 
Admission is obtained through a com- 
mittee on admissions. 

Insane Asylums. — See Asylums 
and Homes, Lunatic Asylum, and 
McLean Asylum. 

Institute of Technology (The 
Massachusetts). — Boylston Street, 
occupying the lot next adjoining the 
building of the Boston Society of Nat- 
ural History [see Natural-History So- 
ciety, etc.], Back-bay district. One of 



the earliest technical schools estab- 
lished in the country. It was planned 
at the outset on a broad and generous 
basis, and it has developed into one 
of the most important of the noble 
educational institutions of the State. 
Its establishment was mainly due to 
the energy and persistent efforts of the 
late Professor William B. Rogers, its 
first president, and intimately connect- 
ed with it to the very moment of his 
death, which occurred suddenly on the 
day of the exercises of the graduating- 
class of 1882, in June, as he was be- 
ginning the delivery of his address on 
the (to him) most interesting occasion 
of the year. The institution is most 
fittingly termed his monument. The 
movement for its establishment grew 
out of the formation of an association 
of gentlemen, in 1858-59, who called 
themselves "the committee of associ- 
ated institutions," and whose object 
was to procure a site in the then new 
Back-bay district for buildings for 
various institutions, among them the 
Natural-History Society and the Horti- 
cultural Society [see Horticultural So- 
ciety], representing the industrial and 
fine arts. Their purpose was to insti- 
tute a conservatory of arts and sciences. 
The association petitioned the Legisla- 
ture for a grant of land for this pur- 
pose, but without success. Then, in 
i860, Professor Rogers forwarded a 
memorial to the Legislature, which was 
indorsed by the committee of associ- 
ated institutions, praying for the estab- 
lishment of " a school of applied sci- 
ences, or a comprehensive polytechnic 
college, fitted to equip its students with 
the scientific and technical principles 
applicable to industrial pursuits:" this 
also failed of success. The next move- 
ment was the report by Professor 
Rogers of a plan for the formation 
of an institute of technology, e